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Glossary for Bleeding and coagulation conditions

  • ATRUS syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by fusion of the forearm bones near the elbow and a blood disorder.
  • Aantibodies anti-FVIIIc syndrome: A rare, acquired blood condition where the body develops antibodies against a blood clotting factor (FVIII) which results in bleeding problems.
  • Aarau dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Aarau type was discovered in Aarau.
  • Aarhus dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Aarhus type was discovered in Aarhus.
  • Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia: A rare blood disorder characterized by a deficiency of blood platelets required for normal blood clotting. Autoimmune processes can be a cause of the acquired form of this condition.
  • Acquired hypoprothrombinemia: A low level of blood prothrombins which is not inherited but occurs as a result of certain medical disorders such as Vitamin K deficiency.
  • Acquired prothrombin complex deficiency: A rare disorder where infants with a deficiency of vitamin K suffer problems with bleeding. It is believed to occur in breast fed infants where the milk from the mother lacks sufficient vitamin K.
  • Acquired prothrombin deficiency: A deficiency of prothrombin (vital for blood clotting) which is acquired through other conditions such as liver disease, anticoagulant drugs or vitamin K deficiency. The severity of symptoms is determined by the degree of deficiency.
  • Acute cholinergic dysautonomia: A rare condition characterized by the presence of abnormal red blood cells in the bone marrow and blood. The condition is characterized by anemia and generally leads to the development of acute myelogenous leukemia. The acute form has more severe symptoms than the chronic form.
  • Adelaide I dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Aarau type was discovered in Aarau.
  • Adrenal hemorrhage, neonatal: Hemorrhage of the adrenal gland after birth. The severity of the disorder is varies from a small hemorrhage to damage to the whole adrenal gland. Sometimes the condition is discovered incidentally during ultrasounds for other reasons. The hemorrhage may occur as the result of a variety of causes including adrenal tumor, neonatal stress, and blood coagulation disorder or for no apparent reason.
  • Alba/Geneva I dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Alba/Geneva I type was discovered in Alba/Geneva I.
  • Ales dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Alès type was discovered in Alès.
  • Almeria I dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Alméria I type was discovered in Alméria I.
  • Alport Syndrome: A rare hereditary disorder involving the progressive deterioration of parts of the kidney resulting in chronic kidney disease.
  • Alport syndrome with macrothrombocytopenia: A rare inherited syndrome characterized by progressive kidney damage and hearing loss as well as macrothrombocytopenia.
  • Altamira syndrome: A disease that occurs in Altamira (Brazil) and is caused by the black fly bite (Simulium). The pathological agent has not yet been determined.
  • Amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia: A blood disorder involving a deficiency of blood platelets required for normal blood clotting. The disorder may be present at birth (congenital) or acquired (e.g. autoimmune disorders).
  • Amiens I dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Amiens I type was discovered in Amiens I.
  • Amsterdam dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Amsterdam type was discovered in Amsterdam.
  • Angiodysplasia: Abnormality of small blood vessels - especially in the intestinal tract - which can result in bleeding. The size of the lesion involved determines the severity of the condition. Small amounts of bleeding from one lesion often goes unnoticed but multiple large lesions may cause heavy bleeding and result in black tarry stool and anemia.
  • Anti-plasmin deficiency, congenital: A very rare inherited blood disorder involving a deficiency of antiplasmin which results in excessive bleeding.
  • Anticoagulant poisoning: Excessive ingestion of anticoagulant drugs.
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome: An autoimmune disorder characterized by blood clots and pregnancy losses.
  • Antithrombin Deficiency: Antithrombin deficiency refers the deficiency or impaired activity of a substance that inactivates enzymes involved in blood coagulation. Antithrombin prevents the blood from clotting too readily and if its activity is impaired then the blood becomes more prone to clotting which can result in severe problems. Severity of the condition can vary amongst patients and the symptoms can vary considerably depending on the location of blood clots and size of the blood clot.
  • Antithrombin Deficiency, type I: Type I Antithrombin deficiency refers the deficiency of a substance that inactivates enzymes involved in blood coagulation. Antithrombin prevents the blood from clotting too readily and if there are insufficient quantities of it then the blood becomes more prone to clotting which can result in severe problems. Severity of the condition can vary amongst patients and the symptoms can vary considerably depending on the location of blood clots and size of the blood clot. Type I may be inherited or acquired through such things as kidney or liver disease. Acquired cases tend to have a lower risk of blood clots compared to inherited cases.
  • Antithrombin Deficiency, type II: Type II Antithrombin deficiency refers the malfunction of a substance that inactivates enzymes involved in blood coagulation. Antithrombin prevents the blood from clotting too readily and if it is unable to function properly then the blood becomes more prone to clotting which can result in severe problems. Severity of the condition can vary amongst patients and the symptoms can vary considerably depending on the location of blood clots and size of the blood clot. Type II is an inherited condition.
  • Antithrombin III deficiency, congenital: A rare blood disorder where a congenital deficiency of antithrombin III causes excessive blood coagulation which results in blood clot formation.
