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Diseases » Benign tumor » Glossary
 

Glossary for Benign tumor

  • Abdominal Neoplasms: A tumor that occurs in the abdomen.
  • Abdominal chemodectomas with cutaneous angiolipomas: A rare genetic condition involving the growth of a tumor-like mass of lymphatic tissue in the abdomen.
  • Abeshouse's triad: A congenital anomaly involving the development of benign cysts in the adrenal gland.
  • Abrikosov's tumor: A rare condition characterized by superficial, usually benign, slow-growing tumors occurring mostly on oral and genital tract tissue.
  • Acanthoma: A rare type of skin tumor that may be benign or malignant. The symptoms are determined by the location, size and aggressiveness of the tumor.
  • Acoustic Neurinoma: A benign tumor of the 8th cranial nerve which lies in the tube connecting the inner ear to the brain.
  • Acoustic neuroma: A benign tumor of the 8th cranial nerve which lies in the tube connecting the inner ear to the brain.
  • Acromegaly due to growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma: Pituitary adenomas are benign monoclonal neoplasms of the anterior pituitary gland, accounting for approximately 15% of intracranial tumors.
  • Acrospiroma: A tumor that develops in the ends of sweat glands in the skin. They are usually benign.
  • Adenoma: General term for a benign tumor of a gland
  • Adenoma, Islet Cell: A pancreatic tumor which may be benign or malignant. Symptoms may vary depending on the location and size of the tumor as well as whether the tumor secretes hormones or not. For example, the tumor may block the biliary duct.
  • Adenomatous Polyposis of the Colon, autosomal dominant: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous. The condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and occurs in a familial pattern. Most patients have at least one parent with the condition.
  • Adnexal and Skin Appendage Neoplasms: A type of tumour that develops on particular organs - eyes, skin and uterus. The tumors are usually benign but some may become malignant. The symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor and whether it is benign or malignant. These type of tumors tend to be most common in middle-aged women.
  • Adult low grade infiltrative supratentorial Astrocytoma: A type of brain cancer that occurs in the supratentorial region of the brain of adults and is relatively non-aggressive.
  • Aggressive fibromatosis: A rare type of tumor which is locally invasive but not malignant. Symptoms will vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor and also whether it compresses adjacent structures.
  • Aggressive fibromatosis -- parapharyngeal space: A type of tumor that occur near in the space around the pharynx and is locally invasive but not malignant. They tend to occur mainly in the head and neck region and symptoms depend on the exact location and aggressiveness of the tumor. Tumors often reoccur after surgical removal which then requires further treatment with radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Ameloblastoma: A very rare disorder involving the jaw and sinuses. Cyts or tumors which may be malignant form in the jaw, sinus, nose or eye socket areas.
  • Ancell's syndrome: A rare condition characterized by the development of multiple little tumors on various parts of the body that grow hair. The tumors originate mainly from the sweat and scent producing glands. The growths occur mainly on the scalp and neck. Tumors close together may merge and ulcerate or become infected. The tumors usually start after the first decade and continue to grow slowly in size and number. In rare severe cases, the cylindromas may be the size of fists.
  • Aneurysmal bone cysts: A benign tumor-like lump in the bone. Most frequently occurs in the spine and longer bones of the body.
  • Angiofollicular ganglionic hyperplasia: A rare disorder characterized by a localized overgrowth of lymph node tissue which can form a benign tumor-like growth. The symptoms are determined by the location and number of growths. There are two types of the disease: hyaline-vascular type or the plasma cell type which tends to have more severe symptoms.
  • Angiofollicular ganglionic hyperplasia -- hyaline-vascular type: A rare disorder characterized by a localized overgrowth of lymph node tissue which can form a benign tumor-like growth. There are two types of the disease: hyaline-vascular type or the plasma cell type which tends to have more severe symptoms. The hyaline-vascular type is usually asymptomatic but symptoms can be determined by the location and number of growths and the effect it can have on nearby tissue by pushing against it - e.g. squashing blood vessels.
  • Angiofollicular ganglionic hyperplasia -- plasma cell type: A rare disorder characterized by a localized overgrowth of lymph node tissue which can form a benign tumor-like growth. There are two types of the disease: hyaline-vascular type or the plasma cell type which tends to have more severe symptoms. The plasma-cell type tends to involve systemic symptoms such as fever and weight loss due to the destruction of red blood cells.
  • Angiofollicular lymph hyperplasia: A rare disorder of the lymph system characterized by the development of benign tumors in lymph tissue anywhere in the body.
  • Angioma: Clump of blood or lymph vessels usually in the skin
  • Angioma hereditary neurocutaneous: A rare genetic condition characterized angiomas involving both the skin and nervous system.
  • Angiomyolipoma: A rare, benign growth that usually occurs in the kidney. It is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes large or starts bleeding. It is usually associated with tuberous sclerosis.
  • Angiomyomatous Hamartoma: A type of tumor that originates from blood vessel tissue. It is a rare type of tumor that tends to occur most often in lymph nodes in the inguinal (lower abdominal and groin) area.
  • Aplasia cutis congenita -- epibulbar dermoids: A very rare syndrome characterized by increased skin pigmentation, a localized absence of skin (aplasia cutis congenital) and epibulbar dermoids (a benign eye tumor).
  • Appendiceal tumor: A tumor of the appendix. The condition is often misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis. The cancer usually metastasizes from other sites and rarely starts in the appendix.
  • Atrial myxoma, familial: An atrial myxoma benign tumor that develops in the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart. The familial form of the condition also involves tumors in other parts of the body such as the skin, both heart atria or the heart ventricles.
  • Attenuated familial polyposis: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous. The attenuated form of the condition is distinguished by the development of polyps in old age rather than during the first decades of life.
