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Diseases » Allergies » Glossary
 

Glossary for Allergies

  • ADD: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. The related description Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be a more modern description of the disease.

    Misdiagnosis of ADD is a well-known controversy in the sense that cases of hyperactivity in children may be over-diagnosed. There is a tendency for parents to seek and doctors to prescribe the drug Ritalin even in cases where the diagnosis of ADD or ADHD may be incorrect. Alternative diagnoses include normal child behavior (i.e. just an active child), food intolerances, or other behavioral disorders (see misdiagnosis of ADD).

    On the other hand, ADD is under-diagnosed in adults, with a large number of adults having ADD without knowing it; see misdiagnosis of Adult ADD.

  • ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. Typically, ADHD and associated hyperactivity is known as a childhood disorder, although ADD/ADHD in adults is known to be under-diagnosed. It is distinguished from Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) which has a reduced focus on hyperactivity type symptoms.
  • Acute Sinusitis: A condition which is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction affecting the sinuses
  • Acute rhinitis: An acute condition which affects the nasal mucous caused by inflammation
  • Adolescent conditions: Symptoms that are evident due to puberty
  • Adult Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition characterized by the production of thick sticky mucus by the mucus glands in the lungs, intestines, liver and pancreas. The condition is most often diagnosed in children or young adults but occasionally, relatively mild symptoms may lead to frequent misdiagnosis or no diagnosis at all unless the symptoms become worse. The condition may be misdiagnosed as emphysema, asthma or chronic bronchitis. It is usually females with a mild form of the disease who tend to be diagnosed at a later age.
  • Airborne allergy: An airborne allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to airborne allergens such as pollen, mold spores and house dust mites. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Allergenic cross-reactivity: Studies have indicated that a significant number of people with certain allergies will also have allergic responses to other allergens which have a similar protein. For example patients allergic to birch pollen will often have allergies to plant foods such as apples and peaches. Symptoms can range from mild response to severe allergic reactions. Cross-reactivity tends to have mainly oral allergy symptoms with breathing problems and anaphylactic reactions being extremely rare. Food allergies related to cross-reactivity tend to be less severe than those not related to cross-reactivity.
  • Allergic Disorders: A group of disorders that a caused by an allergic response to allergens
  • Allergic asthma: Allergic asthma is one of the most common forms of asthma and is triggered by exposure to an allergen. Upon exposure to the allergen, the airways become constricted and inflamed which affects breathing. The severity of symptoms is variable. This form of asthma is more common in children than adults.
  • Allergic conjunctivitis: Allergic conjunctivitis is an allergic reaction which causes inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye (thin clear lining covering the eye).
  • Allergic dermatitis: A dermatitis that is caused by an allergic response
  • Allergic reaction: An acute reaction through exposure to a particular allergen
  • Allergic rhinitis: Allergic rhinitis involves inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, eyes, eustachian tubes, middle ear, sinuses, and pharynx.
  • Allergy-like conditions: Medical conditions with similar effects to those of allergies.
  • Anaphylaxis: A rare, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction.
  • Animal allergies: Allergy to animals, typically household pets.
  • Asthma: Repeated attacks of breathing difficulty.
  • Asthma in Adults:
  • Asthma in Children:
  • Atopic dermatitis: Skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation, and pruritis. Often hereditary and associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral disorder with hyperactivity and/or inattention.
  • Baby bottle nipples induced allergies: Baby bottle nipples induced allergies are an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to the latex in Baby bottle nipples . Symptoms usually involve the mouth.
  • Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the bronchioles.
  • C1esterase deficiency: C1esterase deficiency is a condition characterized by swelling under the skin or mucosal tissue - the skin, respiratory tract or gastrointestinal tract may be affected. The condition may be inherited or acquired. Symptoms tend to develop over a few days and then abate after two to five days. Swelling attacks may occur fairly regularly e.g. weekly or sporadically e.g. once or twice a year.
  • Caffeine Allergy: A caffeine allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to caffeine or caffeine-containing products. The type and severity of symptoms can vary amongst patients.
  • Celexa -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Celexa (an antidepressant) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Chemical allergy: A chemical allergy refers to an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a chemical. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients depending on the type and duration of the exposure and individual response.
  • Child health conditions: Any medical conditions typically afflicting children.
  • Chrome contact allergy: Chrome contact allergy usually refers to an allergic response to chromium salts which are found in a wide range of products such as leather, paint and cement. Sensitization usually occurs in a workplace settings.