  • Argentinean hemorrhagic fever: An infectious disease caused by the Junin virus. Transmission can occur through contact with infected rodent (usually the corn mouse) urine, feces or saliva. The incubation period lasts from one to two weeks. The disease is most common in rural workers in Argentina.
  • Asahi I dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Asahi I type was discovered in Asahi I.
  • Autoimmune Hemophilia: Hemophilia caused by an autoimmune reaction
  • Autoimmune Thrombocytopenia: Autoimmune disorder causing a lack of blood platelets.
  • Baltimore dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Baltimore type was discovered in Baltimore.
  • Bernard-Soulier Syndrome: A rare inherited blood coagulation disorder caused by blood platelet abnormalities which results in easy bruising and excessive bleeding.
  • Bethesda I dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Bethesda I type was discovered in Bethesda.
  • Bethesda II dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Bethesda II type was discovered in Bethesda.
  • Black eye: Bleeding in the skin around the eye
  • Bleeding disorders: Any disorder leading to bleeding or bruising.
  • Bleeding symptoms: Any type of bleeding symptoms.
  • Blood coagulation disorders, inherited: Inherited blood disorders where the ability to form clots is dysfunctional. The blood needs to be able to clot to prevent excessive bleeding in situations such as when the body suffers some sort of injury. With blood coagulation disorders, the blood's ability to clot may be impaired, resulting in excessive bleeding, or the blood may form clots too readily and result in thrombosis.
  • Body skin hyperlaxity due to vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiency: A rare inherited connective tissue disorder caused by a deficiency of a blood coagulation factor.
  • Bolivian hemorrhagic fever: An infectious disease that occurs in Bolivia and is caused by the Machupo virus. Transmission can occur through contact with infected rodent (Calomys callosus) droppings. The incubation period lasts from one to two weeks.
  • Buerger's disease: Buergers's disease is a recurring inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of small and medium arteries and veins of the hands and feet
  • Capillary leak syndrome with monoclonal gammopathy: A rare condition characterized by leaky blood vessels and an increased level of certain blood proteins (monoclonal gammopathy). Monoclonal gammopathy itself does not cause any symptoms unless it develops into plasma cell leukemia. The condition may vary from mild to severe enough to cause death.
  • Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A very rare disorder where the blood clotting system becomes dysfunctional and clots too easily due to the abnormal presence of antphospholipid antibodies. It results in blood flow blockages to various body organs. It is possible that the condition has autoimmune origins. The disorder is often triggered by infections, certain drugs (e.g. anticoagulants), minor surgery and hysterectomy.
  • Caterpillar-induced bleeding syndrome: Caterpillars from the Lonomia genus have spines along their body which can penetrate human skin and cause blood coagulation problems. The severity of the symptoms vary depending on the degree of envenomation but serious cases can result in death.
  • Caterpillar-induced bleeding syndrome -- Lonomia achelous: Lonomia achelous caterpillars are native to Northern Brazil and Venezuela. They have spines along their body which can penetrate human skin and cause blood coagulation problems. The severity of the symptoms vary depending on the degree of envenomation but serious cases can result in death.
  • Caterpillar-induced bleeding syndrome -- Lonomia obliqua: Lonomia obliqua caterpillars are native to Southern Brazil and have spines along their body which can penetrate human skin and cause blood coagulation problems. The severity of the symptoms vary depending on the degree of envenomation but serious cases can result in death.
  • Cerebral hemorrhage: Bleeding in the brain
  • Cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, hereditary, Dutch type: An inherited condition characterized mainly by brain hemorrhage and amyloid deposits in the brain blood vessels. The size and location of the hemorrhage determines the severity of symptoms. The condition was first described in a Dutch family.
  • Christmas disease: Haemophilia B. An x-linked recessive form of haemophilia due to deficiency of coagulation factor IX
  • Chronic liver disease like bleeding tendencies: Defect in the haemostasis mechanism.
  • Cleveland dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Cleveland type was discovered in Cleveland.
  • Clotting disorders: Disorder with excessive clotting
  • Coagulopathy: A disorder of the blood where it fails to clot normally.
  • Colitis like hematochezia: Disorders which can cause rectal bleeding( hematochezia) similar to that in case of colitis.
  • Congenital Afibrinogenemia: A rare disorder involving the inability to make fibrinogen which is essential for the process of blood clotting.
  • Congenital Antithrombin III Deficiency: A hereditary condition resulting in a deficiency of antithrombin III which affects blood clotting
  • Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia: A rare birth disorder involving a deficiency of blood platelets required for normal blood clotting.
  • Congenital thrombotic disease due to protein C deficiency: A rare blood disorder where deficiency of protein C (anticoagulation agent) results in a predisposition for the formation of blood clots. The severity of the condition is variable. Homozygotes tend to have more severe symptoms while most heterozygotes are asymptomatic. Deficiency of protein C can be an inherited trait or may be acquired through liver disease and after surgery.