  • BANF acoustic neurinoma: A type of tumor that affects hearing and is associated with a condition called BANF (bilateral acoustic neurofibromatosis). The tumor is benign an occurs in the cells that form the myelin sheath of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The symptoms vary depending on the size and exact location of the nerve. The tumor may become large enough to compress against various cranial nerves or even the brainstem.
  • Back tumour: The presence of tumour growth in the vertebra, whether due to primary malignancies e.g. leukaemic or myeloma infiltration of the bone marrow, or due to secondary metastases from another site e.g. lung or breast.
  • Bannayan-Zonana syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by macrocephaly, intestinal polyposis, pigmentation of penis and benign tumor-like growths.
  • Benign astrocytoma: Benign tumors that occur in the brain or spinal cord. Symptoms and severity depends on the location and size of the tumors.
  • Benign lung Tumor: Benign lung tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplastic lesions originating from pulmonary structures.
  • Benign lymphoma: A lymphatic tumor which is not cancerous. There are usually no symptoms other than a lump at the site of the lymphoma.
  • Benign tumor: A tumor or growth that remains localized; not always harmless.
  • Bessel-Hagen disease: A dominantly inherited disorder characterized by growth of multiple tumors made up of cartilage on the bones.
  • Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome: A rare inherited disorder that affects the skin and results in an increased risk of certain skin tumors called fibrofolliculomas which are benign.
  • Blastoma: A type of tumor that originates from precursor cells or blasts (immature or embryonic tissue). The symptoms can vary greatly and are determined by the part of the body that is affected. Blastomas can occur in parts of the body such as the brain, liver, kidneys, nervous system, bones and the retina.
  • Bowenoid Papulosis: Benign reddish-brown papules occurring primary in the genetalia believed to be viral in origin.
  • Brain Stem Glioma: Tumor of the brain stem consisting of neuroglia of many stages of development.
  • Brain Stem Neoplasms: A brain stem tumor. The tumor may be malignant or benign and the severity of the condition is determined by the size of the tumor and exact location.
  • Brain tumor, adult: A growth or tumor that develops in the tissues of the brain in adults. The tumor can be benign or malignant.
  • Breast Duct Papilloma: Benign tumour of the collecting duct of the breast.
  • Breast fibroadenoma: Benign tumour of the breast characterized by glandular and stromal elements.
  • Brenner tumor: A benign ovarian tumor
  • Brenner tumor of the vagina: A Brenner tumour usually occurs in the ovaries but can sometimes occur in the vagina. The tumor is generally benign.
  • Bristowe's syndrome: Symptoms caused by a brain tumor that develops in the corpus callosum which connects the two brain hemispheres.
  • Bronchial adenomata syndrome: A type of bronchial tumor that causes various respiratory symptoms.
  • Brooke-Fordyce trichoepitheliomas: A rare condition characterized by the development of multiple little tumors on the nasolabial area. Tumors close together may merge and ulcerate or become infected. The tumors usually start after the first decade and continue to grow slowly in size and number.
  • Buschke-Lowenstein Tumor: A low grade wart-like tumor believed to be caused by HPV (human papilloma virus) infections. The tumor is occurs in the genital area and there is still some contention about whether the tumor is benign or borderline cancerous.
  • Cancer: Abnormal overgrowth of body cells.
  • Carcinoid: A carcinoid tumor is a type of neuroendocrine tumor which tends to occur in the lungs or gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Carcinoid of Gastrointestinal Tract: Carcinoid tumor in the digestive tract.
  • Carcinomatous polyneuropathy: It is a condition which damages nerves by directly invading or putting pressure on them or by triggering an autoimmune reaction.
  • Carney syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by spotty pigmentation on the skin and the development of multiple benign tumors (myxoma) that can occur just about anywhere in the body but mainly in the skin, breast and heart and endocrine glands such as the thyroid and pituitary gland. The symptoms are highly variable depending on the location, size and number of tumors. Endocrine gland tumors can affect hormone production and hence result in a range of symptoms.
  • Carotid Paraganglioma: A rare, usually benign tumor found in the carotid artery in the neck. The tumor develops from glomus cells which are located along blood vessels involved in automatic body activities such as regulation of blood pressure and blood flow.
  • Cartilaginous neoplasms: Tumors made up of cartilage tissue. The tumors may be benign or malignant and the symptoms will depend on the location and size of the tumors. The tumors can form on parts of the body such as the arm and leg bones or even in the pharynx. The tumors may cause no symptoms in some cases and are only discovered incidentally.
  • Chloroma: A rare type of tumor that develops from myeloid cells (type of immature white blood cell) and tends to usually have a greenish color. The tumor is essentially a localized solid collection of leukemic cells that occurs outside the bone marrow. It can occur in many parts of the body such as the chest, vertebrae, pelvis, skin, lymph nodes and parts of the skull. On rare occasions, it can occur in various organs such as the heart and brain. The tumor can occur as a primary condition or may be associated with cancerous conditions such as acute leukemia and acute promyelocytic leukemia. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Chondroblastoma (benign): A rare benign bone tumor that usually forms in the ends of long bones such as the leg bones.
  • Chondroma: A type of tumor that develops from cartilage tissue. The can occur on any part of the bone: enchondromas form inside the bone marrow and periosteal chondromas form on the surface of the bone.
  • Chondromatosis (benign): Benign cartilage growths that can occur in various parts of the body. Symptoms are determined by the size and exact location of the growth. For example, a spinal chondroma can result in compression of the spinal cord.
  • Colloid cysts of third ventricle: A rare type of benign brain tumor. In rare cases the tumor can obstruct the flow of fluid in the brain and cause hydrocephalus (buildup of fluid in the brain). Untreated hydrocephalus can lead to death.
  • Colorectal adenomatous polyposis, recessive: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous.
