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Diseases » Arrhythmias » Glossary
 

Glossary for Arrhythmias

  • Abnormal Heart Rhythm: An abnormal way of the heart beating
  • Acute Renal Failure: Syndrome characterised by rapid decline in kidney function with accumulation of waste products in the blood, occurring over a period of days to weeks
  • Acute intermittent porphyria: A rare metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency in the porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme which results in a build-up of porphyrins or its precursors in the body. Using certain drugs or eating certain foods can trigger the symptoms of the condition.
  • Acute radiation sickness: Tissue injury can result from exposure to radiation. The radiation dose, rate of dosing and tissues irradiated will determine the severity and type of symptoms. The effects may be chronic, delayed or acute. Acute irradiation sickness usually occurs after abdominal irradiation and lasts for hours or days.
  • Acute rheumatic fever: Bacterial joint infection with risk of heart complications.
  • Acute stress disorder: An acute anxiety state
  • Adams Nance syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, small eyes and the presence of excess glycine in the urine.
  • Adrenal Cancer: A malignant cancer that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids. Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal adenoma, familial: A benign tumor that develops in the adrenal gland and tends to run in families. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids . Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal gland hyperfunction: Excessive activity of the adrenal gland which causes excessive production of one or more adrenal hormones (aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine). The increased adrenal gland activity may be caused by an adrenal gland tumor or by excessive stimulation of the gland. Pituitary hormones stimulate adrenal gland activity.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma: A tumor of the adrenal gland that is discovered incidentally while performing an imaging examination for reasons other than an adrenal tumor. The tumor may be asymptomatic or can causes excessive secretion of adrenal hormones and resulting symptoms. The tumor may also be malignant or benign.
  • Adrenal medulla neoplasm: A tumor that develops in the part of the adrenal gland called the medulla which produces adrenalin and noradrenaline. The tumor is usually benign but can be malignant.
  • Alcohol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Alcohol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Aldehyde syndrome: A metabolic anomaly where consumption of alcohol results in high levels of blood acetaldehyde which causes a variety of symptoms.
  • Amanita polypyramis poisoning: Amanita polypyramis is a type of large-capped mushroom often found growing in the wild in the US. The mushroom tends to give off a chlorine-like odor. It is poisonous and death can result if sufficient quantities are eaten.
  • Amitriptyline -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Amitriptyline during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Amitriptyline toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Amlodipine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Amoxapine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Amphetamine poisoning: Excessive ingestion of amphetamine drugs.
  • Amyloid cardiopathy: Amyloidosis is a rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage and is potentially fatal. The cardiac form involves deposits of amyloid in the heart muscle which affects its function. The electrical conduction system of the heart is impaired.
  • Amyloidosis: A rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage and is potentially fatal. Symptoms depend on the organs involved. There are numerous forms of the condition: primary amyloidosis, secondary amyloidosis, hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis and familial amyloidosis.
  • Anaesthesia: loss of sensations
  • Anaesthesia complications: Complications that occur due to anaesthesia
  • Andersen-Tawil syndrome: A rare disorder where a genetic mutation causes periods of muscle weakness, heart rhythm abnormalities and various physical development abnormalities. It is believed to be caused by problems with the way the body utilizes potassium.
  • Anorexia Nervosa: A disorder where a distorted sense of body image leads to self-starvation to the point of death in some cases.
  • Anticholinergics poisoning: Excessive ingestion of anticholinergic drugs.
  • Antimony poisoning: A type of heavy metal poisoning caused by excessive exposure to antimony.
  • Aorta conditions: Conditions that affect the aorta
  • Aortic Valve Insufficiency: A heart valve disorder where the heart valve is unable to close completely which causes a backflow of some of the blood from the aorta. The condition can be caused by such things as systemic lupus erythematosus, endocarditis, high blood pressure, Marfan's syndrome and aortic dissection.
  • Aortic arches defect: A defect in the top part of the aorta (aortic arch) that consists of several arterial branches. There is a variety of defects that can occur and symptoms will be determined by the particular defect involved. Possible types of defects includes aortic coarctation and aortic arch hypoplasia.
  • Aortic coarctation: A rare inherited birth defect where the heart blood vessel called the aorta has a narrowed area which affects blood flow. The degree of constriction is variable which mild cases asymptomatic until adulthood. The poor blood flow to the lower body gives results in it appearing less developed than that upper body.
  • Aortic valve disease: Disease of the heart's aortic valve
  • Aortic valves stenosis of the child: A birth defect where the aortic valve is abnormally narrow or unable to fully open. Depending on the degree of narrowing, the symptoms may range from severe to asymptomatic.
  • Aorto-ventricular tunnel: A rare heart defect where a tunnel from between the ascending aorta and the cavity of the left or sometimes right heart ventricle. The severity of the condition is highly variable from asymptomatic for many years to fetal death. Often other heart anomalies are also associated.
  • Aplastic anemia: A blood disorder where the bone marrow produces insufficient new blood cells.
  • Argentinean hemorrhagic fever: An infectious disease caused by the Junin virus. Transmission can occur through contact with infected rodent (usually the corn mouse) urine, feces or saliva. The incubation period lasts from one to two weeks. The disease is most common in rural workers in Argentina.
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: A rare heart muscle disease where the muscle tissue of the right ventricle of the heart is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the ability of the heart to pump blood.
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 1: A rare heart muscle disease where the muscle tissue of the right ventricle of the heart is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the ability of the heart to pump blood. Some patients are asymptomatic and whereas others experience symptoms and occasionally sudden death can occur. Type 1 is linked to chromosome 14q23-q24 (TGFB3 gene).
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 10: A rare heart muscle disease where the muscle tissue of the right ventricle of the heart is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the ability of the heart to pump blood. Some patients are asymptomatic and whereas others experience symptoms and occasionally sudden death can occur. Type 10 is linked to chromosome 18q12.1-q12 (DSG2 gene).
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 11: A rare heart muscle disease where the muscle tissue of the right ventricle of the heart is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the ability of the heart to pump blood. Some patients are asymptomatic and whereas others experience symptoms and occasionally sudden death can occur. Type 11 is linked to chromosome 18q12.1 (DSC2 gene).
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 12: A rare heart muscle disease where the muscle tissue of the right ventricle of the heart is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the ability of the heart to pump blood. Some patients are asymptomatic and whereas others experience symptoms and occasionally sudden death can occur. Type 12 is linked to chromosome 17q21 (JUP gene).
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 2: A rare heart muscle disease where the muscle tissue of the right ventricle of the heart is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the ability of the heart to pump blood. Some patients are asymptomatic and whereas others experience symptoms and occasionally sudden death can occur. Type 2 is linked to chromosome 1q42.1-q43 (RYR2 gene).
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 3: A rare heart muscle disease where the muscle tissue of the right ventricle of the heart is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the ability of the heart to pump blood. Some patients are asymptomatic and whereas others experience symptoms and occasionally sudden death can occur. Type 3 is linked to chromosome 14q12-q22.
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 4: A rare heart muscle disease where the muscle tissue of the right ventricle of the heart is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the ability of the heart to pump blood. Some patients are asymptomatic and whereas others experience symptoms and occasionally sudden death can occur. Type 4 is linked to chromosome 2q32.1-q32.3.
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 5: A rare heart muscle disease where the muscle tissue of the right ventricle of the heart is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the ability of the heart to pump blood. Some patients are asymptomatic and whereas others experience symptoms and occasionally sudden death can occur. Type 5 is linked to chromosome 3p23.
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 6: A rare heart muscle disease where the muscle tissue of the right ventricle of the heart is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the ability of the heart to pump blood. Some patients are asymptomatic and whereas others experience symptoms and occasionally sudden death can occur. Type 6 is linked to chromosome 10p14-p12.
