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Diseases » Atherosclerosis » Glossary
 

Glossary for Atherosclerosis

  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm: A weakness and bulging of a section of an abdominal blood vessel called the abdominal aorta. It is usually associated with severe atherosclerosis in the blood vessel.
  • Amaurosis fugax: A rare condition where a temporary blockage of blood flow to the retina causes vision loss in the affected eye until the blood flow returns.
  • Aneurysm: Dangerous ballooning of a weakened area of an artery
  • Angina: A special type of chest pain.
  • Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic: Bulging and weakness of the aorta in the area of the chest. The condition is life-threatening as death can occur rapidly if the aneurysm bursts.
  • Apo A-I deficiency: Low plasma HDL cholesterol that tends to run in families.
  • Artery conditions: Any conditions affecting arteries
  • Artery symptoms: Symptoms affecting the arteries (large blood vessels)
  • Atheroma: A region of plaque occurring in atherosclerosis
  • Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels. It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low density (especially small particle) lipoproteins (plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol from the macrophages by functional high density lipoproteins (HDL). It is commonly referred to as a hardening or furring of the arteries. It is caused by the formation of multiple plaques within the arteries.
  • Autoimmune Atherosclerosis: The formation of atherosclerosis through an autoimmune process
  • Binswanger Disease: Multi-infarct dementia, caused by damage to deep white matter.
  • Binswanger's Disease: A type of senile dementia characterized by chronic cerebrovascular disease.
  • Blood clots: Multiple coagulums that are located in the blood stream due to the aggregation of blood factors
  • Blood vessel conditions: Conditions that affect the blood vessels
  • Buerger's disease: Buergers's disease is a recurring inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of small and medium arteries and veins of the hands and feet
  • Carbon disulfide-induced cardiovascular disease: Chronic exposure to certain chemicals can cause cardiovascular disease. For example, exposure to Carbon disulfide can lead to heart disease and carries a risk of premature death as a result. Chronic exposure to these sort of chemicals is most likely to occur in a work environment. Carbon disulfide is used mainly in viscose rayon manufacturing but is also used as a solvent and in other process. Exposure usually occurs through inhalation of vapours but skin absorption can also occur. Reported cases haf cardiovascular disease has occurred among workers exposed to carbon disulfide concentrations of 20-60 ppm.
  • Cardiac arrest: Stoppage of the heart, usually caused by heart attack
  • Cardiotoxicity -- Allylamine: Exposure to Allylamines can have a toxic effect on the heart and may result in degenerative changes in the heart. The degree of toxicity may be influenced the duration and level of exposure to the chemical.
  • Cardiotoxicity -- Aromatic hydrocarbons: Exposure to Aromatic hydrocarbons can have a toxic effect on the heart and may result in degenerative changes in the heart. The degree of toxicity may be influenced the duration and level of exposure to the chemical.
  • Cardiotoxicity -- Carbon Disulfide: Exposure to Carbon Disulfide can have a toxic effect on the heart and may result in degenerative changes in the heart. The degree of toxicity may be influenced the duration and level of exposure to the chemical.
  • Cardiotoxicity -- Carbon Monoxide: Exposure to Carbon Monoxide can have a toxic effect on the heart and may result in degenerative changes in the heart. The degree of toxicity may be influenced the duration and level of exposure to the chemical.
  • Cardiovascular Disease: Diseases of the heart or blood vessels including cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke.
  • Carotid artery stenosis:
  • Cerebral Arteriosclerosis: Hardening or blockage of arteries in the brain.
  • Cerebrovascular accident: Occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted and results in cell injury and death.
  • Cerebrovascular symptoms: Symptoms related to the brain's arteries
  • Chemical-induced cardiovascular disease: Chronic exposure to certain chemicals can cause cardiovascular disease. For example, exposure to Carbon disulfide can lead to heart disease and carries a risk of premature death as a result. Chronic exposure to these sort of chemicals is most likely to occur in a work environment.
  • Circulatory system conditions: Medical conditions affecting the heart and the circulatory system.
  • Coronary heart disease: Disease affecting the heart's arteries (narrowed arteries)
  • Embolism: Blockage of an artery or blood vessel
  • Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A genetic abnormality which causes patients to have abnormally high cholesterol levels (low-density lipoproteins). The condition usually leads to early cardiovascular disease.
  • Heart attack: Serious and often fatal acute heart condition
  • Heart block: Failure of the heart's normal rhythm controls leading to arrhythmia
  • Heart disease: Any of various heart conditions.
  • Heart failure: Slow failure of the heart (cardiac insufficiency).
  • Heart symptoms: Symptoms affecting the heart
  • High Cholesterol: High levels of blood cholesterol, triglycerides, or other lipids.
  • Hutchinson Gilford Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by alopecia and senile-like appearance.
  • Hypercholesterolemia due to LDL receptor deficiency: A disorder involving a defect in the protein (LDL receptor) that allows cholesterol to be transported to where it can be used means that it builds up in the blood and blood vessels where it can cause problems.
  • Hypercholesterolemia due to arg3500 mutation of Apo B-100: A rare disorder where a defect in the protein that transports cholesterol (apolipoprotein B-100) means that it builds up in the blood and blood vessels where it can cause problems.
  • Hypercholesterolemia, autosomal dominant: A dominantly inherited disorder of cholesterol metabolism which causes premature coronary artery disease.
