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Glossary for Bone and cartilage tumors

  • Adamantinoma: Adamantinoma is a rare tumor. The tumor occurs almost exclusively in the long bones; tumors in the tibia account for more than 80% of cases. The diaphyseal region is the area most commonly affected.
  • Bessel-Hagen disease: A dominantly inherited disorder characterized by growth of multiple tumors made up of cartilage on the bones.
  • Bone cancer: Malignancy that occurs in the bone
  • Bone dysplasia with medullary fibrosarcoma: A rare inherited bone disorder characterized by aggressive bone tumors and defective bone development. The tumors metastasized readily.
  • Bone pain: Bone pain or tenderness is aching or other discomfort in one or more bones.
  • Bone swelling: Inflammation of the joint spaces leading to swelling and effusion.
  • Cartilaginous neoplasms: Tumors made up of cartilage tissue. The tumors may be benign or malignant and the symptoms will depend on the location and size of the tumors. The tumors can form on parts of the body such as the arm and leg bones or even in the pharynx. The tumors may cause no symptoms in some cases and are only discovered incidentally.
  • Chondroblastoma (benign): A rare benign bone tumor that usually forms in the ends of long bones such as the leg bones.
  • Chondroma: A type of tumor that develops from cartilage tissue. The can occur on any part of the bone: enchondromas form inside the bone marrow and periosteal chondromas form on the surface of the bone.
  • Chondromatosis (benign): Benign cartilage growths that can occur in various parts of the body. Symptoms are determined by the size and exact location of the growth. For example, a spinal chondroma can result in compression of the spinal cord.
  • Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma is the second most frequent primary malignant tumor of bone, representing approximately 25% of all primary osseous neoplasms. Chondrosarcomas are a group of tumors with highly diverse features and behavior patterns, ranging from slow-growing non-metastasizing lesions to highly aggressive metastasizing sarcomas.
  • Chondrosarcoma (malignant): A form of bone cancer that originates from cartilage tissue. The most common areas affected are the pelvic bones, femur, humerus, arm, spine and ribs
  • Enchondromatosis (benign): Benign cartilage growths that develop inside bones.
  • Eosinophilic granuloma: A fairly benign form of bone tumor.
  • Ewing's sarcoma: Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant round-cell tumor. It is a rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the bone or in soft tissue. The most common areas in which it occurs are the pelvis, the femur, the humerus, and the ribs.
  • Exostoses: Development of non-cancerous bony growths on bones. Pain can result depending on the size and location of the growth.
  • Exostoses -- anetodermia -- brachydactyly type E: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by bone growths, a skin disorder and short foot bones.
  • Exostoses, multiple: A rare genetic disorder characterized mainly by limb deformities and other skeletal abnormalities caused primarily by a disorder of the bone growth plates.
  • Exostoses, multiple, type 1: Multiple extoses is a rare condition involving abnormal bone growths that occurs on bones. Type I differs from type II and III in the location of the genetic defect that causes the disorder. Type I tends to involve more bone growths and shorter arm and leg bones.
  • Exostoses, multiple, type 3: Multiple extoses is a rare condition involving abnormal bone growths that occurs on bones. Type II differs from type I and III in the location of the genetic defect that causes the disorder. Type I tends to be less severe than type I.
  • Joint swelling: One or more swollen joints
  • Joint tenderness: Diverse processes that affect the joint, including inflammation, cartilage degeneration, crystal deposition, infection, and trauma, can be a cause of the pain.
  • Lymphoblastic lymphoma: A cancer of the lymph system which usually involves immature T-lymphocytes and sometimes B-lymphocytes. The cancer usually affects the mediastinum (between the lungs), bone marrow, brain and spinal cord.
  • Mazabraud syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by myxoma within muscles and fibrous dysplasia of the bones. The fibrous abnormality tends to occur during periods of growth whereas the myxomas occur during adulthood.
  • Metastatic bone cancer: Cancer cells that break off from a primary tumor and enter the bloodstream can reach nearly all tissues of the body. Bones are a common place for these cancer cells to settle in and start growing.
