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Glossary for Autoimmune thyroid diseases

  • Autoimmune diseases: A group of disorders in which the primary cause is the an inflammatory reaction caused by the body's own immune system attacking tissues
  • Endocrine system conditions: Medical conditions affecting the endocrine systems, such as the related hormones or glands.
  • Graves Disease: is an autoimmune disease characterized by hyperthyroidism due to circulating autoantibodies. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs) bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors, causing the thyroid gland to grow and the thyroid follicles to increase synthesis of thyroid hormone.
  • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Hashimoto thyroiditis is characterized by the destruction of thyroid cells by various cell- and antibody-mediated immune processes. Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis have antibodies to various thyroid antigens, the most frequently detected of which include antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg), and, to a lesser extent, TSH receptor-blocking antibodies.
  • Heat sensitivity: Feeling warm or sensitivity to the heat
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Immune disorders: Disorders that affect the immune system
  • Insomnia: Insomnia is defined as repeated difficulty with the initiation, duration, maintenance, or quality of sleep that occurs despite adequate time and opportunity for sleep that results in some form of daytime impairment.
  • Irritability: Excessive feelings of annoyance or frustration.
  • Nervousness: Nervous or overly anxious mental state
  • Polyendocrine deficiency syndrome: A condition where more than one endocrine gland fails to function normally in terms of production of hormones. Symptoms can vary depending on the glands involved and the severity of the gland dysfunction.
  • Polyendocrine deficiency syndrome type 2: Multi-endocrine syndrome usually affecting young adults.
  • Subacute Thyroiditis: A self-limiting, virally induced inflammation of the thyroid characterised by a febrile illness and swelling of the thyroid, with subsequent damage to the thyroid tissue causing leakage of thyroid hormones into the circulation
  • Thyroid disorders: Any disorder of the thyroid gland.
  • Weight loss: Loss of body weight.

 

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