  • Congenital generalized fibromatosis: A rare disorder where a number of noncancerous tumors form just about any part of the body.
  • Congenital mesoblastic nephroma: A benign congenital kidney tumor.
  • Costello syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by papillomas which may become malignant.
  • Cowden's syndrome: A rare hereditary condition characterized by multiple noncancerous nodules called hamartomas. Sufferers also face an increased risk of particular cancers.
  • Craniosynostosis exostoses nevus epibulbar dermoid: A rare syndrome characterized by the premature fusion of skull bones, excessive bone growth (hyperostosis), epibulbar dermoids (benign eye tumor) and a skin disorder (linear verrucous epidermal nevus). Patients with this condition need to avoid using aminoglycosides as they can have a negative impact on hearing.
  • Cystic hamartoma of lung and kidney: A very rare condition characterized mainly by benign cysts in the lungs and kidneys.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes: A rare type of breast cancer that may be benign or malignant. The tumor is usually benign and tends to grow quickly and to a large size. Metastasis often involves the lungs with the skeleton, heart and liver also being common sites.
  • Dental tissue neoplasm: A tumor that develops from tissues inside the mouth that form the teeth. There are a number of types of tumors that can develop from tooth forming tissues: ameloblastoma, Pindorg tumor, cementoblastoma and many others. The tumor may be benign or malignant but can cause dental problems even if it is benign.
  • Dermoid cyst: Benign cystic tumor often containing skin, hair, and other tissue
  • Desmoid disease, hereditary: A rare inherited disorder characterized by the development of benign growths called desmoid tumors or fibromatoses. The growth usually occurs in the abdomen but can occur in the neck, chest, arms and legs. Symptoms vary depending on the size and location of the growths. Even thought the growths are benign the can cause localized damage and obstruction. The condition can stabilize or become progressively worse and ultimately lead to death. The tumors often develop after some sort of trauma such as abdominal surgery or childbirth.
  • Desmoid tumor: Benign tumors that occur in soft tissue and often develop in tendons, ligaments and tend to occur in the arms, legs and abdomen. The tumors are quite aggressive in that they are difficult to get rid of an though they aren't malignant, they can spread to surrounding tissue.
  • Diffuse leiomyomatosis with Alport syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by multiple tumors (in the esophagus, female genitals, trachea and bronchus) and Alport syndrome which involves progressive kidney dysfunction.
  • Dupuytren subungual exostosis: A benign form of slow-growing tumor that develops on the surface of the bones under the nails. The cause of the condition is unknown and it tends to occur in children and young adults. The big toe is the most common digit affected.
  • EAF: A very rare type of tumor that occurs in the sinus and nasal tracts and upper respiratory system.
  • Eccrine acrospiroma: A rare type of benign sweat gland tumor. The tumor usually occurs as a single skin nodule. The tumor can occur anywhere on the body but is most common in the head, neck, arms and legs.
  • Ectopic ACTH Syndrome: A tumour arising in the body which releases excess quantities of ACTH
  • Elephant man in context of NF: A rare disorder where a limb becomes enlarged due to neurofibromatosis of the skin and the tissue under it. Neurofibromatosis is a disorder involving the development of benign nerve and skin tumors. When large areas of nerves are affected in one limb then the limb becomes enlarged.
  • Enchondromatosis (benign): Benign cartilage growths that develop inside bones.
  • Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST's) in Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) disease: A tumor that develops in the endolymph sacs which are structures inside the ear. These tumors occur predominantly in patients suffering from Von Hippel Landau disease. The tumors don't metastasize.
  • Eosinophilic granuloma: A fairly benign form of bone tumor.
  • Ependymoma: A tumor that occurs in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Symptoms vary according to the aggressiveness, size and exact location of the tumor.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma: A rare type of tumor that occurs in the upper nasal cavity. The tumor may obstruct one or both nostrils.
  • Exostoses: Development of non-cancerous bony growths on bones. Pain can result depending on the size and location of the growth.
  • Exostoses -- anetodermia -- brachydactyly type E: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by bone growths, a skin disorder and short foot bones.
  • Exostoses, multiple: A rare genetic disorder characterized mainly by limb deformities and other skeletal abnormalities caused primarily by a disorder of the bone growth plates.
  • Exostoses, multiple, type 1: Multiple extoses is a rare condition involving abnormal bone growths that occurs on bones. Type I differs from type II and III in the location of the genetic defect that causes the disorder. Type I tends to involve more bone growths and shorter arm and leg bones.
  • Exostoses, multiple, type 3: Multiple extoses is a rare condition involving abnormal bone growths that occurs on bones. Type II differs from type I and III in the location of the genetic defect that causes the disorder. Type I tends to be less severe than type I.
  • Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor: A rare form of cancer that originates in germ cells that are found in areas such as the brain, chest, tailbone or abdomen rather than the ovaries or testicles. Germ cells are the precursors for male sperm and female eggs. The symptoms are determined by the location and size of the tumor.
  • Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue: A rare type of cancer where the B cells (a type of white blood cell) in lymph tissue associated with mucosa begin to proliferate. The cancer can affect any mucosal membrane tissue but is most common in the gastric mucosal membranes. Symptoms may vary considerable depending on the stage and location of the cancer.
  • Familial Intestinal Polyposis: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous.
  • Familial Multiple Polyposis: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous.
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis, autosomal dominant: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous. The condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and occurs in a familial pattern. Most patients have at least one parent with the condition.
  • Familial cylindromatosis: A rare familial condition characterized by the development of multiple little tumors on various parts of the body that grow hair. The tumors originate mainly from the sweat and scent producing glands. The growths occur mainly on the head and neck. Tumors close together may merge and ulcerate or become infected. The tumors usually start after the first decade and continue to grow slowly in size and number. In rare severe cases, the cylindromas may be the size of fists.