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 7: A rare heart muscle disease where the muscle tissue of the right ventricle of the heart is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the ability of the heart to pump blood. Some patients are asymptomatic and whereas others experience symptoms and occasionally sudden death can occur. Type 7 is linked to chromosome 10q22-3.
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 8: A rare heart muscle disease where the muscle tissue of the right ventricle of the heart is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the ability of the heart to pump blood. Some patients are asymptomatic and whereas others experience symptoms and occasionally sudden death can occur. Type 8 is linked to chromosome 6p24 (DSP gene).
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 9: A rare heart muscle disease where the muscle tissue of the right ventricle of the heart is replaced by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the ability of the heart to pump blood. Some patients are asymptomatic and whereas others experience symptoms and occasionally sudden death can occur. Type 9 is linked to chromosome 12p11 (PKP2 gene).
  • Arrthymia:
  • Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita -- pulmonary hypoplasia: A rare congenital syndrome involving degeneration of the brain and spinal cord and characterized by facial, head, skeletal and muscular abnormalities. Reduced fetal activity causes many of the problems.
  • Asphyxia neonatorum: A condition where a newborn infant fails to start breathing on its own in the minutes following birth.
  • Asymmetric septal hypertrophy: A disease of the heart muscle characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function.
  • Atrial Fibrillation: Common heart arrythmia with rapid beating in upper chambers
  • Atrial Fibrillation, Familial 2: A rare inherited condition where abnormal electrical activity in the heart causes it to have a fast and irregular beat. The condition may go unnoticed or may cause stroke or sudden death in some cases. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 6q14-q16 and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Symptoms tend to occur in episodes initially and then becomes chronic with increased age.
  • Atrial Fibrillation, Familial 3: A rare inherited condition where abnormal electrical activity in the heart causes it to have a fast and irregular beat. The condition may go unnoticed or may cause stroke or sudden death in some cases. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 11p15.5 and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.
  • Atrial Fibrillation, Familial 4: A rare inherited condition where abnormal electrical activity in the heart causes it to have a fast and irregular beat. The condition may go unnoticed or may cause stroke or sudden death in some cases. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 21q22.
  • Atrial Fibrillation, Familial 5: A rare inherited condition where abnormal electrical activity in the heart causes it to have a fast and irregular beat. The condition may go unnoticed or may cause stroke or sudden death in some cases. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 4q2.
  • Atrial Fibrillation, Familial 6: A rare inherited condition where abnormal electrical activity in the heart causes it to have a fast and irregular beat. The condition may go unnoticed or may cause stroke or sudden death in some cases. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1p36.2 and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.
  • Atrial Fibrillation, Familial 7: A rare inherited condition where abnormal electrical activity in the heart causes it to have a fast and irregular beat. The condition may go unnoticed or may cause stroke or sudden death in some cases. Type 7 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 12p13 and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.
  • Atrial Fibrillation, Familial 8: A rare inherited condition where abnormal electrical activity in the heart causes it to have a fast and irregular beat. The condition may go unnoticed or may cause stroke or sudden death in some cases. Type 8 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 16q22 and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Symptoms tend to occur in episodes initially and then becomes chronic with increased age.
  • Atrial Septal Defect: An abnormal connection between the 2 atria, or upper chambers of the heart
  • Atrial arrhythmia: Arrhythmia arising in the atrium.
  • Atrial cardiomyopathy with heart block: Atrial heart disease involving a disruption of the electrical signals in the heart and causes heart rhythm problems.
  • Atrial fibrillation, familial 1: A dominantly inherited condition where abnormal electrical activity in the heart causes it to have a fast and irregular beat. The condition may go unnoticed or may cause stroke or sudden death in some cases.
  • Atrial flutter: Heart arrhythmia where atria beat more often than ventricles
  • Atrial septal defect atrioventricular conduction: An inherited heart condition involving a heart malformation (atrial septal defect) and abnormal electrical signals between the atrium and ventricle of the heart (atrioventricular conduction defect).
  • Atrial tachyarrhythmia with short pr interval: An inherited heart rhythm abnormality characterized by a short PR interval and atrial tachyarrhythmia.
  • Atrioventricular Septal Defects: Defect in the wall between the atrium and ventricle.
  • Atrioventricular septal defect: A congenital heart defect where the valves and walls between the upper and lower heart chambers (atrial and ventricular septa and the atrioventricular valves) don't develop properly. Symptoms are determined by the severity of the malformation.
  • Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly with cardiac defects and sensorineural hearing loss: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart defects, hearing impairment and a congenital eye disorder called Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly.
  • Bacteremia: A condition where there is the presence of bacteria in the blood
  • Bacterial digestive infections: Bacterial infections affecting the gastrointestinal
  • Bacterial diseases: Diseases caused by a bacterial infection
  • Bacterial endocarditis: Infection and inflammation of the inner layers of the heart, most commonly the valves cause by bacteria.
  • Bacterial meningitis: Bacterial meningitis is a form of meningitis caused by bacteria that normally lives in the mouth and throat. When the immune system is unable to supress this bacteria, it travels to the cerebrospinal spinal fluid in the brain. From there it affects the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A muscular dystrophy charaterised by enlargement of muscles
  • Beta-Adrenergic poisoning: Excessive ingestion of Beta-Adrenergic drugs.
  • Beta-blocker poisoning: Excessive ingestion of Beta-blocker drugs.
  • Bicuspid aortic valve: A heart defect where the aortic valve has only two leaflets instead of the normal three. The severity of the disorder is variable.
  • Bidirectional tachycardia: A rare form of abnormal heart rhythm. Causes includes digitalis toxicity, certain heart malformations and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.
  • Binswanger's Disease: A type of senile dementia characterized by chronic cerebrovascular disease.
  • Boerhaave syndrome: A rare spontaneous rupture of the esophagus which can occur during violent vomiting or retching.
  • Bolivian hemorrhagic fever: An infectious disease that occurs in Bolivia and is caused by the Machupo virus. Transmission can occur through contact with infected rodent (Calomys callosus) droppings. The incubation period lasts from one to two weeks.
  • Bone-Marrow failure syndromes: A disorder where the bone marrow fails to produce enough new blood cells.
  • Bradycardia: Excessively slow heart beat.
  • Bretylium -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Bretylium during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Bright's Disease: A condition where the parts of the kidneys that are responsible for filtering become inflamed and results in blood and proteins accidentally leaking into the urine. The condition can occur after certain infections and serious kidney dysfunction can result in severe or chronic complications.
  • Brugada Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by heart rhythm abnormalities which can result in sudden death if untreated. The condition may be inherited in some cases. The mean age of sudden death is 40 years of age.
  • Brugada syndrome 1: A rare genetic disorder characterized by heart rhythm abnormalities which can result in sudden death if untreated. Type 1 is caused by a mutation in the SCN5A gene on chromosome 3p21. Symptoms most often occur during the night and the condition is most prevalent in Japan and Southeast Asia.
  • Brugada syndrome 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by heart rhythm abnormalities which can result in sudden death if untreated. Type 2 is caused by a mutation in the GPD1L gene on chromosome 3p22.3. Symptoms most often occur during the night and the condition is most prevalent in Japan and Southeast Asia.
  • Brugada syndrome 3: A rare genetic disorder characterized by heart rhythm abnormalities which can result in sudden death if untreated. Type 3 is caused by a mutation in the CACNA1C gene on chromosome 12p13.3. Symptoms most often occur during the night and the condition is most prevalent in Japan and Southeast Asia.