  • Multiple Hereditary Exostoses: An hereditary condition which is characterized by benign bony growths projecting from a bone surface
  • No symptoms: The absence of noticable symptoms.
  • Oslam syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by bone cancer, limb abnormalities and enlarged red blood cells.
  • Osteochondroma: A bone development abnormality characterized by the development of a benign bone tumor that occurs on the ends of long bones. Symptoms, if any, are determined by the location and size of the tumor. The tumor can occur singly or in multiples and in rare instances the tumors may become malignant.
  • Osteoid Osteoma: Benign bone tumor usually in long bones
  • Osteoma: Benign bone tumor
  • Osteosarcoma: Osteosarcoma is the most common type of malignant bone cancer, accounting for 35% of primary bone malignancies. There is a preference for the metaphyseal region of tubular long bones. 50% of cases occur around the knee.
  • Osteosarcoma of the breast: Primary osteosarcoma of the breast is extremely rare and represents 12.5% of mammary sarcomas.
  • Pathological fracture: The occurrence of a fracture a bone of the body caused by a disease state
  • Periosteal chondrosarcoma: A form of bone cancer that originates from cartilage tissue. Periosteal chondrosarcomas originate from the surface of previously healthy bones. The most common location is the metaphyses (part of the bone between the shaft of the bone and the rounded ends) of long bones.
  • Peripheral neuroectodermal tumor: A type of tumor that consists of small round cells and occurs in bone or soft tissue in the extremities of the body such as the arms, legs, pelvis or chest wall. Symptoms are determined by the location of the tumor. The tumor may be malignant or benign.
  • Primary bone cancer: Primary bone cancer is where a cancer originates in a bone.
  • Primary chondrosarcoma: A form of bone cancer that originates from cartilage tissue. Primary chondrosarcomas originate from the central parts of previously healthy bones. The most common areas affected are the pelvic bones, femur, humerus, arm, spine and ribs.
  • Secondary Bone Cancer: Tumour development in bone as a result of spread from a primary malignant tumour from another body site (usually lung bronchus, breast and prostate)
  • Secondary chondrosarcoma: A form of bone cancer that originates from cartilage tissue. Secondary chondrosarcomas originate from benign bone anomalies such as osteochondroma or enchondroma. The most common location is the hips and shoulders but can occur on any part of the skeleton.
  • Solitary Extramedullary Plasmacytoma: A type of cancer from plasma cells where the plasma cells multiply uncontrollably. It can occur in the bone or in soft tissue where it is called extramedullary plasmacytoma. If the cancer is located in only one part of the body it is called a solitary plasmacytoma and if there are multiple sites it is called a multiple myeloma. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the cancer. Extramedullary plasmacytomas tend to occur mainly in the respiratory and digestive system.
  • Solitary Plasmacytoma of Bone: A type of cancer from plasma cells where the plasma cells multiply uncontrollably. It can occur in the bone or in soft tissue. If the cancer is located in only one part of the body it is called a solitary plasmacytoma and if there are multiple sites it is called a multiple myeloma. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the cancer. Bone plasmacytomas generally tend to cause localized pain and even pathological fractures if the bone has been significantly weakened due to the tumor.
  • Solitary plasmacytoma: A type of cancer from plasma cells where the plasma cells multiply uncontrollably. It can occur in the bone or in soft tissue. If the cancer is located in only one part of the body it is called a solitary plasmacytoma and if there are multiple sites it is called a multiple myeloma. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the cancer.
  • Synovial cancer: Cancer (malignant) that develops in synovial tissue in joints. Synovial tissue can be found in the lining of cavities in joints, tendons and bursae.
  • Unusual facies, osteosarcoma and malformation syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by an unusual facial appearance, osteosarcoma, hearing problems and other variable abnormalities.
  • Upington disease: A rare condition characterized by pelvic anomalies and multiple bone tumors.

 

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