  • Cryofibrinogenemia: A rare condition where a blood protein precipitates when it cools and then redissolves once it is warmed again. The disorder can occur for no apparent reason or may be associated with conditions such as cancer, infections and blood clotting disorders. Some sufferers are asymptomatic whereas other develop thrombosis or skin symptoms in response to exposure to cold.
  • DIC: DIC s a syndrome triggered by a number of medical conditions including malignancy, infection and liver disease, and results in consumption of clotting factors in the blood.
  • Decreased protein C: A protein which is necessaryto prevent theclotting cascade and is autosomal dominant with regards to inheritance
  • Decreased protein S: A protein which is necessary to prevent the clotting cascade
  • Deep vein thrombosis: Blood clot in vein, often in calf muscle vein in the leg.
  • Defibrination syndrome: The generation of fibrin in the blood and consumption of pro-coagulants and platelets occurring in complications of obstetrics
  • Dengue fever: An acute viral disease characterized by fever, rash and myalgia and caused by a flavivirus which is transmitted by mosquitoes.
  • Dengue hemorrhagic fever: Severe complication of dengue
  • Detroit dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Detroit type was discovered in Detroit.
  • Diffuse neonatal hemangiomatosis: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by multiple capillary hemangiomas as well as other abnormalities.
  • Dysfibrinogenemia, familial: A rare familial disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen. There are various types of this order and they can vary in severity from asymptomatic to causing abnormal bleeding and blood clotting. Examples of subtypes includes Amsterdam, Detroit and Wiesbaden dysfibrinogenemia.
  • Ebola: Dangerous virus mostly found in Africa.
  • Embolism: Blockage of an artery or blood vessel
  • Enterohemorrhagic E. Coli infection: A bacterial infection that results from ingesting contaminated food or water and results in bloody diarrhea. Enterohemorrhagic refers to the intestinal bleeding associated with the infection.
  • Epstein (C.J.) syndrome: A rare condition characterized by deafness, kidney inflammation, a reduced number of normal blood platelets needed for clotting and the presence of large blood platelets.
  • Epstein's Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by the association of kidney disease, deafness and a blood disorder.
  • Essential thrombocytopenia: A rare blood disorder characterized by an excessively low number of platelets in the blood which often results in hemorrhages.
  • Essential thrombocytosis -- same as essential thrombocythemia: A rare blood disorder where the blood contains too many platelets due to excessive megakaryocytes (platelet-producing cells). Platelets are essential for blood clotting but in essential thrombocythemia excessive platelets can cause the blood to form abnormal clots. If the platelets are defective as well then bleeding problems can occur. The severity of the condition is variable.
  • Evan's syndrome: A rare condition where circulating antibodies red blood cells and a low level of blood platelets causing low iron levels and reduced blood clotting ability.
  • Factor 8 deficiency, congenital: A rare blood disorder where a deficiency of a blood coagulation protein called Factor VIII is partially or completely absent. The severity of the bleeding is variable depending on the level of deficiency.
  • Factor IX Deficiency: A condition which is characterized by a deficiency of a factor Ix which is essential for the process of blood clotting
  • Factor V Leiden mutation: A rare genetic condition where a abnormalities in the factor V protein prevent it from being inactivated by protein C which causes the blood to clot. The normal processes which regulate the blood coagulation process is impaired. The homozygous form of the condition carries a greater risk of blood clotting than the heterozygous form.
  • Factor V Quebec: An inherited bleeding disorder reported in Quebec, Canada.
  • Factor V and factor VIII, combined deficiency of: A rare inherited blood disorder where a deficiency of Factor V and factor VIII results in bleeding problems. Factor V and factor VIII is involved in blood coagulation.
  • Factor V deficiency: An inherited disorder where the deficiency of a blood component affects its ability to clot properly which can lead to bleeding problems. The severity of the disorder can vary from easy bruising to life-threatening hemorrhages.
  • Factor VII deficiency: A rare inherited blood disorder caused by a deficiency of a blood protein called Factor VII and resulting in poor blood coagulation. The severity of the condition is variable.
  • Factor X deficiency: A rare blood clotting disorder which may be inherited or acquired in people suffering from conditions such as liver disease, amyloidosis, leprosy and certain cancers. The underlying cause is the deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The condition may cause mild to severe bleeding depending on the degree of deficiency of Factor X.
  • Factor X deficiency -- Friuli: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The Fruili variant tends to only cause moderate bleeding problems and occurs mainly in an area of Italy called Fruili.
  • Factor X deficiency -- Kanazawa: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The Kanazawa variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- Ketchikan: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The Ketchikan variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- Nottingham: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The Nottingham variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- Padua: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The Padau variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- San Antonio: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The San Antonia variant results in 14% of normal Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- Santo Domingo: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The Santo Domingo variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- Shanghai: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The Shangai variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- St. Louis II: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The St. Louis II variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- Stockton: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The Stockton variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- Taunton: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The Taunton variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- Tokyo: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The Tokyo variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- Vorarlberg: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The Vorarlberg variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- Wenatchee I: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The Wenatchee I variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- Wenatchee II: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The Wenatchee II variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor X deficiency -- autosomal dominant: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder where there is a deficiency of a protein (Factor X) which is needed for the blood to clot properly. The autosomal dominant variant results in reduced Factor X blood clotting activity.