  • Brugada syndrome 4: A rare genetic disorder characterized by heart rhythm abnormalities which can result in sudden death if untreated. Type 14 is caused by a mutation in the CACNB2 gene on chromosome 10p12. Symptoms most often occur during the night and the condition is most prevalent in Japan and Southeast Asia.
  • Bundle Branch Block: An electrical fault in the heart where the electrical signals are blocked or slowed as they try to enter the bundle branches.
  • Caffeine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to caffeine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Caffeine poisoning: Excessive ingestion of caffeine.
  • Calcitriol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Calcitriol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Calcium channel blocker poisoning: Excessive ingestion of calcium channel blocker drugs.
  • Carbamate insecticide poisoning: Excessive ingestion of carbamate insecticide drugs.
  • Carcinoid syndrome: Carcinoid heart disease is a rare, metastatic disease that occurs predominantly in the right heart. The tricuspid and pulmonic valves are affected, leading to right heart failure, which results in increased morbidity and mortality.
  • Cardiac malformation: Any malformation or structural defect of the heart or it's structures. Some examples include atrioventricular septal defect, conotruncal malformations, transposition of great vessels and heart valve dysplasia. The symptoms vary in nature and severity depending on the type of malformation.
  • Cardiac valvular dysplasia, X-linked: An inherited (X-linked) form of heart disease involving mitral or aortic valve regurgitation. Females are carriers and hence asymptomatic whereas males displayed symptoms.
  • Cardioauditory syndrome of Sanchez- Cascos: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart and hearing abnormalities. The deafness was present at birth or soon after.
  • Cardiomyopathy: Any disease of the heart muscle
  • Cardiomyopathy dilated with conduction defect: An inherited form of heart muscle disease where the heart ventricles become dilated which affects the hearts ability to function normally. The disorder is caused by the degeneration of the hearts conduction system.
  • Cardiomyopathy dilated with conduction defect type 1: An inherited form of heart muscle disease where the heart ventricles become dilated which affects the hearts ability to function normally. The disorder is caused by the degeneration of the hearts conduction system. Type 1 is caused by a defect in the lamin A/C gene on chromosome 1q21.
  • Cardiomyopathy dilated with conduction defect type 2: An inherited form of heart muscle disease where the heart ventricles become dilated which affects the hearts ability to function normally. The disorder is caused by the degeneration of the hearts conduction system. Type 2 is caused by a defect in the cardiac sodium channel gene on chromosome 3p21.
  • Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic: A weakened heart mucle due to excessive alcohol consumption. Symptoms are usually not evident until the heart becomes severely damaged.
  • Chagas disease: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by insect bites or blood transfusions. The disease primarily involves the heart and gastrointestinal system.
  • Chaotic atrial tachycardia: Abnormal irregular, rapid heart beat that originates in the atrial heart chamber of the heart and occurs in infants and young children. The heart has periods of normal rhythm between the periods of irregularity. The condition occurs in infants and young children but may also occur in adults who have disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Fluoridated toothpaste: Fluoridated toothpaste contains fluoride and various other chemicals which can cause serious symptoms if sufficient quantities are swallowed. As little as half a tube of children's paste can cause death in a 2 year old child and a whole tube can cause death in a 9 year old child. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chest conditions: Any condition affecting the chest
  • Chlorpromazine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Chlorpromazine (a neuroleptic drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Chromosome 12q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of the long arm (q) of chromosome 12 rather than the normal two resulting in various abnormalities. In most cases, death occurs during infancy.
  • Chromosome 17p, partial deletion: A rare chromosomal disorder involving deletion of genetic material from the short arm of chromosome 17. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the lost genetic material.
  • Chromosome 17q, partial duplication: A rare chromosomal disorder involving an extra copy of genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 17. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 19p duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where the short arm of chromosome 19 is duplicated resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Chromosome 20q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving a duplication of the long arm (q) of chromosome 20 resulting in various physical and developmental abnormalities.
  • Chromosome 3, monosomy 3p: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of chromosome 3 is absent and is characterized by mental and growth deficiency, drooping upper eyelid and polydactyly.
  • Chromosome 4q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving duplication of the long arm (q) of chromosome 4 which results in various abnormalities depending on the size and location of the portion of duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 7p deletion syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where part or all of the short arm (p) of chromosome 7 is deleted resulting in various abnormalities which are determined by the size of the deleted portion.
  • Chromosome 8p inverted duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving the inverted duplication of the short arm (p) of chromosome 8 resulting in three copies of the genetic material instead of the normal two. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the location and size of the duplication.
  • Chromosome 9, monosomy 9p: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the short arm (p) of chromosome 9 is missing resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Circulatory system conditions: Medical conditions affecting the heart and the circulatory system.
  • Climbing Onion poisoning: The Climbing onion is an unusual plant with many small branching, green, leafless stems and small whitish-green flowers. The plant originated in Africa and is often used as an ornamental house or garden plant. The plant contains a chemical (cardiac glycoside) which can cause symptoms if large quantities are consumed. Skin contact with the bulb of the plant can also cause relatively minor skin irritation.
  • Clomipramine Toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Clonidine poisoning: Excessive ingestion of the drug called clonidine.
  • Cocaine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Cocaine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cocaine poisoning: Excessive ingestion of cocaine.
  • Congenital cardiovascular malformations: The abnormal development of heart blood vessels. Specific examples of this condition includes hypoplastic left heart syndrome, coarctation and tricuspid atresia.
  • Congenital heart block: A rare congenital heart disease where a slowed heart rate is caused by defects in the heart conduction system. The condition is usually asymptomatic and harmless but in severe cases (complete AV block) various symptoms and sudden death may occur.
  • Congenital heart defects: Heart defects that a baby is born with.
  • Congenital mitral malformation: Malformations of the mitral valve that are present at birth. The mitral valve allows blood to flow between the two chambers on the left side of the heart. Types of mitral malformation are atresia (absent mitral valve), stenosis (narrowed mitral valve) and parachute mitral valve.
  • Conotruncal heart malformations: A rare group of heart defect involving the outflow tracts. Examples include truncus arteriosus, transposition of great arteries and tetralogy of Fallot. Obviously the symptoms will be determined by which specific defect is involved.
  • Cor Triatriatum: A rare congenital malformation where the heart has three atria instead of the normal two due to the presence of a separating membrane.
  • Cor biloculare: A rare birth defect where the heart has two chambers instead of the normal four. The severity of the condition is variable with some cases being asymptomatic during infancy and survival has occurred for several decades in some cases. The defect rarely occurs on its own and is usually associated with various other malformations such as inverted abdominal organ positions.
  • Coronaro-cardiac fistula: An abnormal opening between a heart artery and a heart chamber or great vessel. This rare defect is present at birth and often causes no problems or symptoms until adulthood. The severity of the condition is determined by the size and exact location of the defect.
  • Crotalaria poisoning: Crotalaria is a herb which bears elongated, flower-covered stems and seed pods. The seeds and leaves of the plant contain alkaloids which can cause poisoning symptoms if large amounts are eaten.
  • Cuban lily poisoning: The Cuban lily is very toxic bulbous herb. It has long thin leaves with sprays of white, blue or purple bell-shaped flowers. The plant originated in Africa, Europe and Asia. Skin contact can cause skin irritation and eating parts of the plant can result in death. The toxic chemical in the plant is called cardiac glycoside.
  • Cutaneous mastocytosis: Skin mastocytosis
  • Cyclic antidepressant poisoning: Excessive ingestion of cyclic antidepressant drugs.
  • Cyclosporine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Dermatomyositis: A muscle disease characterized by chronic muscle inflammation resulting in progressive muscle weakness and a characteristic rash.
  • Desipramine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Desmin related myopathy: A very rare neuromuscular disorder involving the buildup of a certain protein called desmin in various muscles. The severity and rate of progression of the disorder is variable.
