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Diseases » Ascites » Glossary
 

Glossary for Ascites

  • Abdominal Cancer: Growth of abnormal cells (tumour) affecting the organs in the abdominal cavity; may be due to primary growth of a tumour or spread from another tumour (metastases, secondary tumour)
  • Abdominal conditions: Medical conditions affecting the abdominal region.
  • Abdominal fullness: The sensation of fullness located in the abdomen
  • Abdominal mass: Abdominal swelling with hard mass felt
  • Abdominal swelling: Swelling or bloating of the abdomen
  • Abdominal symptoms: Symptoms affecting the abdomen or digestive tract
  • Acanthocytosis: A rare disorder where most of the red blood cells are abnormal with spiny projections due to lipid abnormalities. The blood abnormality is seen in conditions such as abetalipoproteinemia, severe liver disease and severe malnutrition. Symptoms and prognosis depend on the underlying disorder.
  • Acyclovir -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Acyclovir during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Aggressive systemic mastocytosis: The excessive proliferation of mast cells. Mast cells control the skin's response to minor injury and release a chemical called histamine which causes the skin to redden. In the aggressive form, mast cells accumulate in the liver, spleen and lymphatic system.
  • Albuminuria: The presence of albumin (a blood protein) in the urine.
  • Alveolar Hydatid Disease: Rare multi-organ tapeworm infection caught from animals.
  • Amiloride -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Amiloride during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Andersen disease: An rare inborn error of metabolism involving glycogen storage and characterized by cirrhosis and sometimes liver failure. Lack of the amyl-transglucosidase enzyme and abnormal glycogen causes the condition.
  • Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: A form of cancer which tends to be systemic in nature and thus cancer cells can be found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, skin and bone marrow.
  • Angiosarcoma of the liver: A rare type of cancer that starts in the lining of blood vessels in the liver. It is generally an aggressive tumor which often metastasizes.
  • Appendiceal tumor: A tumor of the appendix. The condition is often misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis. The cancer usually metastasizes from other sites and rarely starts in the appendix.
  • Appendix cancer: Cancer of the appendix. The cancer usually metastasizes from other sites and rarely starts in the appendix.
  • Ascites: Fluid accumulation in abdominal cavity
  • Autoimmune Hepatitis: Liver inflammation caused due to autoimmune processes where the body's immune system attacks the liver.
  • Banti Syndrome: A rare conditions where chronic congestive spleen enlargement causes it to destroy red blood cells too early. The spleen becomes enlarged due to an obstruction of blood flow in the organ and the resulting increase in blood pressure.
  • Banti's syndrome: A rare condition where chronic congestive spleen enlargement causes it to destroy red blood cells too early. The spleen becomes enlarged due to an obstruction of blood flow in the organ and the resulting increase in blood pressure.
  • Beemer-Langer syndrome: A very rare inherited condition characterized by a number of congenital abnormalities and death generally occurs during early infancy.
  • Bile Duct Cancer: A malignancy arising in the bile ducts of the liver
  • Biliary atresia, intrahepatic, non syndromic form: Congenital obstruction of the passages in the liver that carry bile. The nonsyndromic form is not associated with any other abnormalities.
  • Biliary atresia, intrahepatic, syndromic form: Congenital obstruction of the passages in the liver that carry bile. The syndromic form is associated with other congenital abnormalities such as heart and visceral defects.
  • Biliary cirrhosis: Biliary cirrhosis is a condition where the bile ducts are unable to transport bile effectively due to blockage, inflammation, scarring or some other damage to the bile ducts. The condition may result from such things as congenital defect of the bile ducts (e.g. biliary atresia), cystic fibrosis, gallstones or a variety of other secondary conditions. The cause of primary biliary cirrhosis is not fully understood.
  • Bladder Cancer: Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. It is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply without control in the bladder.
  • Breast Cancer: Cancer of the breast.
  • Breathing difficulties: Various types of breathing difficulty (dyspnea).
  • Budd-Chiari syndrome: Budd-Chiari syndrome is the clinical picture caused by occlusion of the hepatic veins. It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites and hepatomegaly.
  • Cardiomegaly: An enlarged heart from any cause.
  • Cholestasis: A condition where the bile flow is impaired or completely halted.
  • Chromosome 11, deletion 11p: A syndrome that is caused by the deletion of short arm (p) of chromosome 11. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is deleted.
  • Chromosome 2 trisomy syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of chromosome 2 instead of the normal two.
  • Chronic Hepatitis: Chronic hepatitis is defined as inflammatory disease of the liver lasting for more than six months.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Chronic form of Hepatitis C viral liver infection.