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia: Excessive homocysteine levels in blood. It is often associated with folate or cobalamin deficiency as well as genetic defects. Severity of symptoms is determined by how high the homocysteine levels are. Sufferers are generally asymptomatic until the onset of premature arterial disease later in life. Other symptoms such as mental retardation only occur in severe cases where the homocysteine levels are extremely high.
  • Hypertension: High blood pressure
  • Hypoalphalipoproteinemia (generic term): Inherited low plasma HDL cholesterol level.
  • Hypoalphalipoproteinemia, primary: Low level of plasma HDL cholesterol that runs in the family.
  • Impotence: Inability to attain or sustain an erection.
  • Intermittent Claudication: Calf muscle pain from walking
  • Ischemia: Inadequate blood supply to tissues, usually caused by a problem in the blood vessel.
  • Leg symptoms: Symptoms affecting the leg
  • Leriche syndrome: A rare syndrome caused by a blockage in the terminal aorta which supplies blood to the lower part of the body.
  • No symptoms: The absence of noticable symptoms.
  • Obesity: An increase in the body weight greater than that required for normal function that is characterised by the accumulation of excessive fat
  • Peripheral vascular disease: Disease of arteries supplying the legs or sometimes arms
  • Physical inactivity: When an individual is physically inactive
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder that affects approximately 5% of all women.
  • Polygenic diseases: Any diseases that are caused by conditions that affect several different genes
  • Premature aging: Where the aging processes of the body occur earlier than normal.
  • Progeria: A rare fatal genetic disorder characterized by extremely premature aging.
  • Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, forme fruste: An inherited systemic disease of connective tissue involving progressive calcification and degeneration of elastic fibers throughout the body, including the skin, eyes and cardiovascular system.
  • Raynaud's phenomenon: Blood vessel constriction attacks affecting fingers and/or toes.
  • Renal Artery Stenosis: An abnormal narrowing of the renal artery which is the main artery the supplies the kidney.
  • Renal infarction: The death of an area of tissue in the kidney due to a localized lack of oxygen. Usually results from an interruption in the blood supply. The severity of the symptoms depends on how large the affected part of the kidney is. Small infarcts can produce virtually no symptoms. The condition is relatively uncommon and frequently misdiagnosed.
  • Scleroderma: A rare, progressive connective tissue disorder involving thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissue. There are a number of forms of scleroderma with some forms being systemic (involving internal organs).
  • Senior health conditions: Medical conditions affecting seniors, male or female.
  • Smoking: The smoking of cigarettes
  • Stroke: Serious brain event from bleeding or blood clots.
  • Stroke symptoms: Brain-related symptoms of bleeding or blockage.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Hemolytic Anemia, Susceptibility to, 1: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE and hemolytic anemia - the anemia often occurs months or even years before symptoms of SLE develop. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 11q14.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Nephritis, Susceptibility to, 1: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE and nephritis. More than half of SLE patients will develop nephritis. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10q22.3.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Vitiligo, Susceptibility to, 1: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE and vitiligo. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 17p13.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 1: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q41.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 10: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 10 is linked to a defect on chromosome 7q32.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 11: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 11 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q32.2-q32.3.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 12: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 12 is linked to a defect on chromosome 8p23.1.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 13: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 13 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6p23.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 2: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q37.3.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 3: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 4p16-p15.2.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 4: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 12q24.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 5: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 13q32.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 6: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 6 is linked to a defect on chromosome 16p11.2.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 7: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 7 is linked to a defect on chromosome 20p12.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 8: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 8 is linked to a defect on chromosome 20q13.1.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 9: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 9 is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q32.
  • Systemic disorders: Any condition that occurs in a system of the body
  • Thromboembolism: Lodgement of a blood clot causing blockage
  • Transient Ischemic Attack: Temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that persists, by definition, for less than 24 hours.
  • Transient ischaemic attack:
  • Under-diagnosed conditions: Any medical condition that is undiagnosed
  • Wagener syndrome: A disorder involving the association of hypertension, arteriosclerosis, thickened heart muscle and severe neuroretinitis.
  • Werner syndrome: A form of premature aging where sufferers start aging during adolescence or soon after and appear old by the time they reach their 30's or 40's. Milder forms of the condition may also occur.
  • Xanthoma: Fatty deposits under the skin causing yellow bumps

 

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