  • Factor XI deficiency, congenital: A rare inherited bleeding disorder characterized by a deficiency of a blood protein called Factor XI which is needed for the blood clotting process. The condition is generally quite mild but the severity of the condition is variable.
  • Factor XII Deficiency:
  • Factor XIII Deficiency: A very rare inherited or acquired blood disorder caused by a deficiency of Factor XIII which is involved in stabilizing blood clot formation. The condition manifests as bleeding problems.
  • Factor XIII deficiency, congenital: A very rare inherited blood disorder caused by a deficiency of Factor XIII which is involved in stabilizing blood clot formation. The condition manifests as bleeding problems.
  • Factor XIII, A1 subunit Deficiency: A very rare inherited or acquired blood disorder caused by a deficiency of subunit A of Factor XIII which is involved in stabilizing blood clot formation. The condition manifests as bleeding problems.
  • Factor XIII, B subunit Deficiency: A very rare inherited or acquired blood disorder caused by a deficiency of subunit B of Factor XIII which is involved in stabilizing blood clot formation. The condition manifests as bleeding problems.
  • Familial primary cryofibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder where exposure to cold causes various symptoms due to the presence of cryofibrinogen in the blood which precipitates when exposed to cold.
  • Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: A rare, potentially life-threatening disorder where the mother's blood platelets are incompatible with that of the fetus and the mother's antibodies cross the placenta and destroy fetal platelets.
  • Fibrinogen deficiency, congenital: A rare congenital disorder characterized by the inability to make fibrinogen which is essential for the process of blood clotting.
  • Fibronectin-Deficient EDS: A very rare collagen disorder which is characterized by loose joints and hyperextensible skin as well as a blood platelet anomaly which causes bleeding into the skin (petechiae).
  • Fitzgerald-Williams-Flaujeac trait: A rare condition characterized by a deficiency of a protein called High-molecular-weight kininogen which is generally benign but can result in the blood taking longer than normal to clot.
  • Fochs-LADD: A rare familial disorder characterized by brain disease, calcification in the brain, bleeding in the brain and dementia.
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding: Internal bleeding in the digestive tract
  • Glanzmann Thrombasthenia: A haemorrhagic disorder which causes a prolonged bleeding time
  • Glomerulonephritis-like microscopic hematuria: microscopic hematuria means presence of red blood cells in urine, but which can be seen only microscopically
  • Gray platelet syndrome: A rare inherited disease characterized by deficiency of alpha granule inside blood platelets which inhibits it's clotting ability.
  • Hageman factor deficiency: A congenital blood disorder where there is a deficiency of the Hageman factor (blood factor XII) which is required for blood clotting. Other blood clotting factors compensate for the missing factor so most patients are generally asymptomatic.
  • Hemangioma thrombocytopenia syndrome: A rare condition characterized by a spreading congenital hemangioma (collection of abnormal blood vessels) usually on the skin as well as blood clotting problems.
  • Hematemesis: A condition which is characterized by the vomiting of blood
  • Hematuria: Blood in the urine
  • Hemoglobin E disease: A recessively inherited genetic blood disorder characterized by abnormally small red blood cells which generally causes no health problems. Some people may suffer mild hemolytic anemia or a slightly enlarged spleen.
  • Hemophilia: Blood disease usually genetic causing failure to clot.
  • Hemophilia A: A rare coagulation disorder caused by a deficiency of factor VIII which results in bleeding problems.
  • Hemophilia B: A rare coagulation disorder caused by a deficiency of factor IX which results in bleeding problems.
  • Hemophilic arthropathy: Joint destruction associated with hemophilia. The knees, ankles, elbows, hip and shoulders are the most common joints involved. Symptoms are progressive and often surgical intervention is required to prevent total loss of joint function.
  • Hemoptysis: A condition which is characterized by the coughing up of blood or blood stained sputum
  • Hemorragic fever with renal syndrome: A group of infectious diseases that involve bleeding, fever and kidney problems. Examples of viruses that can cause such infectious diseases include Hantan virus, Puumala virus and Seoul virus. Examples of diseases caused by viruses in this group includes epidemic nephritis, Hantaan fever and Songo fever. The virus is usually transmitted to human by rodents or biting insects such as mosquitos. The severity and range of symptoms is determined by the particular virus involved.
  • Hemorrhage: Bleeding of any type (especially when referring to severe bleeding)
  • Hemorrhagic fever: A group of diseases caused by viruses which cause damage to blood vessels and result in hemorrhages and fever. The hemorrhaging does not always cause serious bleeding. The specific symptoms may vary depending on which particular virus is involved.
  • Hemorrhagic proctocolitis: Inflammation of the rectum and colon that results in bleeding.
  • Hemorrhagic prostatic cyst: Cysts in the region of the prostate are common and may present as either intraprostatic or periprostatic. However, a hemorrhagic cyst in this area is unusual.
  • Hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome: A very rare severe condition characterized by sudden severe shock, brain disease and liver and kidney dysfunction which occurs in infants. The cause is unknown.