  • Familial multiple trichodiscomas: A familial condition involving the development of multiple benign tumors in the hair discs. Dome-shaped, skin-colored papules form on various parts of the body including the head, neck, chest, arms and back.
  • Familial polyposis -- classical: An inherited condition where polyps develop in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The polyps are initially benign but may become malignant if untreated.
  • Familial polyposis, autosomal recessive: An inherited condition where polyps develop in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The polyps are initially benign but may become malignant if untreated. The autosomal recessive form of this condition is characterized by fewer polyps than in other forms (less than 100) and is due to mutations in a different gene.
  • Fanconi like syndrome: A rare condition characterized by a poor immune system, skin tumors and a reduced number of all type of blood cells.
  • Fibroadenoma: Benign tumor containing fibrous tissues and glands (common in breasts)
  • Fibroma: A tumour that is comprised mainly of fibrous connective tissue
  • Fibromatosis: A benign soft tissue tumor. The tumors can vary greatly in size and can cause pain.
  • Fistulous vegetative verrucous hydradenoma: A rare benign tumor-like skin growth that arises from sweat glands. The disorder may present as a hairless patch on the scalp or a skin nodule on the trunk. The disorder may be present at birth or may occur during infancy, puberty or adulthood.
  • Follicular hamartoma -- alopecia -- cystic fibrosis: A rare syndrome characterized by small benign growths that develop in hair follicles, alopecia and cystic fibrosis.
  • Forbes-Albright syndrome: A rare condition where a hormone secreting pituitary or hypothalamic tumor causes galactorrhea and amenorrhea.
  • Ganglioglioma: A type of tumor that develops in the central nervous system. The tumor originates from glial and nerve cells. The tumor may grow rapidly and symptom will vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Gastrinoma: Rare tumors secreting the digestive hormone gastrin.
  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Cancer that develops from stroma cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The primary locations are the small intestine, esophagus and esophagus with symptoms being determined by the location, stage and size of the tumor.
  • Gastrointestinal neoplasm: A growth or excessive proliferation of cells in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract which includes the esophagus, intestine, pharynx and stomach. The growth may be benign or malignant. The symptoms are determined by the size, location and stage of the tumor.
  • Genochondromatosis: A rare condition characterized by the formation of multiple bone lesions called chondromas in long tubular bones. A chondroma is a benign cartilage growth. The lesions tend to develop in bones such as the upper arm bone (upper end), thigh bone (lower end) and the collar bone.
  • Genochondromatosis II: A rare condition characterized by the formation of multiple bone lesions called chondromas. A chondroma is a benign cartilage growth. In type II, the lesions tend to occur in the short tubular bones and the collarbones aren't involved. The condition is usually benign and the anomaly is only detected incidentally.
  • Giant cell tumor: Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a rare, aggressive non-cancerous (benign) tumor.
  • Glaucoma in Intra ocular tumours: Intraocular tumors are rare causes of glaucoma. The tumor may not be directly visible in many instances, and different methods of indirect visualization may need to be used.
  • Glioma: A rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Glioma Susceptibility: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. There have been at least 8 genetic defects linked to an increased glioma susceptibility.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 1: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 3p25.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 2: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 10q23.31.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 3: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 13q12.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 4: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 15q23-q26.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 5: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 9p21.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 6: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 20q13.33.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 7: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 7 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 8q24.21.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 8: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 8 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 5p15.33.
  • Glomus tympanicum: A rare, usually benign tumor found behind the ear drum. The tumor develops from glomus cells which are located along blood vessels involved in automatic body activities such as regulation of blood pressure and blood flow.
  • Glomus vagale tumors: A rare, usually benign tumor that tends to occur mainly in the skin and soft tissues of lower parts of limbs and under the nails but may also rarely occur in other parts of the body including organs. Symptoms depend on the location, size and malignancy of the tumor.
  • Good syndrome: A rare condition characterized by low immunity (due to reduced number of B cells) and thymoma.
  • Hand-Schuller-Christian Syndrome: A group of blood disorder involving excess production of histiocytes (type of immune cell) throughout the body. Accumulation of histiocytes results in non-cancerous growths which can damage organs and other body tissues such as bones. Symptom vary hugely and depend on location and size of tumor growths.
  • Heart defect, tongue hamartoma and polysyndactyly: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by webbed fingers, congenital heart defects and tongue tumors.
  • Hemangioblastoma: A benign tumor that tends to occur in the central nervous system such as the brain and spinal cord. The tumor arises from the stem cells that develop into blood vessels or blood cells (hemangioblasts). Symptoms vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Hemangioendothelioma: A rare type of blood vessel tumor that can occur anywhere in the body but is most often found in the skin, liver and spleen. Symptoms vary according to the exact location.
  • Hemangioma: A condition which is characterized by a benign tumour cause by newly formed blood vessels
  • Hemangiopericytoma: A slow growing tumor that develops in deep soft tissues an tends to occur mainly in the abdomen (pelvic retroperitoneum specifically), hips, shoulders, upper arms and upper legs.
  • Hepatic cystic hamartoma: A cystic liver tumor.
  • Hepatoma: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver.
  • Hereditary Polyposis Coli: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous.
  • Hereditary keratoacanthoma: A relatively common benign form of skin tumor which is inherited. The tend to occur on the head but can occur on other parts of the body. The condition often resolves on its own after a number of years but usually leaves a pitted scar. Treatment can speed up the process and the final aesthetic result.
  • Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer: A rare disorder characterized by the inherited predisposition to develop colorectal cancer as well as cancers in other locations, particularly near the bowel. Even though sufferers face an increased risk of various cancers it does not mean that they will actually develop the cancer.