  • Cirrhosis of liver: Chronic liver disease wherein normal liver parenchyma is replaced by fibrous tissue.
  • Cirrhosis of the liver: Scarring of the liver from alcohol or other causes.
  • Colorectal cancer: Cancer of the colon (bowel) or rectum.
  • Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1H: Congenital disorders of glycosylation is a group of very rare inherited metabolic disorder where defective carbohydrate compounds are attached to glycoproteins and thus impairing glycoprotein function. Type Ih is caused by a defect on chromosome 11pter-p15.5 and involves the gene for a particular enzyme (dolichyl-P-glucose:Glc-1-Man-9-GlcNAc-2-PP-dolichyl-alpha-3-glucosyltransferase).
  • Congestive Heart Failure: Inadequate pumping and decline of heart function common in the elderly.
  • Constrictive pericarditis: Inflammation, swelling and thickening of the pericardium (fibrous sac surrounding the heart) which causes it to tighten around the heart and affect its function. The condition may be misdiagnosed as a heart attack and vice versa.
  • Constrictive tuberculous pericarditis: Inflammation and swelling of the pericardium (fibrous sac surrounding the heart) that occurs as a complication of tuberculosis. The condition may be misdiagnosed as a heart attack and vice versa.
  • Cor pulmonale: Enlarged heart due to respiratory difficulty.
  • Deletion 11p: A syndrome that is caused by the deletion of short arm (p) of chromosome 11. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is deleted.
  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor: A rare aggressive tumor that usually develops in soft tissue and tends to grow to a large size. It usually occurs in the abdomen but may also in other parts of the body such as abdominal organs, brain, testicles, ovaries, spinal cord and skull.
  • Diffuse neonatal hemangiomatosis: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by multiple capillary hemangiomas as well as other abnormalities.
  • EGE: A rare disorder where white blood cells (eosinophils) infiltrate the layers of the lining of the stomach and intestines and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. The degree of infiltration will determine the severity of symptoms.
  • End Stage Liver Failure: Late stage of liver failure characterised by the onset of mental and neurological symptoms, due to build up of toxic metabolites.
  • Endocrine pancreatic cancer: Any disease that affects the endocrine pancreas
  • Endomyocardial fibrosis: Heart disease characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lining of one or both lower heart cavities. This results in constriction of the heart cavity and may involve the heart valves and other structures.
  • Eosinophilic enteropathy, pattern III: A rare disorder where white blood cells (eosinophils) infiltrate the deepest part of lining of the stomach often resulting in accumulation of fluid filled with white blood cells in the stomach (ascites). The fluid can enter the lung tissue and cause problems.
  • Esophagus Cancer: Cancer of the esophagus in the throat.
  • Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: A rare condition where the thin layer around the liver becomes infected as a result of a spread of infection from gonococcal or chlamydial infections in females.
  • Fructose-1-phosphate aldolase deficiency, hereditary: An inherited metabolic disorder where deficiency of the enzyme fructose-1-phsophate aldolase prevents fructose being metabolized resulting in fructose intolerance.
  • Galactosemia I: A rare inherited disorder where deficiency of a particular enzyme (galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase) prevents the metabolism of galactose which is a sugar component of milk. Ranges from milk intolerance in mild cases to death in severe untreated cases.
  • Goldberg syndrome: A rare lysosomal storage disorder characterized by an enzyme deficiency (neuraminidase and beta-galactosidase) which results in a build-up of glycoproteins in the urine. There are three main subtypes: infantile, juvenile and adult forms. The early infantile form is the most severe and often results in death during infancy.
  • Heart conditions: Any condition that affects the heart
  • Heart failure: Slow failure of the heart (cardiac insufficiency).
  • Hemolytic anaemia, lethal -- genital anomalies: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by genital abnormalities and hemolytic anemia which often causes death.
  • Hemolytic anemia, lethal -- genital anomalies: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by genital abnormalities and hemolytic anemia which often causes death.
  • Hepatic Venoocclusive Disease with immunodeficiency: An inherited disorder characterized by the association of immunodeficiency and liver disease involving the blockage of small veins in the liver due to swelling and fibrosis.
  • Hepatitis: Any type of liver inflammation or infection.
  • Hepatoma: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver.
  • Hereditary Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder where too much iron is absorbed from food and it is stored in various parts of the body which can cause damage. There are 4 types of hemochromatosis and they are distinguished by age of onset, genetic cause and type of inheritance. Some sufferers may be asymptomatic.
  • Hydrops ectrodactyly syndactyly: A very rare disorder characterized mainly be webbed fingers and toes, hand defect and hydrops (abnormal accumulation of fluid in the fetus).