  • DiGeorge's syndrome: Rare form of primary immune deficiency
  • Digoxin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Digoxin (a heart drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Digoxin antidepressant poisoning: Excessive ingestion of digoxin antidepressant drugs.
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy: A rare chronic heart muscle condition where one or both heart ventricles are dilated or have impaired contractility.
  • Diltiazem toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Diphenhydramine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Diphenhydramine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Diphtheria: Infectious bacterial respiratory disease
  • Donepezil toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Dothiepin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dothiepin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Double tachycardia induced by catecholamines: Rapid heart rhythm (atrial and ventricular) caused by catecholamines (a chemical involved with hormones and neurotransmission).
  • Doxepin toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Drug overdose: A condition characterized by the consumption in excess of a particular drug causing adverse effects
  • Dystrophia myotonica 1: A rare genetic disorder characterized by myotonia, muscle atrophy, cataracts and hypogonadism.
  • Ebstein's anomaly: A congenital heart defect where the tricuspid valve is deformed. The tricuspid valve in the heart normally has three flaps that control blood flow but in Ebstein's anomaly, one of the flaps remains open instead of closing and allows blood to leak through.
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, cardiac valvular form: A rare genetic connective tissue disorder characterized by hypermobile joints, joint dislocations and skin hyperextensibility and fragility.
  • Eisenmenger Syndrome: Increased lung blood pressure that can result from conditions such as a hole in the wall between the two heart chambers.
  • Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, X-linked: A muscle wasting disorder mainly involving the muscles in the arms, legs, face, neck, spine and heart. Symptoms generally only occur in males but female carriers may have some symptoms.
  • Endocardial fibroelastosis: A rare heart disorder characterized by a thickening of the heart muscle lining causing heart enlargement and heart failure.
  • Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
  • Endomyocardial fibrosis: Heart disease characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lining of one or both lower heart cavities. This results in constriction of the heart cavity and may involve the heart valves and other structures.
  • Everlasting pea poisoning: The everlasting pea is a vine which bears pink, pea-like flowers and flat seed pods. It's usually found growing in the wild in many parts of the world. The seeds contains various chemicals (amines, phenol, glycoside) which can cause poisoning symptoms if large quantities are eaten.
  • Extrasystoles -- short stature -- hyperpigmentation -- microcephaly: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by shortness, increased skin pigmentation, small head and
  • Fabry's Disease: Genetic fat storage disorder
  • Facio-auriculo-radial dysplasia: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by limb abnormalities, deafness and an abnormal heart rhythm.
  • Fallot syndrome: A congenital heart disorder consisting of four heart defects - hole between the ventricles (ventricular septal defect), obstruction from right ventricles to the lungs (subpulmonary stenosis), overriding aorta and thickened right ventricle muscle.
  • Familial atrial fibrillation: A rare inherited condition where abnormal electrical activity in the heart causes it to have a fast and irregular beat. The condition may go unnoticed or may cause stroke or sudden death in some cases.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 1: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 1 is caused by a defect on chromosome 14q12.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 10: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 10 is caused by a defect in the MYL2 gene on chromosome 12q23-q24.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 2: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 2 is caused by a defect in the troponin-T2 gene on chromosome 1q.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 3: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 3 is caused by a defect in the alpha-tropomyosin gene on chromosome 15q22.1.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 4: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 4 is caused by a defect in the cardiac myosin binding protein-C gene on chromosome 11p11.2.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 5:
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 6: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 7q31-qter.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 7: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 7 is caused by a defect in the TNNI3 gene on chromosome 19q13.4.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 8: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 8 is caused by a defect in the MYL3 gene on chromosome 3p.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 9: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 9 is caused by a defect in the TTN gene on chromosome 2q24.3.
  • Familial ventricular tachycardia: Rapid heart beat originating in the ventricles and tends to run in families.
  • Felodipine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Foxglove poisoning: The foxglove is a herb which produces fruit in a capsule and colored, tubular flowers. The leaves, flowers and seeds of the plant contain a very toxic chemical called digitalis glycoside which can cause serious symptoms or even death if eaten. Skin irritation can occur if contact with the skin occurs. NOTE: Patients who are taking certain medications (digoxin, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers) are more susceptible to foxglove poisoning.
  • Gallop, atrial: A condition characterized by a disordered rhythm of the heart
  • Gallop, ventricular: A condition which is characterized by a disordered rhythm of the heart
  • Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone: An inherited disorder where the body fails to respond to thyroid hormone even though there is sufficient quantities of the hormone.
  • Graves Disease: is an autoimmune disease characterized by hyperthyroidism due to circulating autoantibodies. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs) bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors, causing the thyroid gland to grow and the thyroid follicles to increase synthesis of thyroid hormone.
  • Groll-Hirschowitz syndrome: A rare genetic condition characterized by deafness, gastrointestinal abnormalities and neuropathy.
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome: A rare progressive form of ascending polyneuropathy believed to be an autoimmune response.
  • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Hashimoto thyroiditis is characterized by the destruction of thyroid cells by various cell- and antibody-mediated immune processes. Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis have antibodies to various thyroid antigens, the most frequently detected of which include antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg), and, to a lesser extent, TSH receptor-blocking antibodies.
  • Heart Murmur: Unusual heart sound heard by stethoscope
  • Heart block: Failure of the heart's normal rhythm controls leading to arrhythmia
  • Heart block progressive, familial: A rare degenerative disorder of the heart conduction system.
  • Heart cancer: A malignancy that is located in the heart
  • Heart conditions: Any condition that affects the heart
  • Heart disease: Any of various heart conditions.
  • Heart failure: Slow failure of the heart (cardiac insufficiency).
  • Heart injury: An injury to the heart
  • Heart valve diseases: Diseases that affect the valves of the heart
  • Heart-hand syndrome, Slovenian type: A rare disorder characterized by heart and hand abnormalities.
  • Heart-hand syndrome, Spanish type: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart and hand abnormalities.
  • Heat exhaustion: Overheating of the body with exhaustion or collapse
  • Hematochromatosis: Hemochromatosis is the abnormal accumulation of iron in parenchymal organs, leading to organ toxicity. It is the most common inherited liver disease in whites and the most common autosomal recessive genetic disorder.
  • Hepatorenal tyrosinemia: A rare genetic metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of particular enzymes which prevents the breakdown of tyrosine which then builds up in the liver. Type 1 involves a deficiency of the enzyme fumaril acetoacetate hydrolase.
  • Herbal Agent overdose -- Peppermint Oil: Peppermint Oil can be used as an antispasmodic (to treat nausea, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome) and as an antibacterial. The herbal agent contains various chemicals (menthol, menthone, methyl acetate) which can cause symptoms if excessive quantities are taken.
  • High T4 syndrome: A disorder involving transient increases in thyroxine levels for no apparent reason.
  • His bundle tachycardia: A rare severe type of abnormal heart rhythm that occurs in infants less than 6 months old. Untreated, the condition can lead to heart disease and even death.
  • Holt-Oram Syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by hand, arm and heart abnormalities. Bone abnormalities usually affect the left arm more than the right and occasionally only one arm and/or hand is affected.
  • Hyperadrenalism: Excessive levels of adrenal hormones in the body. Symptoms depend on which hormone is involved and the degree of involvement. Adrenal hormones are aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Hyperkalaemia: Increased concentration of potassium in the blood.
  • Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: A rare inherited genetic condition characterized by temporary periods of severe muscle weakness. The condition tends to be more severe in males and can be triggered by stress, fasting, rest after exercise and eating foods high in potassium.