  • Histiocytoma, angiomatoid fibrous: A variant form of malignant fibrous histiocytoma which is characterized by the development of nodules under the skin. It is a rare soft tissue tumor that occurs mainly on the trunk or limbs and is considered a low-grade malignancy. The exact symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor and how it affects surrounding blood vessels, nerves etc.
  • Hochenegg ulcer: A rare, firm type of rectal tumor which is ulcerated in the middle.
  • Hyperprolactinemia: High levels of prolactin in the blood.
  • Hypothalamic hamartomas: A benign congenital tumor that develops on or near the hypothalamus.
  • Infantile myofibromatosis: A benign fibrous tumor that usually occurs in children or infants. The tumor is not cancerous but the location and size of the tumor can cause problems and even death in some cases if certain organs are involved. Tumors can occur in the skin, muscle, internal organs and bone.
  • Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors: A rare tumor that tends to occur mainly in the soft tissue and internal body organs. The more common specific locations are soft tissue, mediastinum, pancreas, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, mouth, skin, breast, nerve, bone and central nervous system. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the location and size of the tumor.
  • Intracranial germ cell tumour: A brain tumor that arises from germ (sex) cells. This type of tumor tends to occur in patients under the age of 30, usually in the second decade. Symptoms depend on the size, exact location and rate of growth of the tumor.
  • Jones syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by progressive hearing loss and gum tumors.
  • Juvenile angiofibroma: A condition characterized by a benign tumour of the nasopharynx
  • Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma: A type of brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. The tumor is derived from a type of cell called an astrocyte and it can occur in various parts of the brain as well as the optic pathways and the spinal cord. Malignancy is rare. Symptoms may vary depending on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Juvenile polyposis of infancy: A genetic inherited risk of developing gastrointestinal tumors. The condition is characterized by gastrointestinal polyps which have a high risk of eventually becoming malignant. The polyps can cause gastrointestinal symptoms even if they aren't malignant.
  • Juvenile polyposis syndrome: An inherited or sporadic condition characterized by the development of multiple noncancerous polyps in the digestive tract usually by the second decade of life. The polyps are generally noncancerous but there may be an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer. The number and size of polyps and the risk of cancer is variable.
  • Juvenile polyposis syndrome, infantile form: A genetic inherited risk of developing gastrointestinal tumors. The condition is characterized by gastrointestinal polyps which have a high risk of eventually becoming malignant. The polyps can cause gastrointestinal symptoms even if they aren't malignant.
  • Kaposiform hemangio-endothelioma: A rare blood vessel tumor that occur primarily in children. It causes localized damage but is not metastatic. Main sites affected are the retroperitoneum and skin but can also occur in the head and neck area, mediastinum and deep soft tissue of the trunk and limbs. Symptoms and prognosis is determined by the size and location of the tumors.
  • Keratoacanthoma: A benign form of skin tumor that tends to resolve itself with time. Usually the skin lesion grows for about six weeks, remains stable for a variable length of time and then regresses slowly.
  • Lactotroph adenoma: A benign pituitary tumor that secretes excessive prolactin which can affect the functioning of the reproductive system - testes and ovaries. The tumor may also grow large enough to compress adjacent structures such as the eye nerves.
  • Leimyoma: A condition which is characterized by the formation of a benign tumour derived from smooth muscle
  • Leiomyoma: Benign tumour of smooth muscle.
  • Leiomyoma, hereditary multiple, of skin: An inherited disorder involving the development of multiple skin tumors which originate from smooth muscle fibers.
  • Leiomyomatosis familial: A rare syndrome characterized by the development of a number of benign skin tumors that develops from smooth muscle tissue. In familial cases, the condition occurs in several members of a family. Tumors may also occur in other parts of the body.
  • Leiomyomatosis, Esophagogastric and Vulvar: A rare condition where a tumor develops in the esophagus and vulva. The condition appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.
  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by tumor development by young adulthood.
  • Lipoma: Tumor of fat cells usually just under the skin
  • Lipomatous hemangiopericytoma: A rare slow-growing tumor that tends to occur mainly in deep in the thigh or in the retroperitoneum (space between the abdominal organs and the back of the abdominal space). Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor.
  • Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: A usually benign type of tumor that develops in the spleen. The name arises from the fact that the tumor develops from the littoral cells which line the blood vessels in the spleen.
  • Lump: Any type of lump on the skin or body areas
  • Lymph node neoplasm: Lymph node tumor.
  • Lymphadenosis benigna orbitae: A rare disorder involving a tumorous growth in the eye orbit.
  • Lymphangiomas: A form of angioma caused by lymph vessels
  • Lymphoma, Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue: Malignancies that occur in the lymphoid tissue found in mucosal linings (MALT) e.g. gastrointestinal tract, skin and lungs. Symptoms may vary considerably depending on which organs are involved but usually the stomach is involved. A significant portion of patients suffering from MALTomas also have autoimmune diseases.
  • Macrocephaly mesodermal hamartoma spectrum: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by a large head and multiple lipomas and hemangiomas. The severity of the disorder is variable.
  • Mediastinal endodermal sinus tumors: A rare yolk sac tumor that occurs in the mediastinal area (the area that separates the lungs). It is a type of cancer that originates from immature cells (germ cells) that evolve into gonadal tissue but can also be found in other parts of the body such as the chest. The tumors tend to be quite aggressive and often metastasize.
  • Meningioma: A slow-growing tumor of the meninges that is not cancerous. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor.
  • Miescher's trichofolliculoma: A form of benign hair follicle tumor where a bump forms around a hair follicle with wooly hair growing out of the middle.
  • Mucoepidermoid: A mucoepidermoid is a type of cancer which is found primarily in the salivary glands (major and minor) but can be found in other glands such as the tear glands, breast gland and thyroid. The cancer develops from squamous, mucus-secreting and intermediate cells.