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Severe chronic fatigue disorder often following infection.
  • Cigarette smoke allergy: Cigarette smoke allergy refers to an adverse reaction by the body to cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke allergy is not considered a true allergy but a sensitivity as the smoke is an irritant rather than an allergen. People with other allergies tend to be more sensitive to cigarette smoke.
  • Cold & Flu:
  • Common Conditions: Any common condition
  • Common cold: A cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat that can be caused by a number of different viruses (e.g. rhinoviruses, coronaviruses). There are over 200 different viruses that have the potential to cause the common cold. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Condoms and diaphragms induced allergies: Condoms and diaphragms induced allergies are an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to the latex in condoms and diaphragms.
  • Dermatitis herpetiformis related allergy: Dermatitis herpetiformis related allergy refers to the body's immune system response to gluten. IgA antibodies drive the allergic response to gluten exposure and manifests as a distinctive skin rash. The rash usually affects the knees, elbows, back, scalp and buttocks and can come and go sporadically.
  • Diseases associated with senile cataract: It is a vision impairing disease characterised by gradual , progressive thickening of the lens.
  • Drug Allergies: Allergies to medications or other drugs.
  • Dust mite allergies: Allergy to dust mites in household dust.
  • Eczema: Eczema is a chronic skin condition characterized by skin inflammation and irritation. The severity of extent of the condition is highly variable. It may be caused by allergies, irritants or other factors such as stress.
  • Eye infection: AN infection that occurs in the eye
  • Flu: Very common viral respiratory infection.
  • Food Additive Allergy: A food additive allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a food additive or a food or drink containing to food additive. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients and may range from mild to severe.
  • Food Allergy -- MSG: An MSG allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to MSG or food containing MSG. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients from a severe anaphylactic reaction to asthma, abdominal symptoms, eczema or headaches.
  • Food Allergy -- sulfite: A sulfite allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to sulfite or food containing sulfite. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients from a severe anaphylactic reaction to asthma, abdominal symptoms, eczema or headaches.
  • Food allergies: Immune over-reaction to an eaten food.
  • Gluten allergy: Gluten allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to gluten or foods containing gluten. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients from a severe anaphylactic reaction to asthma, abdominal symptoms, eczema or headaches. Gluten allergy is similar to celiac disease - celiac disease only occurs in people with a genetic defect which predisposes them to the condition whereas gluten can occur in anyone but is more common in people who are also prone to other allergies.
  • Grass pollen allergy: A grass pollen allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by various grasses. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Handgrips induced allergies: Handgrips induced allergies are an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to the latex in handgrips. Symptoms usually involve the hands.
  • Hay fever: An allergy which causes sneezing, runny nose or blocked nose for part of the year.
  • Heiner syndrome: A disease caused by the precipitation in the blood of antibodies to cow's milk.
  • House dust allergy: House dust allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to allergens dound in household dust such as pet dander, mold and dust mites. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • IgE mediated gastrointestinal food allergy: An adverse reaction by the body's immune system to food that is driven by IgE. IgE antibodies specific to food molecules bind with the circulating food allergen and cause the release of immune response molecules such as cytokines. Symptoms usually occur soon after exposure to the allergen and usually cause skin symptoms. Severe cases may result in anaphylaxis. It is associated with allergic conditions such as pollen-food allergy and other oral allergies and immediate gastrointestinal hypersensitivity.
  • Immune disorders: Disorders that affect the immune system
  • Insect allergy: An allergic response to a wasp sting.
  • Insect bite allergy: An insect bite allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a bite by an insect such as an ant. Multiple bites increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Insect sting allergies: When a person has an allergic reaction at the site of an insect sting
  • Insect sting allergy: An insect sting allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a sting by an insect such as an ant. Multiple stings increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Itchy rash: Skin rash that itches
  • Jewellery allergy: Jewellery allergy usually refers to an allergic response to nickel which is found in most jewellery. Even high carat gold has some nickel content which may pose problems for some people. Symptoms usually only involve the skin that is in contact with the jewellery. Nickel may also be found in watch straps, belt buckles and jeans studs.
  • Latex allergies: When a person has an allergic reaction to latex
  • Latex catheters induced allergies: Latex catheters induced allergies are an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to the latex in catheters. Symptoms may vary depending on the location of the catheter.