  • Hemorrhagic thrombocythemia: A rare blood disorder characterized by increased number of platelets in the blood which often results in an enlarged spleen, bleeding and blood vessel blockages.
  • Hemosiderosis: A rare lung condition where bleeding into the lungs causes lung damage due to the accumulation of iron. The severity of the condition is determined by the amount of bleeding.
  • Hemospermia: The presence of blood in the semen.
  • Hemothorax: Blood in the pleural cavity (near lungs)
  • Henoch-Schonlein purpura: A form of vasculitis (blood vessel inflammation) that affects blood capillaries and affects mostly the skin, kidneys, joints and stomach.
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: A blood disorder triggered by the use of the drug called heparin which is an anticoagulant. The severity of the condition is variable.
  • Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: A rare genetic disorder characterized by epistaxes and multiple telangiectases.
  • Hereditary macrothrombocytopenia: A rare inherited blood disorder where the blood platelets are abnormally large. Blood platelets are involved in the blood clotting process but patients with the condition often have no symptoms or suffer mild bleeding problems.
  • Hereditary thrombocythemia: An inherited disorder characterized by thrombocytosis which is a high blood platelet count that occurs for no apparent reason. It is usually only discovered incidentally during routine blood tests.
  • Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by various degrees of albinism, bleeding due to a platelet defect and accumulation of a waxy substance in cells (lysosomal ceroid storage).
  • Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2: A rare disorder characterized by various degrees of albinism, bleeding due to a platelet defect, an accumulation of a waxy substance in cells (lysosomal ceroid storage) and immunodeficiency. HPS type 2 differs from type 1 in that it also involves immunodeficiency due to congenital neutropenia.
  • Homozygous protein C deficiency: A rare, potentially lethal disorder involving a severe deficiency of protein C which results in excessive blood clotting. It is characterized by skin lesions that tend to occur on the limbs mainly but may affect the buttocks, abdomen, scrotum and scalp.
  • Hypercoagulability syndrome, due to glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiency: A genetic disorder where the deficiency of a glycolipid called glycosylphosphatidylinositol causes seizures and blood coagulation problems.
  • Hyphema: Bleeding between cornea and iris in the eye
  • Hypofibrinogenemia, congenital: A familial condition involving low blood fibrinogen levels. Fibrinogen is an important factor in blood coagulation. As there is still some fibrinogen present, bleeding problems are usually only mild.
  • Hypofibrinogenemia, familial: A familial condition involving low blood fibrinogen levels. Fibrinogen is an important factor in blood coagulation. As there is still some fibrinogen present, bleeding problems are usually only mild.
  • ITP-like ecchymoses: The passage of blood from ruptured blood vessels into subcutaneous tissue, marked by a purple discoloration of the skin.
  • Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis: A rare disorder involving bleeding into the lungs which can eventually cause damage to the lungs.
  • Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura: Reduced blood platelets causing visible skin blemishes from bleeding or bruising.
  • Immune thrombocytopenia: A rare disorder where the body's immune system attacks blood platelets which affect the blood's ability to clot.
  • Intestinal bleeding: A condition characterized by the bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract
  • Intracranial Embolism: Blockage of a blood vessel inside the skull and affects blood flow to parts of the brain. The severity of the condition is variable depending on the size, location and duration of the blockage.
  • Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding inside the skull. The condition is a medical emergency and the greater the bleeding, the more severe the condition.
  • Intraocular hemorrhage: Bleeding in the eye, most commonly in the anterior chamber.
  • Korovnikov syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by enlarged spleen and increased blood platelets which leads to bleeding problems. It is considered to by a form of Banti's disease.
  • Kyasanur-Forrest disease: A viral hemorrhagic fever that is transmitted to humans through tick bites. It is most prevalent in South Asia.
  • Lassa fever: Infectious rat-borne West African disease.
  • Lemierre's syndrome: A very rare condition where a throat infection leads to secondary infection and blood clot formation in the internal jugular vein. The infected blood clot can then travel to other parts of the body and cause problems. The usual bacterial culprit is Fusobacterium necrophorum.
  • Leuven dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Leuven type was discovered in Leuven.
  • Los Angeles dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Los Angeles type was discovered in Los Angeles.
  • Macrothrombocytopenia -- progressive deafness: A rare inherited disorder characterized by blood clotting problems due to abnormal blood platelet shape and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. The hearing loss starts prior to the 3rd decade with profound hearing loss occurring by the 4th decade. The platelet disorder starts in early childhood but usually causes no symptoms
  • Marburg virus: Serious virus related to Ebola.
  • May-Hegglin Anomaly: A rare inherited blood disorder involving abnormalities in some of the blood components (platelets and certain leukocytes). Some patients develop bleeding problems whereas other remain asymptomatic.
  • May-Hegglin thrombocytopenia: A rare inherited blood disorder involving abnormalities in some of the blood components (platelets and certain leukocytes). Some patients develop bleeding problems whereas other remain asymptomatic.
  • Metz dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Metz type was discovered in Metz.
