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Article title: Alcohol What You Don't Know Can Harm You: NIAAA
Conditions: Alcohol Abuse, fetal alcohol syndrome, pancreatitis, alcoholic liver disease, Alcoholic cirrhosis, cirrhosis, heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, esophagus cancer, mouth cancer, throat cancer, larynx cancer, colorectal cancer
*Beer ranges considerably in its alcohol content,
with malt liquor being higher in its alcohol content
than most other brewed beverages.
Drinking and Driving
It may surprise you to learn that you don't need to drink much alcohol before your ability to drive becomes impaired. For example, certain driving skills--such as steering a car while, at the same time, responding to changes in traffic--can be impaired by blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) as low as 0.02 percent. (The BAC refers to the amount of alcohol in the blood.) A 160-pound man will have a BAC of about 0.04 percent 1 hour after consuming two 12-ounce beers or two other standard drinks on an empty stomach (see the box, "What Is a Drink?"). And the more alcohol you consume, the more impaired your driving skills will be. Although most States set the BAC limit for adults who drive after drinking at 0.08 to 0.10 percent, impairment of driving skills begins at much lower levels.
Interactions With Medications
Alcohol interacts negatively with more than 150 medications. For example, if you are taking antihistamines for a cold or allergy and drink alcohol, the alcohol will increase the drowsiness that the medication alone can cause, making driving or operating machinery even more hazardous. And if you are taking large doses of the painkiller acetaminophen and drinking alcohol, you are risking serious liver damage. Check with your doctor or pharmacist before drinking any amount of alcohol if you are taking any over-the-counter or prescription medications.
The more heavily you drink, the greater the potential for problems at home, at work, with friends, and even with strangers. These problems may include:
Alcohol-Related Birth Defects
If you are a pregnant woman or one who is trying to conceive, you can prevent alcohol-related birth defects by not drinking alcohol during your pregnancy. Alcohol can cause a range of birth defects, the most serious being fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Children born with alcohol-related birth defects can have lifelong learning and behavior problems. Those born with FAS have physical abnormalities, mental impairment, and behavior problems. Because scientists do not know exactly how much alcohol it takes to cause alcohol-related birth defects, it is best not to drink any alcohol during this time.
Long-Term Health Problems
Some problems, like those mentioned above, can occur after drinking over a relatively short period of time. But other problems--such as liver disease, heart disease, certain forms of cancer, and pancreatitis--often develop more gradually and may become evident only after long-term heavy drinking. Women may develop alcohol-related health problems after consuming less alcohol than men do over a shorter period of time. Because alcohol affects many organs in the body, long-term heavy drinking puts you at risk for developing serious health problems, some of which are described below.
Alcohol-related liver disease. More than 2 million Americans suffer from alcohol-related liver disease. Some drinkers develop alcoholic hepatitis, or inflammation of the liver, as a result of long-term heavy drinking. Its symptoms include fever, jaundice (abnormal yellowing of the skin, eyeballs, and urine), and abdominal pain. Alcoholic hepatitis can cause death if drinking continues. If drinking stops, this condition often is reversible. About 10 to 20 percent of heavy drinkers develop alcoholic cirrhosis, or scarring of the liver. Alcoholic cirrhosis can cause death if drinking continues. Although cirrhosis is not reversible, if drinking stops, one's chances of survival improve considerably. Those with cirrhosis often feel better, and the functioning of their liver may improve, if they stop drinking. Although liver transplantation may be needed as a last resort, many people with cirrhosis who abstain from alcohol may never need liver transplantation. In addition, treatment for the complications of cirrhosis is available.
Heart disease.Moderate drinking can have beneficial effects on the heart, especially among those at greatest risk for heart attacks, such as men over the age of 45 and women after menopause. But long-term heavy drinking increases the risk for high blood pressure, heart disease, and some kinds of stroke.
Cancer. Long-term heavy drinking increases the risk of developing certain forms of cancer, especially cancer of the esophagus, mouth, throat, and voice box. Women are at slightly increased risk of developing breast cancer if they drink two or more drinks per day. Drinking may also increase the risk for developing cancer of the colon and rectum.
Pancreatitis. The pancreas helps to regulate the body's blood sugar levels by producing insulin. The pancreas also has a role in digesting the food we eat. Long-term heavy drinking can lead to pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas. This condition is associated with severe abdominal pain and weight loss and can be fatal.
If you or someone you know has been drinking heavily, there is a risk of developing serious health problems. Because some of these health problems are both reversible and treatable, it is important to see your doctor for help. Your doctor will be able to advise you about both your health and your drinking.
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institutes of Health, supports about 90 percent of the Nation's research on alcohol use and related consequences. Through this research, NIAAA and the researchers it supports make an implicit promise--that alcohol research will yield practical applications that will help those who suffer as a result of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Today, alcohol researchers are working on the cutting edge of medical science to answer questions such as:
Each new discovery made by alcohol researchers provides a piece of the answer to the ages old question of how to prevent and treat the alcohol-related troubles that plague individuals, families, and society. We see the future of alcohol research both as a challenge and as a reward: A challenge, because with more answers come more questions, and we still have far to go. A reward, because the answers we find ultimately will help diminish a public health threat that has existed for far too long.
If you or someone you know needs help or more information, contact:
Makes referrals to local Al-Anon groups, which are support groups for spouses and other significant adults in an alcoholic person's life. Also makes referrals to Alateen groups, which offer support to children of alcoholics.
Makes referrals to local AA groups and provides informational materials on the AA program. Many cities and towns also have a local AA office listed in the telephone book.
Provides telephone numbers of local NCADD affiliates (who can provide information on local treatment resources) and educational materials on alcoholism via the above toll-free number.
Makes available free publications on all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Many are available in Spanish. Call, write, or search the World Wide Web site for a list of publications and ordering information.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
National Institutes of Health
NIH Publication No. 99-4323
Updated: November 2001
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse
and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
6000 Executive Boulevard - Willco Building
Bethesda, Maryland 20892-7003
Please send comments or suggestions to the http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/please.htm.
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