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Diseases » Asphyxia » Glossary
 

Glossary for Asphyxia

  • Allergic asthma: Allergic asthma is one of the most common forms of asthma and is triggered by exposure to an allergen. Upon exposure to the allergen, the airways become constricted and inflamed which affects breathing. The severity of symptoms is variable. This form of asthma is more common in children than adults.
  • Aspirin-induced asthma: Aspirin-induced asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is triggered by the use of aspirin. A significant number of patients with aspirin-induced asthma also have steroid-dependant asthma where they require regular steroidal asthma medication to maintain normal lung functioning. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Asthma: Repeated attacks of breathing difficulty.
  • Asthma in pregnancy: Asthma in pregnancy refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is occurs during pregnancy. Women who are pregnancy may decide to stop taking their asthma medication in order to reduce the perceived risk of side effects to the developing fetus. The reality is that the potential harmful effects on the fetus are very small compared to the problems caused to mother and fetus if a severe asthma attack develops. Furthermore, uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy may also cause problems such as small birth weight or premature birth. Pregnant women should consult their physician in order to determine the optimal management of their condition. During pregnancy, asthma symptoms may become worse, improve or stay the same.
  • Atopic asthma: Atopic asthma is one of the most common forms of asthma and is triggered by exposure to an allergen. Upon exposure to the allergen, the airways become constricted and inflamed which affects breathing. The severity of symptoms is variable. This form of asthma is more common in children than adults.
  • Birth asphyxia: Hypoxia during passage of birth.
  • Brain damage: Damage to the brain from various causes
  • Breathing difficulties: Various types of breathing difficulty (dyspnea).
  • Broken neck: Fracture of the bone or bones in the cervical spine.
  • Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the bronchioles.
  • Centronuclear myopathy, congenital: A severe inherited form of muscle wasting disease which often results in infant death.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Acetic Anhydride: Acetic Anhydride is a chemical used mainly in various industrial processes as well as the production of pharmaceutical products such as aspirin and acetyl salicylic acid. It is also used in the production of heroin. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Acetonitrile: Acetonitrile is a chemical used as a solvent mainly in nail removing agents. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Acrylonitrile: Acrylonitrile is a chemical used mainly in the production of acrylic and modacrylic fibers but also in the production of certain plastics, nylon dyes, drugs and pesticides. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Propane: Propane is a chemical used mainly in fuels and as a solvent. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Choking: Sensation of blockage or inability to breathe.
  • Chromosome 4, Monosomy 4q: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the long arm (q) of chromosome 4 is missing resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Collapsed lung: Deflation of all or part of one lung
  • Convulsions: Involuntary spasms especially those affecting the full body
  • Croup: Respiratory infection with a characteristic cough
  • Cyanosis: Blueness or purple coloring of skin.
  • Death: The cessation of life
  • Death conditions: Conditions that can result in death.
  • Diphtheria: Infectious bacterial respiratory disease
  • Drowning: Accidental loss of life due to water.
  • Drug-induced asthma: Drug-induced associated asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is caused by taking a particular drug. There is a large range of drugs that have the potential to produce asthmatic symptoms in susceptible people. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Eosinophilic asthma: Eosinophilic asthma is a type of asthma that is characterized by increased levels of eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the airways. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Exercise-induced asthma: Exercise-induced asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is triggered by exercise. The severity of symptoms is variable. Exercise involving long periods of activity or is done in a cold environment is more likely to trigger asthmatic symptoms. Exercise can also exacerbate existing asthma symptoms.
  • Extrinsic asthma: Extrinsic asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by an exposure to an allergen. Extrinsic asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways in response to exposure to the allergen. Examples of possible allergens include dust mites, pollen and mould. The severity of symptoms and allergen involved is variable.
  • Food allergy related asthma: Food allergy related asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is caused by an allergic reaction to a particular food. This is a very uncommon cause of asthma.
  • Heart failure: Slow failure of the heart (cardiac insufficiency).
  • High blood pressure: High blood pressure
  • Intrinsic asthma: Intrinsic asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is not caused by exposure to an allergen. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Mixed asthma: Mixed asthma is a type of asthma that can be caused by an exposure to an allergen as well as other intrinsic triggers such as exposure to cold air or cigarette smoke. Mixed asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways that may or may not involve an allergic reaction.
  • Mixed granulocytic asthma: Mixed granulocytic asthma is a type of asthma that is characterized by increased levels of eosinophils and neutrophils (types of white blood cell) in the airways. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Neutrophilic asthma: Neutrophilic asthma is a type of asthma that is characterized by increased levels of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the airways. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable. This type of asthma is usually driven by such things as pollution and viral infections rather than exposure to an allergen.
  • Nocturnal asthma: Nocturnal asthma is a type of asthma that tends to only produce symptoms at night. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable. Factors such as airconditioning, gastroesophageal reflux and sleeping in a reclining positing may increase the incidence of this form of asthma in susceptible patients.
  • Non-atopic asthma: Non-atopic asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is not caused by exposure to an allergen. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Obesity associated asthma: Obesity associated asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is associated with obesity. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Beauticians: People employed as beauticians may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to henna extract, ammonium thioglycolate, monoethanolamine, hexamethyhlenamine and persulfate salts. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Boiler Cleaners: People employed as boiler cleaners may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to vanadium and vanadium pentoxide. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Brewery Workers: People employed as brewery workers may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to Choloramine T and sulfone chloramides. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Cement Industry: People employed in the cement industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to chromates and dichromates. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Chemical Industry: People employed in the chemical industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to trimellitic anhydride, nickel and nickel compounds. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Chemists: People employed as chemists may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to naphthalene diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Cosmetics Industry: People employed in the cosmetics industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to carmine. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Detergent Industry: People employed in the detergent industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to amylases and proteases. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Dye Industry: People employed in the dye industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to carmine. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Electroplating Industry: People employed in the electroplating industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to chromium and nickel and chromium and nickel compounds. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Epoxy Resin Industry: People employed in the epoxy resin industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to phthalic anhydride, hexahydrophthalic anhydrides, trimellitic anhydride, phthalic anhydride and tetrachlorophthalic anhydride. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Fabric Dying Industry: People employed in the fabric dying industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to anthroquinone. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Fire Retardant Industry: People employed in the fire retardant industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to himic anhydride. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Foundry Workers: People employed as foundry workers may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to diphenylmethane diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Fur Dying: People employed in the fur dying industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to paraphenyl diamine. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Galvanising Industry: People employed in the galvanising industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to Zinc. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Hairdressers: People employed as hairdressers may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to ammonium thioglycolate, monoethanolamine, hexamethyhlenamine and persulfate salts. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Hard Metal Industry: People employed in the hard metal industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to cobalt. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Hospital staff: People employed as hospital staff may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to enfluorane anaesthetic. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Jewellery Industry: People employed in the jewellery industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to platinum, nickel and nickel compounds. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Laminating Industry: People employed in the laminating industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to toluene diisocyanate and diphenylmethane diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Laxative Manufacturing: People employed in the laxative manufacturing industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to psyllium. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Manufacturing Industry: People employed in the manufacturing industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to amylases and proteases. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Medical Sterilisers: People employed as medical sterilisers may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to ethylene oxide. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Nurses: People employed as nurses may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to cephalosporins. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Paint Manufacturing Industry: People employed in the paint manufacturing industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Photocopying workers: People employed as photocopying workers may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to diazonium salt. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Polyurethane Foam Industry: People employed in the polyurethane foam industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to diphenylmethane diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Polyurethane Industry: People employed in the polyurethane industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to toluene diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Refining Industry: People employed in the refining industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to platinum. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Rubber Workers: People employed as rubber workers may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to azodicarboamide and ethylene oxide. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Spray Paining Industry: People employed in the spray painting industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Tanning Industry: People employed in the tanning industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to chromium and chromium compounds. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Turbine Cleaners: People employed as turbine cleaners may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to vanadium and vanadium pentoxide. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Varnish Manufacture Industry: People employed in the varnish manufacture industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to toluene diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational asthma: Occupational asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that occurs in a workplace setting. There is a wide range of chemicals and other airway irritants that are used in a workplace settings and can result in inhalation exposure that can produce asthma symptoms. The severity of symptoms is variable. Occupational exposures can also exacerbate existing asthma symptoms.
  • Paucigranulocytic asthma: Paucigranulocytic asthma is a type of asthma that is characterized by normal levels of eosinophils and neutrophils (types of white blood cell) in the airways. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Poisoning: The condition produced by poison
  • Rapid heart beat: Excessively rapid heart beat.
  • Salicylate-sensitive asthma: Salicylate-sensitive asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by salicylates which can be found in medications such as aspirin as well as many foods. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Seasonal asthma: Seasonal asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is triggered by the presence of airborne allergens such as pollen. This type of asthma tends to occur in a seasonal cycle in response to seasonal increases in levels of pollen and other airborne allergens in the air. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Severe, refractory asthma: Severe refractory asthma is a type of asthma that is severe and difficult to treat. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult.
  • Silent asthma: Silent asthma is a type of asthma that occurs suddenly and is usually severe. The wheezing that usually precipitates and asthma attack is usually absent or very mild. Silent asthma involves rapid constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult.
  • Steroid-dependant asthma: Steroid-dependant asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that can be managed only through regular use of oral steroids. Excessive use of steroids can lead to side effects so other therapies are often advised e.g. immunoglobulin therapy. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Steroid-resistant asthma: Steroid-resistant asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that does not respond to treatment with steroids. However, higher than normal doses of steroids will alleviate symptoms in most patients but the higher doses carries an increased risk of side effects from steroid use. Other therapies such as immunoglobulin therapy is advised. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Steroid-resistant asthma, type I: Steroid-resistant asthma is a type of asthma that doesn't respond to steroid treatment. Steroids work by attaching to a particular part of the T-cells which make up the immune system. In type I, the T-cells have sufficient attachment points for the steroids but they are ineffective. In type II, there are insufficient attachment points for the steroids. Steroid-resistant asthma (like other forms of asthma) involves rapid constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult.
  • Steroid-resistant asthma, type II: Steroid-resistant asthma is a type of asthma that doesn't respond to steroid treatment. Steroids work by attaching to a particular part of the T-cells which make up the immune system. In type I, the T-cells have sufficient attachment points for the steroids but they are ineffective. In type II, there are insufficient attachment points for the steroids which make them less effective or completely ineffective. Steroid-resistant asthma (like other forms of asthma) involves rapid constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult.
  • Steroid-sensitive asthma: Steroid-sensitive asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that responds well to treatment with steroids. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Strangulation: The arrest of circulation in a part of the body due to compression
  • Suffocation: A state of asphyxiation that results in the arrest of respiration
  • Tetanus: A disease caused by chemicals which are produced by a bacterium (clostridium tetani) and are toxic to the nerves. The infection usually occurs when the bacteria enter the body through a deep wound - these bacteria are anaerobic and hence don't need oxygen to survive.
  • Tobacco smoke associated asthma: Tobacco smoke associated asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is caused by exposure to tobacco smoke. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Virus-induced asthma: Virus-induced asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is triggered by a viral respiratory infection. This form of asthma usually has a sudden onset and is relatively severe. Viral respiratory infections can also exacerbate existing asthma symptoms.
  • Whooping Cough: An infectious condition caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis
  • Wound Infection: Infection of a skin wound.

 

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