  • Mild bleeding:
  • Multiple sclerosis -- ichthyosis -- factor 8 deficiency: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by multiple sclerosis, scaly skin and a blood anomaly.
  • Nancy dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Nancy type was discovered in Nancy.
  • Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome: A rare disorder where the patients has symptoms of neurofibromatosis (nerve tumors) and Noonan syndrome (short stature, bleeding problems, heart defect, unusual facial features, skeletal anomalies, webbed neck).
  • Nosebleeds: The discharge of blood from the nose
  • Oklahoma dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Oklahoma type was discovered in Oklahoma.
  • Omsk hemorrhagic fever: A hemorrhagic fever caused by a virus. A serious outbreak occurred in Omsk and hence the name. Transmission occurs through tick bites. The infection has two phases: the first acute phase involves symptoms such as fever, rash and muscle pain and the second phase occurs after a week or two and involves the central nervous system (e.g. delirium, convulsions).
  • Osler's disease: Genetic disease causing multiple teleangiectasias
  • Osler-Rendu-Weber syndrome 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by nosebleeds and multiple telangiectases that can occur on the skin, mucosal lining and internal organs. Type 2 tends to have a later onset than type 1 and there is a greater degree of liver involvement. It has a different genetic origin to type 1 and 3 (defect on chromosome 12q11-q14).
  • Osler-Rendu-Weber syndrome 3: A rare genetic disorder characterized by nosebleeds and multiple telangiectases that can occur on the skin, mucosal lining and internal organs. The occurrence of pulmonary arteriovenus fistulas in type 3 is greater than type 2 but less than in type 1. It has a different genetic origin to type 1 and 3 (defect on chromosome 5q31.3-q32).
  • Oslo dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Oslo type was discovered in Oslo.
  • Owren Parahemophilia: An inherited disorder where the deficiency of a blood component affects its ability to clot properly which can lead to bleeding problems. The severity of the disorder can vary from easy bruising to life-threatening hemorrhages.
  • Paris I dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Paris I type was discovered in Paris I.
  • Paris II dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Paris II type was discovered in Paris II.
  • Paris-Trousseau thrombocytopenia: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by bleeding problems, mental retardation, heart malformations and facial abnormalities.
  • Parma dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Parma type was discovered in Parma.
  • Periodontitis-like bleeding gums: Bleeding gums are mainly due to inadequate plaque removal from the teeth at the gum line.
  • Phocomelia -- thrombocytopenia -- encephalocele -- urogenital malformation: An early congenital condition that is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies. The severity and range of abnormalities may vary amongst patients.
  • Plasminogen activitor inhibitor type 1 deficiency, congenital: A rare disorder where a deficiency of a protein results in mild bleeding problems. Though the bleeding disorder is mild, minor trauma can result in excessive bleeding.
  • Plasminogen deficiency, congenital: A rare blood disorder that generally only causes eye problems. Plasminogen is needed to break down blood clots.
  • Portal thrombosis: Clotting or obstruction of blood flow along the veins from the intestines and spleen and into the liver. This causes blood to back up and results various problems such as enlarged spleen and abdominal pain. The obstruction can occur acutely (over a short space of time) or chronically (over a longer period of time).
  • Portal vein thrombosis: Clotting or obstruction of blood flow along the portal vein and into the liver. This causes blood to back up and results various problems such as enlarged spleen and abdominal pain. The obstruction can occur acutely (over a short space of time) or chronically (over a longer period of time). The portal vein collects blood from the intestines and spleen and carries it to the liver.
  • Portsmouth syndrome: A blood disorder characterized mainly by an abnormally long bleeding time and reduced ability of blood platelets to coagulate.
  • Posthemorrhagic anemia: Posthemorrhagic anemia refers to a reduced number of red blood cells in the body due to bleeding.
  • Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage (bleeding) occurring after surgery.
  • Postoperative haemorrhage: The excessive loss of blood from an individual after an operation
  • Postpartum haemorrhage: The loss of blood by the mother after delivery of her child
  • Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after childbirth delivery
  • Prekallikrein deficiency, congenital: A rare blood coagulation abnormality which does not cause bleeding problems and is usually an incidental finding.
  • Protein C deficiency: A genetic condition where a person faces an increased risk of blood clot formation. It is characterized by a deficiency of functioning protein C which is a protein needed to regulate the blood clotting process. The homozygous form of the condition carries a much higher risk of thrombosis with severe thrombosis often occurring at birth.
  • Protein S acquired deficiency: A rare disorder involving a deficiency of a blood protein called protein S. Protein S prevents blood from clotting in the veins. A deficiency of protein S can be acquired through liver disease, chemotherapy, lack of vitamin K or through the use of oral anticoagulants or L-asparaginase.
  • Protein S deficiency: A genetic condition where a person faces an increased risk of blood clot formation. It is characterized by a deficiency of functioning protein S which is a protein needed to regulate the blood clotting process. The homozygous form of the condition carries a much higher risk of thrombosis with severe thrombosis often occurring at birth.