  • Multi-centric Castleman's Disease: A rare disorder characterized by a generalized overgrowth of lymph node tissue which forms a tumor-like growth. This form of Castleman's disease is progressive and can be serious.
  • Multiple Hereditary Exostoses: An hereditary condition which is characterized by benign bony growths projecting from a bone surface
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia: A group of conditions that is characterised by the hyperplasia and hyperfunction of two or more glands of the endocrine system
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b: A rare genetic disorder characterized by multiple tongue neuromas and medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 3: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Multiple fibrofolliculoma familial: A rare familial genetic disorder characterized by the development of numerous benign hair follicle tumors.
  • Multiple keratoacanthoma, Ferguson-Smith type: A condition involving the development of a number of skin tumors which are invasive but regress spontaneously to leave only a pitted scar. The skin lesions tend to occur mostly on sun-exposed areas.
  • Mycosis fungoides: Mycosis fungoides is a rare form of T-cell lymphoma of the skin. The disease is typically slowly progressive and chronic.
  • Myoma (fibroid): A benign tumour of the muscle in the wall of the uterus.
  • NAME syndrome: A rare condition characterized by nevi (N), primary heart tumor (A - atrial myxoma), myxoid neurofibromas (M) and freckles (E - ephelides) - possibly the same as LAMB syndrome.
  • Nasopharyngeal teratoma with Dandy-Walker -- diaphragmatic hernia: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a nasopharyngeal tumor, diaphragmatic hernia and the Dandy-Walker anomaly (brain cyst).
  • Nelson syndrome I: A rare condition involving the development of a pituitary tumor that produces excess amounts of a hormone called ACTH.
  • Neurofibroma: A benign tumor that originates from nerve cells. The tumors usually arise from nerves in the skin or just under the skin.
  • Neurofibromatosis: Nerve disorders often leading to tumors on nerves.
  • Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1): Neurofibromatosis Type 1 is a genetic disorder often leading to the development of nerve tumors. The condition is also characterized by skin pigmentation abnormalities.
  • Neurofibromatosis syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant.
  • Neurofibromatosis syndrome Type II: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation, acoustic neuromas and the development of many noncancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant - it is a more severe form of type I neurofibromatosis.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 3A: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant. The skin tumors tend to develop characteristically on the palms of the hands.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 3B: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and intestinal tumors some of which may eventually become malignant.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 6: A rare, dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by the presence of at least 6 café-au-lait spots without the presence of neurofibromas or Lisch nodules typically present in neurofibromatosis.
  • Neurofibromatosis, familial intestinal: A rare type of familial tumor that arises from intestinal nerves.
  • Neurofibromatosis, type 4, of Riccardi: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant.
  • Neurofibromatosis-1: Genetic disorder often leading to tumors on nerves.
  • Neurofibromatosis-2: Genetic disorder often leading to tumors on nerves.
  • Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome: A rare disorder where the patients has symptoms of neurofibromatosis (nerve tumors) and Noonan syndrome (short stature, bleeding problems, heart defect, unusual facial features, skeletal anomalies, webbed neck).
  • Neuroma biliary tract: A benign nerve tumor that occurs in the biliary tract. Often occurs after certain surgeries such as gall bladder removal.
  • Nevi -- atrial myxoma -- myxoid neurofibromata -- ephelides: A very rare syndrome characterized by spotty pigmentation on the skin and the development of multiple benign tumors (myxoma) that can occur just about anywhere in the body but mainly in the skin, breast and heart and endocrine glands such as the thyroid and pituitary gland. The symptoms are highly variable depending on the location, size and number of tumors. Endocrine gland tumors can affect hormone production and hence result in a range of symptoms.
  • Non functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor: A tumor of the pancreas that does not result in an increased hormone production but can cause symptoms when the tumor becomes big enough to push against other structures. The tumor may be malignant or benign.
  • Odontoma: A benign tumor that usually forms at the root of a tooth. It may have genetic origins or may result from some sort of trauma to the tooth.
  • Odontoma -- dysphagia syndrome: A rare disorder characterized mainly by overgrowth of muscle tissue in the esophagus and a benign tumor that usually forms at the root of a tooth.
  • Oncocytoma, renal: A type of benign kidney tumor.
  • Orbit Tumour: Tumour growing in the eye socket (space behind or surrounding the eyeball); may be benign or malignant or due to secondary growth from another malignancy
  • Osteochondroma: A bone development abnormality characterized by the development of a benign bone tumor that occurs on the ends of long bones. Symptoms, if any, are determined by the location and size of the tumor. The tumor can occur singly or in multiples and in rare instances the tumors may become malignant.
  • Osteoid Osteoma: Benign bone tumor usually in long bones
  • Osteoma: Benign bone tumor
  • Ovarian germ cell tumor: Development of cancer in the tissue of the eggs (germ cells) in the ovaries.
  • PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome: PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome is a group of conditions caused by a mutation in the PTEN gene. The primary characteristic of the condition is the development of multiple hamartomas (tumor-like growth) in virtually any part of the body. The growths are generally not cancerous but patients often have an increased risk of developing various cancers. Specific conditions covered by this term are Cowden syndrome, BAnnayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba Syndrome and Proteus syndrome.
  • Pain: A feeling of suffering, agony, distress caused by the stimulation of pain fibres in the nervous system
  • Pancreatic adenoma: A pancreatic tumor which may be benign or malignant. Symptoms may vary depending on the location and size of the tumor as well as whether the tumor secretes hormones or not. For example, the tumor may block the biliary duct.
  • Pancreatic islet cell tumors (functioning tumor): A tumor that arises from the pancreatic islet cells and produces too many hormones.
  • Pancreatic islet cell tumors (non-functioning tumor): A tumor that arises from the pancreatic islet cells and may involve cells that produce excess pancreatic hormones.
