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Glossary for Bizarre medical conditions

  • APUDoma: An endocrine tumor arising from APUD (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) cells. Often occurs in the pancreas, prostate and ampulla of Vater. As the tumor can arise in a variety of parts of the body, the symptoms will depend on the location of the tumor and the amount and type of hormone secreted e.g. insulinoma, gastrinoma.
  • Acromegaly: A hormonal disorder involving excess growth hormone production by the pituitary gland.
  • Autoimmune diseases: A group of disorders in which the primary cause is the an inflammatory reaction caused by the body's own immune system attacking tissues
  • Bipolar disorder: Cycles of mania and depression; commonly called "manic-depression".
  • Cancer: Abnormal overgrowth of body cells.
  • Fatal familial insomnia: A very rare inherited brain disease that severely affects sleep and causes progressive deterioration of mental and movement functions.
  • Gender Identity Disorder: Mental belief that one has the incorrect gender
  • Graft-versus-host disease: A disease characterised by an immune response as a result of a transplantation or transfusion resulting in a widespread systemic inflammatory response
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome: A rare progressive form of ascending polyneuropathy believed to be an autoimmune response.
  • Mitochondrial diseases: Any of a group of mitochondrial disorders affecting cell metabolism and especially muscles.
  • Neurofibromatosis: Nerve disorders often leading to tumors on nerves.
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes:
  • Polydactyly: A rare deformity where the hands and/or feet have extra digits.
  • Primary Immune Deficiency: Various types of immune deficiencies; usually genetic.
  • Retroperitoneal fibrosis: A rare disorder involving the formation of a fibrous mass of tissue in the hollow space at the back of the abdomen. The mass can affect the flow of urine to the kidneys and may also affect other abdominal organs.
  • Sex chromosome conditions: Any condition that affects the sex chromosomes
  • Uniparental disomy: A condition which is characterised by the uniparental disomy of chromosomes
  • WAGR Syndrome: A syndrome that is due to the deletion of chromosome 11.

 

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