  • Prothrombin deficiency: A rare disorder involving a deficiency of a protein (prothrombin or factor II) involved in blood clotting. The severity of symptoms vary according to the level of deficiency.
  • Pulmonary embolism: Blocked lung blood vessel often from a blood clot.
  • Pulmonary haemosiderosis, primary: A rare condition characterized by anemia, coughing up blood and iron deposits in the lungs. The disorder is the result of recurring bleeding in the lungs which leads to a buildup of iron in the lungs. Symptoms may develop slowly or quickly and may become evident at any age.
  • Purpura: Various bruising conditions where small blood vessels hemorrhage
  • Purpura simplex: Bruising condition mostly in women
  • Purpura simplex, hereditary: A rare inherited disorder characterized by fragile blood vessels which causes the skin to bruise easily but the bloods ability to clot is normal.
  • Purpura simplex, sporadic: A rare sporadice condition characterized by fragile blood vessels which causes the skin to bruise easily but the bloods ability to clot is normal.
  • Quebec platelet disorder: An inherited bleeding disorder reported in Quebec, Canada.
  • Rectal bleeding: A condition which is characterized by bleeding from the rectum
  • Rift Valley Fever: Mosquito-borne viral infection affecting animals and humans
  • Saint Louis dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Saint Louis type was discovered in Saint Louis.
  • Schlegelberger-Grote syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, fingerlike thumbs and a blood disorder involving abnormally shaped blood platelets.
  • Senile purpura: Bruising condition mostly in the elderly
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Hemorrhagic shock is caused by excessive bleeding which reduces the blood volume.
  • Shwartzman phenomenon: A body reaction to certain toxins which results in the formation of a blood clot which can causes affected tissue to die. The symptoms can vary depending on what part of the body is exposed to the endotoxin. The reaction may be localized or systemic.
  • Stomach bleeding: A condition which is characterized by the loss of blood from the stomach
  • Storage pool platelet deficiency, SPD: A rare, mild blood clotting disorder involving a deficiency of the part of the platelet that stores certain molecules (adenine nucleotides and 5ht) that are released when blood platelets need to aggregate during clotting.
  • Storage pool platelet disease: A rare disorder where blood platelet defects cause bleeding problems as the platelets are unable to function normally in the blood clotting process.
  • Stuart factor deficiency, acquired: A rare blood clotting disorder which causes mild to severe bleeding depending on the degree of deficiency of Factor X (Stuart factor). This disorder can be inherited or acquired by people suffering from conditions such as liver disease, amyloidosis, certain cancers and leprosy.
  • Stuart factor deficiency, congenital: A rare inherited blood clotting disorder which causes mild to severe bleeding depending on the degree of deficiency of Factor X (Stuart factor).
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage: A condition which is characterized by haemorrhage of blood into the subarachnoid space
  • Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding in the eye and under eyelid
  • Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: A rare disorder where hemosiderin (free iron) is deposited in parts of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord tissue). It is often caused by repeated periods of bleeding in the brain (subarachnoid space).
  • TAR syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by the absence of radial bones of both forearms and thrombocytopenia.
  • The Hemophilias: A group of hereditary hemorrhagic diathesis due to a deficiency of a blood coagulation factor
  • Thrombasthenia: An inherited blood clotting disorder where abnormal blood platelet function causes results in excessive bleeding.
  • Thrombocytopathy: A blood disorder where abnormal blood platelets affect blood coagulation.
  • Thrombocytopathy -- asplenia -- miosis: A very rare syndrome characterized by a lack of spleen function, reduced blood platelets and contracted pupils.
  • Thrombocytopenia: Decreased platelets in the blood
  • Thrombocytopenia -- Multiple Congenital Anomalies: A rare inherited condition characterized by thrombocytopenia, neurological problems and various malformations.
  • Thrombocytopenia -- Robin sequence: A very rare syndrome characterized by a variety of abnormalities such as short stature, unusual hair, reduced blood platelets, heart defects and tooth enamel anomaly.
  • Thrombocytopenia -- cerebellar hypoplasia -- short stature: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by short stature, low blood platelets and abnormal brain development.
  • Thrombocytopenia -- chromosome breakage: A very rare inherited disorder characterized by low blood platelets, carcinomas and autoimmunity.
  • Thrombocytopenia X-linked: A mild inherited form of thrombocytopenia which is a blood clotting disorder caused by a reduced number of normal blood platelets.
  • Thrombocytopenia, cyclic: A rare disorder characterized by periodic fluctuations in blood platelet levels.
  • Thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune: A rare blood disorder where a low number of platelets impairs the bloods ability to clot and results in bleeding into the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Thromboembolism: Lodgement of a blood clot causing blockage
  • Thrombomodulin anomalies, familial: A defect in a protein involved with anticoagulation which results in an increased risk of developing blood clots which can result in death.
  • Thrombosis: Blood clot occurring in a blood vessel
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, acquired: A rare blood condition where small blood clots form in blood vessels which reduces the number of blood platelets and results in kidney failure, neurological symptoms and anemia. The condition may be familial or acquired - symptoms tend to recur regularly in the familial form.