  • Pancreatoblastoma: A very rare pancreatic tumor that occurs almost exclusively in children. The tumor can grow large enough to push against and hence obstruct the passage of material in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Papilloma: A benign tumour that is located in the epithelium
  • Papilloma of choroid plexus: A very rare syndrome characterized by the development of papillomas (benign tumor) in the choroids plexus which is the part of the brain the produces cerebrospinal fluid. The papilloma may become malignant.
  • Paraganglioma: A rare, usually benign tumor most often found in the abdomen, chest, head and neck areas. The tumor develops from glomus cells which are located along blood vessels involved in automatic body activities such as regulation of blood pressure and blood flow. Symptoms may vary depending on the exact location of the tumor.
  • Penfield syndrome: A rare disorder where a tumor pushes against the hypothalamus and causes seizures as well as a variety of other symptoms.
  • Peripheral neuroectodermal tumor: A type of tumor that consists of small round cells and occurs in bone or soft tissue in the extremities of the body such as the arms, legs, pelvis or chest wall. Symptoms are determined by the location of the tumor. The tumor may be malignant or benign.
  • Peripheral type neurofibromatosis:
  • Peritoneal leiomyomatosis, disseminated: A rare condition characterized by the development of multiple benign nodules in the peritoneal cavity. The nodules are composed of muscle tissue and may be large or small. The peritoneal cavity refers to the region between the two membranes that separate the abdominal wall from the internal organs. The condition occurs most often in females of reproductive age and mainly during pregnancy.
  • Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by the development of numerous benign nodules on the inside lining of the intestinal wall as well as excess skin pigmentation usually around the lips and inner lining of the mouth.
  • Pheochromocytoma as part of Neurofibromatosis: A tumor that develops in the part of the adrenal gland called the medulla which produces adrenalin and noradrenaline. This tumor is often associated with a condition called neurofibromatosis. The tumor affects automatic body activities such as regulating breathing rate and heartbeat.
  • Phyllodes tumor: Phyllodes tumour are typically large, fast growing masses that form from the periductal stromal cells of the breast. They account for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms.
  • Phyllodes tumor of the prostate: A rare type of tumor that occurs in the prostate. The tumor is usually benign but may become malignant and tends to have a leaf-like appearance.
  • Pilomatrixoma: A slow-growing, benign skin tumor which appears as a hard lump under the skin. The tend to occur mainly in the head and neck area.
  • Pindborg Tumor: A rare type of slow growing, usually benign tumor that tends to develop in tissues associated with teeth. It is often associated with an impacted tooth. The tumor can be quite aggressive locally but rarely becomes malignant or metastasizes. The exact range and nature of the symptoms will vary depending on the location and size of the tumor.
  • Pineal Teratoma: A type of brain tumor that occurs mainly in the pineal region of the brain.
  • Pinealoma: A slow-growing type of brain tumor that occurs in the pineal gland. The pineal gland produces a hormone called melatonin which is involved in regulating sleep patterns.
  • Pituitary tumors, adult: A benign or cancer tumor that develops in the tissue of the pituitary gland in adults. The pituitary gland produces various hormones and some pituitary tumors (functioning tumors) can affect the secretion of one or more of these hormones resulting in a range of symptoms depending on the exact location of the tumor. Some pituitary tumors do not affect hormone production (nonfunctioning tumors).
  • Pleuropulmonary blastoma: A type of tumor that originates from precursor cells or blasts (immature or embryonic tissue) in the lungs or covering of the lungs.
  • Polycystic kidneys, severe infantile, with tuberous sclerosis: A rare genetic disorder characterized by numerous kidney cysts and hamartomas (benign nodules that can occur in the skin or various organs including the brain).
  • Polyposis, Adenomatous Intestinal, autosomal dominant: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous. The condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and occurs in a familial pattern. Most patients have at least one parent with the condition.
  • Poncet-Spiegler's cylindroma: The development of a number of benign tumors on the scalp.
  • Prolactinoma: Benign cancer of the pituitary gland producing prolactin.
  • Prolactinoma, familial: A pituitary tumor that secretes prolactin and occurs in a familial pattern of inheritance. The tumor is benign but can cause symptoms due to high prolactin levels or compression of the optic nerve.
  • Proliferating trichilemmal cyst: A rare form of ulcerating, benign tumor that generally occurs on the back of the head in older women and arises from a hair follicle. Rarely, the growth can occur on other parts of the body.
  • Prostatic Stromal Proliferations of Uncertain Malignant Potential: A rare type of prostate tumor that may or may not be malignant.
  • Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: A rare harmless type of breast tumor.
  • Puretic syndrome: A rare genetic condition characterized by skin tumors and enlarged gums as well as osteopenia and joint contractures. The condition is caused by the accumulation of hyaline in the skin and other tissues.
  • Radiation induced meningioma: A type of brain tumor caused by exposure of the head region to radiation. Radiation is often used to treat a number of conditions, particularly cancer. The tumor can develop years or even decades after the exposure. Symptoms are determined by the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Radiation related neoplasm: Tumors caused by exposure to radiation which is often used to treat various conditions. Usually the tumor develops many years or even decades after the exposure and the tumors tend to occur in the part of the body exposed to the radiation. The tumor can develop in virtually any part of the body and thus the symptoms are highly variable.
  • Reactive angioendotheliomatosis: A rare benign disorder of the blood vessels in the skin involving excessive growth of cells lining the inside of blood vessels. The growths can eventually block of the blood vessel and cause localized tissue death or necrosis. It can be associated with conditions such as systemic infections and dysglobulinemia. The lesions can occur anywhere on the skin and can lead to skin ulceration in serious cases.
  • Rectosigmoid neoplasm: A tumor that originates in the upper rectal area or sigmoid colon. The tumor may be benign or cancerous.