  • Microcephaly, Growth Retardation, Cataract, Hearing Loss, and Unusual Appearance: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of a small head, retarded growth, cataracts, hearing loss and an unusual facial appearance. It was reported in a brother and sister.
  • Mold allergies: Allergies to airborne or household molds.
  • Mold allergy: A mold allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to spores produced by a mold. Symptoms tend to occur in a seasonal pattern as spore production by molds tends to increase and decrease with changes in seasons. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Nalidixic Acid -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Nalidixic Acid during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Nasal allergies: Nasal allergies refers to a condition in which the nose reacts to a substance to which it is sensitive (an allergen), generally resulting in symptoms, such as an itchy, runny nose, and sneezing.
  • Nickel contact allergy: Nickel contact allergy usually refers to an allergic response to nickel which is found in most jewellery. Even high carat gold has some nickel content which may pose problems for some people. Symptoms usually only involve the skin that is in contact with the jewellery. Nickel may also be found in watch straps, belt buckles and jeans studs.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- dust mites: A mite allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to dust mites. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-allergic asthma: Non-allergic asthma is a type of asthma that is not triggered by exposure to an allergen. Non-allergic asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways that can be caused by such things as exercise, cold air, cigarette smoke and inhalation of chemicals.
  • Oxcarbazepine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Oxcarbazepine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Pacifiers induced allergies: Pacifiers induced allergies are an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to the latex in pacifiers. Symptoms usually involve the mouth.
  • Peanut Allergy: Allergic reaction brought on by the ingestion of, or exposure to peanuts in a sensitised person
  • Pet allergy: A pet allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pets such as cats and dogs. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, saliva or urine of the animal. Animals frequently lick themselves which results in saliva sticking to the fur. Thus a person allergic to animals will often react to the fur even if it is not attached to the animal. Frequent washing of the animal may reduce symptoms. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Pollen allergy: An allergic reaction that occurs due to exposure to pollen
  • Pollen food allergy syndrome: A significant number of people with an allergy to pollen also have allergic responses to certain plant foods (usually fruit) which have similar proteins to that found in pollens. Examples of these includes pineapple, avocado, chestnuts, apples, raw carrot, raw celery, melon, peach, pear, plum, kiwi fruit, mango, passionfruit, strawberries, tomato, potato, bell pepper and soy. Symptoms usually only involve the mouth and throat.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Medroxyprogesterone acetate: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Medroxyprogesterone acetate has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Primary immunodeficiency disorders: A defective immune system not caused by a disease or virus but rather due to a genetic mutation. Many different cells in the body are involved in the body's immune system and thus there are over 100 different primary immunodeficiency disorders. B cells, T cells, natural killer cells and phagocytic cells are some of the cells that make up the immune system. Symptoms can range from mild to severe. Primary immunodeficiencies may occur on their own or as part of a syndrome.
  • Respiratory conditions: Any condition that affects the respiratory system
  • Rhinitis: Nasal lining inflammation leading to runny/blocked nose
  • Seafood allergy: A seafood allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to seafood or food containing seafood. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients from a severe anaphylactic reaction to asthma, abdominal symptoms, eczema or headaches.
  • Semen allergy: An allergic reaction to the semen of a sexual partner. The reaction may be localized or systemic.
  • Sinusitis: Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
  • Skin allergy: A skin allergy is an adverse response by the body's immune system to an allergen. The response may occur when the allergen comes into contact with the skin or when it is inhaled or ingested. A skin allergy manifests in skin symptoms such as hives and itchy skin. The severity of the response is variable.
  • Skin conditions: Any condition that affects the skin
  • Sneezing: Nasal sneezing often from nasal irritation
  • Spice allergy:
  • Strep throat: Streptococcal bacterial throat infection.
  • Type I Hypersensitivity: Type I hypersensitivity is an exaggerated response by the body's immune system to an allergen which results in some sort of adverse effect on the body. Allergens usually in the form of proteins such as pollen, foods, house dust mite and cat hair. This form of hypersensitivity results in an immediate response by the immune system following exposure.
  • Whooping Cough: An infectious condition caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis
  • Wound drains and tubes induced allergies: Wound drains and tubes induced allergies are an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to the latex in wound drains and tubes which are often used during surgery. Symptoms may vary depending on the location of the wound drains and tubes.

 

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