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, congenital: A rare blood condition where small blood clots form in blood vessels which reduces the number of blood platelets and results in kidney failure, neurological symptoms and anemia.
  • Tidal platelet dysgenesis: A rare condition characterized by periodic thrombocytopenia which results in alternating low and high levels of blood platelets.
  • Transient bleeding:
  • Troyes dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Troyes type was discovered in Troyes.
  • Vancouver dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Vancouver type was discovered in Vancouver.
  • Variceal Bleeding: Bleeding that occurs in dilated blood vessels that usually develop in the esophagus or stomach. The dilated blood vessels are asymptomatic unless they burst which can then become a life-threatening condition. Bleeding varices are most often caused by liver cirrhosis which increases the blood pressure in the veins that carry blood from the digestive organs to the liver.
  • Venous Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot in a vein. The clot can form in superficial veins and cause few if any symptoms or it can form in the deeper, larger leg veins which can be life-threatening in serious cases. A part of the clot can break off and travel (embolism) to the heart or lungs where it can cause serious problems.
  • Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers: Viral infections causing hemorrhagic fever (i.e. bleeding)
  • Vitamin K deficiency: Deficiency of vitamin K
  • Vocal cord hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vocal fold due to the rupture of a blood vessel. May be caused by such things as extreme voice abuse, overuse of anticoagulants or steroid inhalants.
  • Von Willebrand disease: A rare inherited blood coagulation disorder characterized by a deficiency or defect in plasma protein called the von Willebrand factor which leads to bleeding problems
  • Von Willebrand disease, dominant form: A condition that is characterised by autosomal inheritance and is a disorder that is charaterised by prolonged bleeding time.
  • Von Willebrand disease, platelet type: A condition that is characterised by autosomal inheritance and is a disorder that is charaterised by prolonged bleeding time.
  • Von Willebrand disease, recessive form: A condition that is characterised by autosomal inheritance and is a disorder that is charaterised by prolonged bleeding time.
  • Von Willebrand disease, type 1: A rare inherited blood coagulation disorder characterized by a deficiency in plasma protein called the von Willebrand factor which leads to bleeding problems. Most cases of von Willebrand disease are type 1 which is the mildest form of the condition. Patients rarely have severe bleeding problems but may bleed excessively during surgery, dental work or due to a traumatic injury.
  • Von Willebrand disease, type 2: A rare inherited blood coagulation disorder characterized by a defect in plasma protein called the von Willebrand factor which leads to bleeding problems. Type 2 is further subdivided into 4 subtypes, each with a different underlying genetic defect. The different subtypes have different methods of treatment so an correct diagnosis is important. The severity of the bleeding symptoms is variable.
  • Von Willebrand disease, type 2A: A rare inherited blood coagulation disorder characterized by a defect in plasma protein called the von Willebrand factor which leads to bleeding problems. Type 2 vWD is further subdivided into 4 subtypes, each with a different underlying genetic defect. The severity of the bleeding symptoms is variable.
  • Von Willebrand disease, type 2B: A rare inherited blood coagulation disorder characterized by a defect in plasma protein called the von Willebrand factor which leads to bleeding problems. Type 2 vWD is further subdivided into 4 subtypes, each with a different underlying genetic defect. The severity of the bleeding symptoms is variable. Type 2B often requires a different medication to the other subtypes.
  • Von Willebrand disease, type 2M: A rare inherited blood coagulation disorder characterized by a defect in plasma protein called the von Willebrand factor which leads to bleeding problems. Type 2 vWD is further subdivided into 4 subtypes, each with a different underlying genetic defect. Type 2M is very rare. The severity of the bleeding symptoms is variable.
  • Von Willebrand disease, type 2N: A rare inherited blood coagulation disorder characterized by a defect in plasma protein called the von Willebrand factor which leads to bleeding problems. Type 2 vWD is further subdivided into 4 subtypes, each with a different underlying genetic defect. The severity of the bleeding symptoms is variable.
  • Von Willebrand disease, type 3: A rare inherited blood coagulation disorder characterized by a defect in plasma protein called the von Willebrand factor which leads to bleeding problems. Type 3 is the most severe form of von Willebrand Disease.
  • Waterhouse-Friederichsen syndrome: A rare syndrome that occurs as complication of septicemia (often due to meningococcal or pneumococcal infection) and involves blood coagulation in blood vessels, adrenal gland hemorrhages and ultimately kidney failure.
  • Wiesbaden dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Wiesbaden type was discovered in Wiesbaden.
  • Willebrand disease, acquired: A bleeding disorder characterised by prolonger bleeding time
  • X-linked dyserythropoietic anaemia and thrombocytopenia: An inherited blood disorder characterized by dyserythropeoietic anemia (abnormal red blood cell formation) and low blood platelet count which can cause bleeding problems.
  • Yellow fever: A viral infection transmitted by mosquito bites which can damage various organs such as the liver, heart, kidney and digestive tract.
  • Zurich I dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Zurich I type was discovered in Zurich.
  • Zurich II dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Zurich II type was discovered in Zurich.

 

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