  • Hypertensive heart disease: Heart disease that is caused by hypertension
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Heart damage from thickened heart walls.
  • Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar level
  • Hypokalaemia: Decreased concentration of potassium in the blood
  • Hypokalemia: Low levels of potassium in the body.
  • Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: A rare inherited muscle condition characterized by periods of severe muscle weakness or paralysis which can last from hours to days. Episodes can occur as often as daily or only rarely.
  • Hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism: A rare condition where low levels of renin result in insufficient aldosterone being produced.
  • Hypothermia: Low body temperature
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypovolemia: An abnormal decrease in volume of blood.
  • Iatrogenic pneumothorax: A pneumothorax that is caused by the actions of a physician or surgeon
  • Idiopathic neonatal atrial flutter: A rare heart rhythm abnormality that occurs in neonates.
  • Imipramine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Incessant infant ventricular tachycardia: An abnormally rapid infant heart beat that originates from the heart ventricles.
  • Infective endocarditis: The infection and inflammation of the inner heart layers, especially the valves. The infection is usually bacterial. The condition carries a high risk of death.
  • Iron deficiency: When there is a deficiency of iron in the body
  • Irregular heartbeat: An irregular beat of a persons heart
  • Ischemic heart disease: Heart disease from reduced blood flow to the heart
  • Isradipine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Jaundice: Bile or liver problem causing yellowness.
  • Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome: A rare condition characterized by congenital deafness and a long Q-T interval which is where the heart takes longer than normal to recharge after a heartbeat.
  • Kawasaki disease: A childhood illness that generally affects the skin, mouth and lymph nodes.
  • Kentucky coffee tea poisoning: Kentucky coffee tea is a large, deciduous tree which bear small flowers and a flattened seed pod. The sticky, sweet substance surrounding the seeds in the seedpods contains a chemical called alkaloid cytosine which can cause symptoms if eaten. The plant is considered to have a relatively low level of toxicity.
  • Kozlowski-Celermajer syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by congenital heart disease and spine and upper arm bone abnormalities.
  • Leukodystrophy: A very rare group of metabolic diseases where chemical anomalies affect the development or maintenance of the protective coating around nerves (myelin sheath). The brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves may be involved. The range and severity of symptoms is determined by the chemical involved but one of the main symptoms for all the leukodystrophies is a gradual loss of previously acquired mental or physical skills.
  • Leukomalacia: Softening or destruction of the white matter of the brain. Brain tissue that surrounds fluid-filled parts of the brain (ventricles) is destroyed. It tends to occur mainly in premature or newborn babies who have been deprived of oxygen or have poor blood flow to parts of the brain. Intrauterine infections and premature membrane rupture tend to predispose infants to this condition. This type of brain destruction can cause cerebral palsy. Severity of symptoms varies according to the degree of injury to the brain.
  • Lidocaine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Lily-of-the-Valley poisoning: Lily-of-the-Valley is a plant often grown in gardens. The plant contains cardiac glycosides (convallamatian, convallarin) and saponins which can cause poisoning symptoms if eaten. Large amounts would need to be eaten to cause poisoning symptoms. Cardiovascular symptoms usually occur a few hours after gastrointestinal symptoms. The biggest danger of eating this plant is the effects on the heart which can cause serious problems in patients with underlying heart conditions.
  • Lithium poisoning: A type of heavy metal poisoning caused by excessive exposure to lithium.
  • Loeffler's endocarditis: Heart muscle disease caused by infiltration of the heart by eosinophils (type of white blood cell). It occurs as a complication long-term, high eosinophilic levels in the peripheral blood.
  • Long QT Syndrome 12: A condition which is characterized by prolongation of the QT interval of the heart rhythm. Type 12 is linked to a defect on chromosome 20q11.2.
  • Long QT syndrome: A condition which is characterized by prolongation of the QT interval of the heart rhythme
  • Long QT syndrome type 10: A genetic heart disorder characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm (long Q-T interval) where the heart takes longer than normal to recharge between beats. The severity of the condition can vary. Type 10 is distinguished from other types by the origin of the genetic defect (SCN4B gene on chromosome 11q23).
  • Long QT syndrome type 11: A genetic heart disorder characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm (long Q-T interval) where the heart takes longer than normal to recharge between beats. The severity of the condition can vary. Type 11 is distinguished from other types by the origin of the genetic defect (chromosome 7q21-q22).
  • Long QT syndrome type 2: A genetic heart disorder characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm (long Q-T interval) where the heart takes longer than normal to recharge between beats. The severity of the condition can vary. Type 3 is distinguished from other types by the origin of the genetic defect (chromosome 7).
  • Long QT syndrome type 3: A genetic heart disorder characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm (long Q-T interval) where the heart takes longer than normal to recharge between beats. The severity of the condition can vary. Type 3 is distinguished from other types by the origin of the genetic defect (chromosome 3p21).
  • Long QT syndrome type 4: A very rare genetic heart disorder characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm (long Q-T interval) where the heart takes longer than normal to recharge between beats. The severity of the condition can vary. Type 4 is distinguished from other types by the origin of the genetic defect (gene for Ankyrin B on chromosome 4q25-q27).
  • Long QT syndrome type 5: A genetic heart disorder characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm (long Q-T interval) where the heart takes longer than normal to recharge between beats. The severity of the condition can vary. Type 5 is distinguished from other types by the origin of the genetic defect (KCNE1 gene on chromosome 21q22.1-q22.2).
  • Long QT syndrome type 6: A genetic heart disorder characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm (long Q-T interval) where the heart takes longer than normal to recharge between beats. The severity of the condition can vary. Type 6 is distinguished from other types by the origin of the genetic defect (KCNE2 gene on chromosome 21q22.1).
  • Long QT syndrome type 9: A genetic heart disorder characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm (long Q-T interval) where the heart takes longer than normal to recharge between beats. The severity of the condition can vary. Type 9 is distinguished from other types by the origin of the genetic defect (caveolin 3 gene on chromosome 3p25).
  • Long QT syndrome, familial: A familial heart condition which is characterized by prolongation of the QT interval of the heart rhythm. Exercise or excitement can exacerbate symptoms.
  • Magnesium deficiency: A deficiency in the magnesium stores of the body
  • Malignant hyperthermia: A very rare genetic disorder where sufferers suffer episodes of adverse reactions when certain anesthetics or muscle relaxants are administered.
  • Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 1: A rare, potential lethal disorder that is triggered by general anesthetic or certain muscle relaxant drugs. On exposure to the drugs, muscle metabolism is severely disrupted and the body is unable to control its temperature which can lead to death without treatment. The chromosomal defect for type 1 is located at 19q13.1.
  • Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 2: A rare, potential lethal disorder that is triggered by general anesthetic or certain muscle relaxant drugs. On exposure to the drugs, muscle metabolism is severely disrupted and the body is unable to control its temperature which can lead to death without treatment. The chromosomal defect for type 2 is located at 17q11.2-q24.
  • Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 3: A rare, potential lethal disorder that is triggered by general anesthetic or certain muscle relaxant drugs. On exposure to the drugs, muscle metabolism is severely disrupted and the body is unable to control its temperature which can lead to death without treatment. The chromosomal defect for type 3 is located at 7q21-q22.
  • Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 4: A rare, potential lethal disorder that is triggered by general anesthetic or certain muscle relaxant drugs. On exposure to the drugs, muscle metabolism is severely disrupted and the body is unable to control its temperature which can lead to death without treatment. The chromosomal defect for type 4 is located at 3q13.1.
  • Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 5: A rare, potential lethal disorder that is triggered by general anesthetic or certain muscle relaxant drugs. On exposure to the drugs, muscle metabolism is severely disrupted and the body is unable to control its temperature which can lead to death without treatment. The chromosomal defect for type 5 is located at 1q32.
  • Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 6: A rare, potential lethal disorder that is triggered by general anesthetic or certain muscle relaxant drugs. On exposure to the drugs, muscle metabolism is severely disrupted and the body is unable to control its temperature which can lead to death without treatment. The chromosomal defect for type 6 is located at 5p.
  • Mallory-Weiss syndrome: A laceration of the lining of the gastroesophageal junction or just above it - often caused by severe vomiting.
  • Marfan syndrome: A genetic connective tissue disorder involving a defect of chromosome 15q21.1 which affects the production of the fibrillin needed to make connective tissue.
  • Mc Leod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by neuromuscular, blood and central nervous system symptoms. The disease is slowly progressive.
  • Medullary Sponge Kidney: A rare inherited disorder where the tubes in the kidneys that collect urine are wider than normal.
  • Mental retardation, keratoconus, febrile seizures, and sinoatrial block: A rare disorder characterized by mental retardation, seizures with fever, an eye disorder and a heart anomaly. The heart condition requires a pacemaker in some cases.
  • Metabolic Acidosis: Metabolic acidosis is a process which if unchecked leads to acidemia (i.e. blood pH is low (less than 7.35) due to increased production of H+ by the body or the inability of the body to form bicarbonate (HCO3-) in the kidney.
  • Methaemoglobinaemia: The presence of methaemoglin in the a persons blood
  • Midline field defects: Congenital problems that occur along the vertical axis of the body. Defects can involve the brain, spine, heart, genitals and midline of the head and face.
  • Mitral regurgitation: A condition which is characterized by a regurgitation of blood from the left ventricle into the atrium due to a problem with the mitral valve
  • Mitral valve prolapse syndrome: A rare condition where an abnormal heart valve (mitral vavle) fails to close properly and allows some blood to leak through.
  • Mitral valve prolapse, familial, autosomal dominant: A form of congenital heart disease where an abnormal heart valve (mitral valve) fails to close properly and allows some blood to leak through. The severity of the symptoms is determined by the degree of the defect.
  • Mitral-valve prolapse: A common heart condition that is often harmless.
  • Mountain Laurel poisoning: The mountain laurel is a large evergreen shrub which bears clusters of small flowers. The plant contains chemicals (andromedotoxin, arbutin) which can cause poisoning symptoms if eaten. The plant is considered highly toxic if ingested. The level of toxicity varies amongst species but it is unlikely that eating less than three leaves or flowers would cause symptoms.
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses: A lysosomal storage disorder that is caused by a deficiency of the ability to metabolise glycosaminoglycans
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis VI: A lysosomal storage disorder that is caused by a deficiency of the ability to metabolise glycosaminoglycans
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type I Hurler syndrome: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans) in various body tissues due to insufficient amounts of the enzyme (?-L-diuronidase) needed to break it down. There are three main sub-types of the disorder: Hurler - severe form, Scheie - mild form and Hurler/Scheie form which is intermediate.
  • Multifocal ventricular premature beats: A form of abnormal heart rhythm that occurs in otherwise healthy individuals. Exertion or high emotions may trigger a fainting episode.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia: A group of conditions that is characterised by the hyperplasia and hyperfunction of two or more glands of the endocrine system
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 3: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Mungan syndrome: A recessively inherited disorder characterized by heart abnormalities and gastrointestinal abnormalities. Death has occurred in some cases during the late teenage years.
  • Muscular dystrophy, Duchenne and Becker type: An inherited l disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness. The disorder is caused by a genetic anomaly and results in insufficient quantities of or ineffective dystrophin which is needed for normal muscle functioning. The disorder is expressed in males but females can be carriers.
  • Mustard tree poisoning: The mustard tree is found in various parts of America and contains nicotine. Ingestion of the plant can cause various symptoms. The leaves of the plant is sometimes smoked for its effects but it can result in death.
  • Myocarditis: Inflammation of the myocardium (muscle walls of the heart)
  • Myopathy, early-onset with fatal cardiomyopathy: A rare disorder involving muscle disease and early onset heart disease which leads to death.
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis: A rare disease that is tends to occur in premature infants and involves inflammation and destruction of gastrointestinal tissue. It usually occurs within weeks of birth - often after the start of milk feeding. The condition can be extremely serious and even fatal.
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A severe, potentially fatal reaction to antipsychotic drugs.
  • Nifedipine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Nimodipine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Nipah virus encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain caused by the Nipah virus which can infect pigs and humans so transmission usually occurs through contact with pigs.
  • No symptoms: The absence of noticable symptoms.
  • Nortriptyline -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Nortriptyline during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Nortriptyline toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Oleander poisoning: The oleander is a flowering shrub or small tree which bears clusters of flowers. The plant originated from Eurasia and is often used as an ornamental plant. The plant contains chemicals (cardiac glycosides: nerioside, oleandroside; saponins) which are very toxic if ingested. The plant is considered highly toxic and can result in death if sufficient quantities are eaten. The toxicity within a species can vary depending on the season. As little as seven leaves have been reported to cause poisoning symptoms. Poisoning can occur from inhaling smoke from burning oleander leaves.
  • Opioid poisoning: Excessive ingestion of opioids drugs.
  • Organophosphate insecticide poisoning: Excessive ingestion of organophosphate insecticides. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the exact poison ingested and the quantity.
  • Palpitations: The subjective sensation of the beating of the heart at a rapid or irregular rate
  • Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia: A condition which is characterized by the occurrence of atrial tachycardia without any identifiable cause
  • Paroxysmal ventricular fibrillation: A rare condition where the heart has an abnormal rhythm for no detectable reason. The condition can lead to fainting attacks and even sudden death in an otherwise healthy individual.
  • Peanut Allergy: Allergic reaction brought on by the ingestion of, or exposure to peanuts in a sensitised person
  • Pena Shokeir syndrome, type 1: A rare congenital syndrome involving degeneration of the brain and spinal cord and characterized by facial, head, skeletal and muscular abnormalities. Reduced fetal activity causes many of the problems.
  • Penfield syndrome: A rare disorder where a tumor pushes against the hypothalamus and causes seizures as well as a variety of other symptoms.
  • Periodic paralysis, potassium-sensitive, cardiodysrythmic type: A rare disorder where a genetic mutation causes periods of muscle weakness, heart rhythm abnormalities and various physical development abnormalities. It is believed to be caused by problems with the way the body utilizes potassium. Periodic paralysis may start as early as infancy or during the second decade and is triggered by exercise, stress or prolonged periods of rest.
  • Pheochromocytoma: Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth and secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Pheochromocytoma as part of Neurofibromatosis: A tumor that develops in the part of the adrenal gland called the medulla which produces adrenalin and noradrenaline. This tumor is often associated with a condition called neurofibromatosis. The tumor affects automatic body activities such as regulating breathing rate and heartbeat.
  • Phocomelia ectrodactyly deafness sinus arrhythmia: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by limb abnormalities, deafness and an abnormal heart rhythm.
  • Phocomelia ectrodactyly ear malformation deafness sinus arrhythmia: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by limb abnormalities, deafness and an abnormal heart rhythm.
  • Plant poisoning -- Angel's trumpet (D. suaveolans): Ingestion of Angel's trumpet can cause various symptoms which can be severe in some cases.
  • Plant poisoning -- Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea): Ingestion of leaves from the Foxglove plant may cause a reaction.
  • Plant poisoning -- Indian tobacco (Lobelia inflata): Ingestion of parts of the Indian tobacco plant may cause various symptoms and severe cases may result in a coma.
  • Plant poisoning -- Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium): Ingestion of Jimsonweed can cause various symptoms which can be severe in some cases.