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Idiopathic liver cirrhosis: Cirrhosis is defined histologically as a diffuse hepatic process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules. The progression of liver injury to cirrhosis may occur over weeks to years.
  • Idiopathic minimal change nephrotic syndrome: A rare kidney disorder which has no apparent cause. The filtering structures of the kidneys are only slightly damaged and appear to be almost normal. Progression to kidney failure is very rare.
  • Immunoproliferative diseases: Diseases characterised by proliferation of the lymphoid cells
  • Infantile sialic acid storage disorder: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of sialic acid in the tissues and excretion of sialic acid in the urine. The disorder results in death within the first few years of life - usually in infancy.
  • Infection: Infections as a symptom.
  • Intestinal obstruction: Blockage in the intestines of the digestive tract.
  • Kaposiform hemangio-endothelioma: A rare blood vessel tumor that occur primarily in children. It causes localized damage but is not metastatic. Main sites affected are the retroperitoneum and skin but can also occur in the head and neck area, mediastinum and deep soft tissue of the trunk and limbs. Symptoms and prognosis is determined by the size and location of the tumors.
  • Kidney failure: Total failure of the kidneys to filter waste
  • Krukenberg carcinoma: A form of ovarian cancer.
  • Kwashiorkor: A malnutrition state that is produced by severe protein deficiency
  • Leiomyosarcoma: A rare soft tissue cancer that arises from smooth muscle cells which form the involuntary muscles. Smooth muscle cells can occur in the skin, uterus, stomach, intestine and blood vessel walls. The main location for these tumors is in the uterus, retroperitoneum, pelvis and large blood vessels such as the inferior vena cava. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Liver cancer: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver.
  • Liver conditions: Any condition that affects the liver
  • Liver damage: Any damage that occurs to the function or structure of the liver
  • Liver failure: Acute liver failure (ALF) is an uncommon condition in which the rapid deterioration of liver function results in coagulopathy and alteration in the mental status of a previously healthy individual.
  • Liver vein outflow obstruction: Budd-Chiari syndrome is the clinical picture caused by occlusion of the hepatic veins. It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites and hepatomegaly.
  • Lung cancer: Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis, which is the invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs. Most lung tumors are malignant.
  • Lung conditions: Various conditions affecting the lungs or related airways.
  • Lymphangiectasies and lymphedema Hennekam type: A rare disorder characterized by buildup of lymphatic fluid in the limbs, face and genitals, seizures and mental and growth retardation.
  • Lymphatic Obstruction: A blockage of the lymph vessels that drain fluid from body tissues and facilitate immune system cell movement through the body. Lymphatic obstruction can be caused by such things as tumors, surgery, injury and infection. Obstruction can be primary (as in the case of inherited conditions such as lymphatic hypoplasia) or secondary (as in the case of infection).
  • Lymphatic malformation (LM): Abnormal or defective development of a lymph vessel. Groups of abnormal lymph channels and spaces contain lymph fluid. A blockage in the malformation can cause a buildup of fluid which can compress nearby structures such as the windpipe. Other problems can occur when the fluid leaks from the malformation into surrounding areas. Examples of lymphatic malformations includes lymphangioma, cavernous lymphangioma and cystic hygroma. Symptoms may vary depending on the location of the malformation and whether the lymph vessel becomes blocked.
  • Lymphoedema -- lymphangiectasia -- mental retardation: A rare disorder characterized by buildup of lymphatic fluid in the limbs, face and genitals, seizures and mental and growth retardation.
  • Lymphoma: Cancer involving lymph nodes and the immune system.
  • Mesothelioma: Type of lung cancer associated with asbestos.
  • Metastatic liver cancer: Metastatic liver cancer is a cancer that has spread to the liver from elsewhere in the body.
  • Mosse syndrome: A condition involving the association of liver cirrhosis with polycythemia which is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the excessive production of mainly red blood cells by the bone marrow.
  • Ménétrier's disease: Rare chronic disease with excessive growth of skin folds in the stomach.
  • Nephrotic syndrome: Various kidney glomeruli conditions
  • Niemann-Pick disease: A rare inherited biochemical disorder involving the deficiency of an enzyme (acid sphingomyelinase) needed to break down certain lipids which results in an accumulation of these lipids in the body.
  • Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver: A rare liver condition characterized by the development of nodules in the liver - the size and number of nodules is variable but they are often quite small. The nodules are not separated by fibrous tissue. The condition is generally asymptomatic in the early stages but its progressive nature and can lead to severe portal hypertension and its complications as well as liver failure. The disorder is often associated with particular conditions: rheumatic diseases, blood cancer and other cancers, kidney transplants, sarcoidosis and certain drugs (liver toxic drugs and azathiprine in particular).