  • Retinal cavernous hemangioma: A rare vascular tumor involving a retinal blood vessel. They are usually harmless and cause no symptoms except on rare occasions where they cause minor bleeding.
  • Rombo syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by hair anomalies and skin problems.
  • Schwannomatosis: A type of tumor that develops from cells in nerve sheaths. Nerves in the head, spin and peripheral nerves may be affected.
  • Scoliosis as part of NF: Spinal curvature associated with a condition called neurofibromatosis. Roughly a quarter of patients with neurofibromatosis will develop scoliosis. Neurofibromatosis is a rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many benign nerve and skin tumors. The scoliosis may become severe enough to affect heart and lung function or may be relatively mild.
  • Segmental neurofibromatosis: A rare genetic disorder involving the development of benign nerve and skin tumors. The tumors are confined to a defined segment of the body such as on one side of the upper back.
  • Seminoma: Cancer of the sperm-producing cells in the testicles. The cancer is not aggressive and tends not to metastasize.
  • Sertoli-leydig cell tumors: A rare form of ovarian cancer where excessive male sex hormones are produced by the cancerous cells.
  • Skin adnexal tumor: Adnexal skin tumors are rare neoplasms that develop from hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands. In the majority of cases these tumors are benign, although metastases have been reported in rare occasion.
  • Spinal Cord Tumor: Cancer of the spinal cord or central nervous system.
  • Spinal cord neoplasm: A growth (tumor) that arises from the spinal cord. The tumor may be benign or malignant.
  • Spleen neoplasm: A tumor that originates in the spleen.
  • Subependymoma: A tumor that develops from subependymal cells which line the central nervous system cavities and the walls of the ventricles of the brain. Symptoms may vary depending on the exact size and location of the tumor.
  • Swelling symptoms: Symptoms causing swelling or enlargement.
  • Syringocystadenoma papilliferum: A benign tumor that usually occurs on the face, neck or scalp. Malignancy and metastasis occurs very rarely. The tumor appears as a plaque, single bump or a row of bumps.
  • Syringomas -- natal teeth -- oligodontia: A very rare syndrome characterized by the presence of teeth at birth, missing teeth and a number of syringomas on the facial area. Syringomas are harmless tumors that form in sweat ducts.
  • Teratoma: A neoplasm made up of different types of tissue
  • Terpin hydrate -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Terpin hydrate during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Thanos-Stewart-Zonana Syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the premature fusion of skull bones, excessive bone growth (hyperostosis), epibulbar dermoids (benign eye tumor) and a skin disorder (linear verrucous epidermal nevus). Patients with this condition need to avoid using aminoglycosides as they can have a negative impact on hearing.
  • Thymic epithelial tumor: A tumor that develops in the outer layers (epithelial) layers of the thymus. The tumor may be malignant or benign. The thymus produces white blood cells.
  • Thymoma: A condition which is characterized by s tumour derived from the epithelial cells of the thymus
  • Trichoepithelioma multiple familial: An inherited skin disorder characterized by a number of small tumors that occur on the face. The number of tumors is variable with most of the face being covered in some cases.
  • Trichofolliculoma: A benign hair tumor which looks like a small lump with a tuft of hair growing out of it. The hair is often white and short. They often occur around the nose area.
  • Tuberous sclerosis: A rare genetic disorder characterized by harmartomatous skin nodules, seizures, phakomata and bone lesions.
  • Tuberous sclerosis, type 1: A rare genetic disorder with a variety of abnormalities such as seizures, mental retardation, skin lesions and nodules in various body tissues and organs.
  • Tuberous sclerosis, type 2: A rare genetic condition characterized by mental and physical retardation, seizures and numerous benign tumors that can occur on the skin or in organs. The severity of symptoms can vary greatly depending on where the tumors occur.
  • Tufted angioma: A rare benign type of blood vessel tumor that usually affects children under the age of five. The appearance often resembles a slow-growing birthmark.
  • Tumor: Any type of lump or swelling (not just cancers)
  • Tumours related to AIDS: It usually occurs due to decreased immunity.
  • Turcot syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by benign growths on the inside of the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system tumors.
  • Upington disease: A rare condition characterized by pelvic anomalies and multiple bone tumors.
  • Urinary tract neoplasm: A tumor that develops anywhere along the urinary tract. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, urethra and ureters. The tumor may be malignant or benign.
  • Uterine fibroids: Benign nodules in the uterus wall.
  • Uterine leiomyoma: A condition which is characterized by a benign tumour of the uterus derived from smooth muscle
  • Vagal Paraganglioma: A rare, usually benign tumor found in the neck. The tumor develops from glomus cells which are located along blood vessels involved in automatic body activities such as regulation of blood pressure and blood flow.
  • Vipoma: A rare disorder caused by an increase in secretion of vasoactive intestinal peptide by the pancreas. The syndrome is often caused by an islet-cell tumor (except for beta cells) in the pancreas.
  • Von Hippel-Lindau Disease: Genetic disease causing multiple benign tumors
  • Vulvar neoplasms: A tumor that develops in the tissue of the vulva.
  • Warthin's tumor: A benign salivary (parotid) gland tumor.
  • Warthin's tumour: A benign parathyroid tumour
  • Yabapox: A viral infection caused by the poxvirus. The infection is most commonly associated with monkeys and other primates but can occur in humans. The main symptom is the development of harmless tumors under the skin which disappear spontaneously in a month or so.
  • Yolk sack tumour: A germ cell tumour that is a proliferation of yolk sack endoderm
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: A rare disorder where excessive levels of the hormone gastrin are released into the stomach which increases stomach acidity which results in peptic ulcer development. A hormone secreting pancreatic or duodenal tumor is usually the cause.

 

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