  • Plant poisoning -- Oleander (Nerium oleander): Ingestion of leaves from the Oleander plant may cause a reaction.
  • Plant poisoning -- Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum): Ingestion of parts of the Poison hemlock plant may cause various symptoms and severe cases may result in a coma.
  • Plant poisoning -- potato (Solanum tuberosum): Ingestion of green potatoes or potato sprouts can cause various symptoms which can be severe in some cases.
  • Plant poisoning -- tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum): Ingestion of parts of the tobacco plant may cause various symptoms and severe cases may result in a coma.
  • Polymorphic catecholergic ventricular tachycardia: A very rare disorder involving an abnormal heart rhythm in an apparently otherwise normal heart. By the second decade of life, half of the sufferers will die.
  • Postoperative pulmonary embolism: Pulmonary embolism (lung blood clot) after surgery.
  • Postoperative respiratory failure: A condition characterised by the inability to use the lungs to perfuse the body with oxygen that occurs following an operation
  • Postoperative septicaemia: When a person contracts a bacterial infection in their blood system that occurs after an operation
  • Postpartum haemorrhage: The loss of blood by the mother after delivery of her child
  • Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: A rare disorder where a persons heart rate increases on standing up. The severity, prognosis and response to treatment is variable.
  • Prinzmetal's variant angina: A rare disorder where the heart artery spasms which affects the blood flow to the heart and causes pain. The condition can occur with or without physical activity.
  • Protozoan Conditions: Any condition caused by the infection of the human being by a protozoan organism
  • Protriptyline toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Pulmonary atresia -- intact ventricular septum: A very rare heart defect where the opening that allows blood to travel from the heart to the lung is narrowed or absent which impairs the body's ability to oxygenate blood. Death generally occurs without immediate medical attention.
  • Pulmonary branches stenosis: A very rare disorder where the pulmonary branches are narrower than normal. The severity of symptoms depends on the degree of narrowing.
  • Pulmonary edema of mountaineers: A severe complication of mountain sickness resulting from a lack of oxygen at high altitudes.
  • Pulmonary embolism: Blocked lung blood vessel often from a blood clot.
  • Pulmonary heart disease: Heart disease that is caused by pulmonary conditions
  • Pulmonary incompetence: A condition characterised by incompetence of the pulmonary valve of the heart
  • Pulmonary supravalvular stenosis: A very rare defect where the pulmonary artery is narrowed above the valve. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Pulmonary valve disease: Any condition that affects ones pulmonary valve
  • Pulmonary venous return anomaly: A rare disorder where one or more of the four veins that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs drain to the right atrium of the heart instead of the left atrium. Symptom severity is determined by the number of veins involved and the exact location of the heart that the veins drain into.
  • Quetiapine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Quinidine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Quinidine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Respiratory conditions: Any condition that affects the respiratory system
  • Respiratory failure: Failure of the respiratory system
  • Respiratory infections: Any infection that occurs to the respiratory system
  • Respiratory system cancer: A condition that is characterised by a malignancy anatomically located in the respiratory system
  • Rheumatic fever: An inflammatory disorder that can occur as a complication of untreated streptococcal bacterial infection such as strep throat or scarlet fever. The condition may affect the brain, skin, heart and joints.
  • Rheumatic heart disease: Chronic heart condition due to heart damage from rheumatic fever
  • Romano-Ward syndrome: A genetic heart disorder characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm (long Q-T interval) where the heart takes longer than normal to recharge between beats. The severity of the condition can vary.
  • Scleroderma: A rare, progressive connective tissue disorder involving thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissue. There are a number of forms of scleroderma with some forms being systemic (involving internal organs).
  • Scleroderma sine scleroderma: A very rare condition where the organ involvement normally associated with scleroderma is present but there are none of the characteristic skin symptoms. The degree of organ involvement is variable.
  • Sea wasp poisoning: The sea wasp can deliver a serious sting and can be found in the waters of Northern Australia and the Philippines. Death can occur in as little as a few minutes if a person is severely stung.
  • Sea wasp poisoning (Chiropsalmus quadrigatus): The Chiropsalmus quadrigatus jellyfish can deliver a serious sting and can be found in the waters of Northern Australia and the Philippines. Death can occur in as little as a few minutes if a person is severely stung.
  • Sea wasp poisoning -- Chironex fleckeri: The Chironex fleckeri jellyfish is one of the deadliest jellyfish in the world. It can deliver a serious sting and can be found mainly in the waters of Northern Australia and the Philippines. Death can occur in as little as a few minutes if a person is severely stung.
  • Sedative dependence: The psychological or physical dependence on sedative medication
  • Sedative hypnotic drug poisoning: Excessive ingestion of sedative hypnotic drugs.
  • Sepsis: The presence of pathological micro-organisms in the blood
  • Seronegative spondyloarthropathy: Spondyloarthropathy that is negative to rheumatoid facotr
  • Short QT syndrome: A very rare inherited condition where the heart muscle recharges between beats faster than normal which can result in various symptoms and even sudden death.
  • Short QT syndrome 1: Short QT syndrome is a very rare genetic heart condition characterized by abnormalities in heart electrical signals - short QT interval. The severity of the condition is highly variable with some people suffering no noticeable symptoms whereas others have fainting spells or even die suddenly. There are three subtypes of the condition, each caused by a different genetic mutation. Type 1 is caused by a defect on chromosome 7q35-q36.
  • Short QT syndrome 2: Short QT syndrome is a very rare genetic heart condition characterized by abnormalities in heart electrical signals - short QT interval. The severity of the condition is highly variable with some people suffering no noticeable symptoms whereas others have fainting spells or even die suddenly. There are three subtypes of the condition, each caused by a different genetic mutation. Type 2 is caused by a defect on chromosome 11p15.5.
  • Short QT syndrome 3: Short QT syndrome is a very rare genetic heart condition characterized by abnormalities in heart electrical signals - short QT interval. The severity of the condition is highly variable with some people suffering no noticeable symptoms whereas others have fainting spells or even die suddenly. There are three subtypes of the condition, each caused by a different genetic mutation. Type 3 is caused by a defect on chromosome 17q23.1-q24.2.
  • Short QT syndrome, familial: A very rare genetic heart condition characterized by abnormalities in heart electrical signals. The severity of the condition is highly variable with some people suffering no noticeable symptoms whereas others have fainting spells or even die suddenly.
  • Sick sinus syndrome: Heart rhythm disorder
  • Sino-auricular heart block: A rare heart condition caused by abnormalities in the heart's electrical system rather than arterial disease.
  • Sinus arrhythmia: A condition which is characterized by any abnormality in the rate, regularity or sequence of the heart
  • Sinus bradycardia: A condition which is characterized by a slow heart rate
  • Sinus node disease: Heart rhythm disorder due to the sinus node in the heart
  • Sinus node disease and myopia: A very rare disorder characterized by nearsightedness
  • Sinus tachycardia: A condition which is characterized by a fast heart rate
  • Skull fracture: A fracture of the bones of the skull
  • Smoking: The smoking of cigarettes
  • Snake bite: When a person is bitten by a snake
  • Stokes Adams syndrome: Heart condition causing fainting or blackouts
  • Stoll Levy Francort Syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by limb abnormalities, deafness and an abnormal heart rhythm.
  • Stoll-Levy-Fancfort syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, missing fingers, abnormal heart rhythm and missing bones in limbs.
  • Stress: Emotional stress (sometimes refers to physical stress)
  • Sudden Arrhythmia Death Syndrome: A genetic heart disorder characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm which can result in sudden death in otherwise healthy people. It is caused by a genetic defect which affects the hearts electrical activity. Examples of disorders that can cause lethal heart rhythm abnormalities are Long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, certain drugs, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation and sodium channel disease.