  • OHSS: Excessive stimulation of the ovaries that usually occurs as a complication of in vitro fertilization but may also occur spontaneously. The degree of excessive ovarian stimulation may vary from mild to severe.
  • Obliterative portal venopathy: A rare condition characterized by abnormal hardening of liver blood vessels (portal veins), portal hypertension and an enlarged spleen. The condition usually occurs in adults but can rarely occur in children. The exact cause of the condition is unknown but various factors have been implicated e.g. genetic predisposition, workplace exposure to inorganic arsenicals, thorium compounds and vinyl chloride monomer.
  • Obstructive Jaundice: Condition where blockage of the flow of bile from the liver causes overspill of bile products into the blood and incomplete bile excretion from the body.
  • Occupational Cancer -- Mesothelioma: Occupational exposure to asbestos can increase the risk of developing mesothelioma.
  • Ovarian Cancer: Cancer of the ovaries.
  • Pancreatic cancer: Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas
  • Pericarditis: Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart
  • Peritonitis: Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity
  • Portal hypertension: Portal hypertension may be defined as a portal pressure gradient of 12 mm Hg or greater and is often associated with varices and ascites.
  • Portal hypertension due to intrahepatic block: A blockage that forms in the portal vein (caries blood from the digestive tract to the liver) due to liver problems.
  • Primary biliary cirrhosis: Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic and progressive cholestatic disease of the liver.
  • Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: A rare type of cancer where mucous-producing cancer cells in the abdomen produce excessive mucous.
  • Rectractile mesenteritis: A disorder involving the tissue that connects the small intestine to the back of the back of the abdominal wall (mesentery) and is characterized by infection and inflammation followed by fibrosis.
  • Right heart failure: Heart failure of the right side of the heart
  • Schistosomiasis: Parasitic fluke infection in developing countries
  • Secondary Biliary Cirrhosis: Secondary biliary cirrhosis is a condition where the bile ducts are unable to transport bile effectively due to a secondary cause which results in blockage, inflammation, scarring or some other damage to the bile ducts. The condition may result from such things as congenital defect of the bile ducts (e.g. biliary atresia), cystic fibrosis, gallstones or a variety of other secondary conditions.
  • Semmerkrot-Haraldsson-Weenaes syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by anemia, missing thumb, an immune disorder and an excessive buildup of fluid in the fetus or newborn (hydrops fetalis).
  • Stomach cancer: Stomach or gastric cancer can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs
  • Stomach pain: The occurrence of pain located in the stomach
  • Strongyloidiasis: A parasitic infectious disease involving the intestines and caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Infection usually occurs in crowded, unsanitized populations.
  • Stuart-Bras disease: A type of liver disease that is seen in children (usually aged 1-6 years) in the West Indies and is possibly caused by ingestion of plant toxins from plants such as Senico.
  • Tang Hsi Ryu syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by enlarged liver and spleen, increased pigmentation and abnormal peripheral nerve functioning.
  • Tricuspid stenosis:
  • Tricuspid valve diseases: Any disease that affects the tricuspid valve
  • Trypanosomiasis, east-African: A rare infectious disease caused by a parasite called Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and is transmitted through the bite of an infected Tsetse fly. The infection causes an acute illness with symptoms occurring from days to weeks after infection. Death relatively common, especially in untreated cases.
  • Tuberculosis: Bacterial infection causing nodules forming, most commonly in the lung.
  • VLCAD deficiency: A rare condition that is characterised by cardiomyopathy, fatty liver, skeletal myopathy, pericardial effusions, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death
  • Virilising ovarian tumour: A tumour that results in the virilization of females due to hormone release
  • WAGR Syndrome: A syndrome that is due to the deletion of chromosome 11.
  • Waldmann disease: A rare digestive disorder where the lymph glands that feed the small intestine lining are enlarged. The enlargement may be due to causes or a result of other conditions.
  • Whipple's Disease: Rare malabsorption disease from bacterial digestive infection
  • Wilms tumor and radial bilateral aplasia: A condition that is characterised by bilateral aplasia of the kidneys and wilms tumor
  • Wilms tumour and pseudohermaphroditism: A syndrome that is characterised by the occurrence of Wilms tumor with pseudohermaphroditism
  • Wilms tumour and radial bilateral aplasia: A conditions that is characterized by the absence of one of the two forearm bones (radius) as well as the development of a type of kidney tumor called Wilm's tumor.
  • Wilms' tumor: A malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children.
  • Yolk sack tumour: A germ cell tumour that is a proliferation of yolk sack endoderm

 

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