  • Sumatriptan -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Sumatriptan during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia: A rapid heart rate, the cause of which originates above the ventricles.
  • Syncopal paroxysmal tachycardia: Rapid heart rate that starts and ends suddenly and causes fainting.
  • Syncopal tachyarrhythmia: A rare disorder where a rapid heart rate results in fainting spells.
  • Tachycardia: Excessively rapid heart beat.
  • Tacrine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Takayasu arteritis: A rare disorder involving inflammation of large elastic arteries including the aorta which impairs blood flow to the upper body.
  • Tetraodon Poisoning: Food poisoning from Tetradons.
  • Thallium poisoning: The poisoning of a person with the element thallium
  • Theophylline poisoning: Excessive ingestion of theophylline drugs.
  • Timothy syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by webbed fingers and a heart defect. Most affected individuals die during early childhood or infancy.
  • Toxemia: A medical condition that occurs when there is a release of toxins from bacteria within the bloodstream
  • Transfusion Reaction: The allergic reaction to the transfusion of blood products to a person
  • Transient tachycardia:
  • Trichinosis: Worm infection usually caught from pigs
  • Tricuspid valve diseases: Any disease that affects the tricuspid valve
  • Trimipramine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Trisomy 5 mosaicism: A very rare chromosomal disorder where there is an extra copy of chromosome 5 in some of the body's cells. Some cases with this chromosomal abnormality have no clinical symptoms. The presence of abnormalities in some cases is dependent on which body cells contain the chromosomal defect.
  • Typhoid fever: Fever from bacterial food poisoning.
  • Uhl anomaly: A rare congenital heart malformation where the myocardial layer (muscle wall of the heart) of the right ventricle is completely or partially absent.
  • Valvular dysplasia of the child: A condition which is characterised by the dysplasia of one or more of the valves to a childs heart
  • Vancomycin resistant enterococcal bacteremia: A condition which is characterised by bacteremia caused by an enterococci that is resistant to vancomycin.
  • Variegate porphyria: A rare metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of a certain enzyme which results in a build-up in the body of porphyrins or their precursors. This form of hepatic porphyria causes the sufferer to have acute attacks as well as skin sensitivity.
  • Vascular malposition: A condition which is characterised by malposition of the great vessels
  • Vasovagal attack: Cranial nerve disorder with various effects.
  • Velocardiofacial syndrome: A genetic disorder which can present with a wide range of phenotypic manifestations which has lead to a number of different names being assigned to the various presentations e.g. DiGeorge Syndrome and Cayler Anomaly Face Syndrome. There are nearly 200 different symptoms that can occur and the severity of the condition is also highly variable depending on the nature and severity of the symptoms that are present.
  • Venlafaxine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Ventricular Fibrillation, Paroxysmal Familial, 1: A rare condition where the heart has an abnormal rhythm for no detectable reason. The condition can lead to fainting attacks and even sudden death in an otherwise healthy individual.
  • Ventricular Fibrillation, Paroxysmal Familial, 2: A rare condition where the heart has an abnormal rhythm for no detectable reason. The condition can lead to fainting attacks and even sudden death in an otherwise healthy individual.
  • Ventricular arrhythmia: A condition which is characterized by an arrhythmia of the heart beat
  • Ventricular extrasystoles perodactyly Robin sequence: A syndrome characterised by the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmia, perodactyly, and Robin sequence
  • Ventricular familial preexcitation syndrome: A condition which is inheritable and causes any syndrome that is characterised by ECG signs of preexcitation
  • Ventricular fibrillation: Life-threatening heart arrhythmia with rapid beating in lower chambers
  • Ventricular fibrillation, idiopathic: A condition characterised by fibrillary contractions of the ventricles
  • Ventricular septal defect: An abnormal connection between the 2 lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart.
  • Ventricular tachycardia: A condition which is characterized by a fast heart beat originates from the ventricles
  • Ventricular tachycardia, catecholaminergic polymorphic, 1: A very rare inherited heart disorder involving an abnormal heart rhythm in an apparently otherwise normal heart. Sudden death can occur readily. Symptoms such as fainting and seizures can be triggered by strenuous physical activity or sudden excitement. Type 1 is caused by a defect in the RYR2 gene on chromosome 1q42.1-q43.
  • Ventricular tachycardia, catecholaminergic polymorphic, 2: A very rare, recessively inherited heart disorder involving an abnormal heart rhythm in an apparently otherwise normal heart. Sudden death can occur readily. Symptoms such as fainting and seizures can be triggered by strenuous physical activity or sudden excitement. Type 2 is caused by a defect in the CASQ2 gene on chromosome 1p13.3-p11.
  • Ventriculo-arterial discordance, isolated: A rare birth disorder where the right atrium is connected to the left ventricle and vice versa. The position of the heart ventricles is also inverted which allows normal blood oxygenation. Symptoms generally only occur later in life or if other heart defects are present which is usually the case.
  • Vertebral fracture: A fracture of the vertebra of the back
  • Vibrio: An organism of the genus Vibrio or other spiral motile organism
  • Vibrio vulnificus infection: The infection by the vibrio vulnificus bacteria
  • Viral digestive infections: Any virus that infects the gastrointestinal tract causing a medical condition
  • Volume depletion: When an individual does not have enough fluid volume in there circulation
  • WAGR Syndrome: A syndrome that is due to the deletion of chromosome 11.
  • Warm-reacting-antibody haemolytic anemia: An autoimmune disorder characterised by the premature destruction of red blood cells
  • Waterhouse-Friederichsen syndrome: A rare syndrome that occurs as complication of septicemia (often due to meningococcal or pneumococcal infection) and involves blood coagulation in blood vessels, adrenal gland hemorrhages and ultimately kidney failure.
  • Watermelon stomach: The dilation of the blood vessels in the antral of the stomach
  • Weight symptoms: Symptoms related to body weight.
  • Western equine encephalitis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus (Alphavirus - Togaviraidae) and transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The infection primarily attacks that central nervous system and severity can range from asymptomatic to severe complications and even death in rare cases.
  • Wheezing: A whistling like continuous sound that is caused by the respiratory system
  • Wilms tumor and radial bilateral aplasia: A condition that is characterised by bilateral aplasia of the kidneys and wilms tumor
  • Wilms tumour and pseudohermaphroditism: A syndrome that is characterised by the occurrence of Wilms tumor with pseudohermaphroditism
  • Wilms' tumor: A malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children.
  • Wolcott-Rallison syndrome: A very rare genetic condition characterized primarily by the onset of diabetes mellitus during infancy and epiphyseal dysplasia (abnormal joint development).
  • Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome: Heart arrhythmia causing increased heart rate
  • X-linked sideroblastic anemia: X-linked sideroblastic anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of iron in the red blood cells which makes them unable to function properly. The body continues to absorb more iron from digesting food in order to try and correct the problem but this simply leads to excessive iron being deposited in body tissues as the it can't use the iron properly. The severity of the condition is variable.
  • Xanthic urolithiasis: The formation of xanthine crystals in the urine
  • Yellow fever: A viral infection transmitted by mosquito bites which can damage various organs such as the liver, heart, kidney and digestive tract.
  • Yorifuji Okuno syndrome: A condition that is characterised by pancreatic insufficiency and heart disease
  • Young Simpson syndrome: A condition that is characterised by mainly mental retardation and physical signs of hypothyroidism
  • Zunich neuroectodermal syndrome: A very rare genetic syndrome characterized by a range of symptoms such as colobomas of the eye, heart defects, ichthyosiform dermatosis, mental retardation and ear defects.

 

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