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Diseases » Cancer » Glossary
 

Glossary for Cancer

  • APUDoma: An endocrine tumor arising from APUD (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) cells. Often occurs in the pancreas, prostate and ampulla of Vater. As the tumor can arise in a variety of parts of the body, the symptoms will depend on the location of the tumor and the amount and type of hormone secreted e.g. insulinoma, gastrinoma.
  • Abdominal Cancer: Growth of abnormal cells (tumour) affecting the organs in the abdominal cavity; may be due to primary growth of a tumour or spread from another tumour (metastases, secondary tumour)
  • Abdominal Neoplasms: A tumor that occurs in the abdomen.
  • Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced: Conditions arising from the use of radiation therapy to treat various cancers. Radiation therapy can result in minor abnormalities such as dry, flaky skin or serious abnormalities such as cancer.
  • Abrikosov's tumor: A rare condition characterized by superficial, usually benign, slow-growing tumors occurring mostly on oral and genital tract tissue.
  • Abscess: General name for any pus-filled lump or swelling
  • Acanthoma: A rare type of skin tumor that may be benign or malignant. The symptoms are determined by the location, size and aggressiveness of the tumor.
  • Acanthosis nigricans, malignant: The development of skin lesions which signify the presence of malignancies - especially tumors of the gut. Patches of dry, rough bumpy skin become discolored and thickened. Mucosal tissue (inside the mouth and lips) is also often involved.
  • Acinic cell carcinoma: A usually slow-growing malignant tumor that that can occur in various parts of the body but is most often found in the pancreas, salivary glands, palate and upper lip. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the growth.
  • Acoustic neuroma: A benign tumor of the 8th cranial nerve which lies in the tube connecting the inner ear to the brain.
  • Acral lentiginous melanoma: Acral lentigous melanoma is the most common variant of skin cancer seen in dark-skinned people. This form of melanoma appears on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, or on nails. Lesions are usually brown, black, or multicolored with irregular borders, and flat or nodular.
  • Acrospiroma: A tumor that develops in the ends of sweat glands in the skin. They are usually benign.
  • Acute adult T-Cell leukemia: A form of blood cancer affecting the T-cells which make up the body's immune system. The disease is caused by the HTLV-1 virus (human T-cell leukemia virus) which causes the proliferation of abnormal T-cells. The virus can be transmitted sexually and may lay dormant for decades. There are four subtypes: acute, chronic, lymphoma and smoldering. The acute and lymphoma subtypes have the poorest prognosis. The acute subtype tends to progress rapidly and is the most prevalent form of the condition.
  • Acute basophilic leukaemia: A rare type of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by the presence of abnormal basophils.
  • Acute biphenotypic leukemia: A rare form of leukemia that has myeloid and lymphoid features.
  • Acute erythroleukemia: A rare condition characterized by the presence of abnormal blood cells (erythroblastic precursors) in the bone marrow and blood. The condition is characterized by anemia and generally leads to the development of acute myelogenous leukemia. The acute form has more severe symptoms than the chronic form.
  • Acute leukaemia of ambiguous lineage: A term used to describe a type of leukemia (a blood cancer) where the leukemic cells cannot be determined as myeloid or lymphoid or where both types of cells are present.
  • Acute leukemia: An acute condition which affects a cell line of the blood which shows little or no differentiation
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Cancer of the white blood cells. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia congenital sporadic aniridia: The rare association with a form of acute leukemia and congenital aniridia observed in a patient.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Susceptibility to: Cancer of the white blood cells characterized by the presence of excessive lymphoblasts. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets. There are two subtypes of leukemia linked to a genetic anomaly which increases a person's susceptibility to developing the cancer. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10q21 and type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 7p12.2.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Susceptibility to, 1: Cancer of the white blood cells characterized by the presence of excessive lymphoblasts. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets. There are two subtypes of leukemia linked to a genetic anomaly which increases a person's susceptibility to developing the cancer. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10q21.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Susceptibility to, 2: Cancer of the white blood cells characterized by the presence of excessive lymphoblasts. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets. There are two subtypes of leukemia linked to a genetic anomaly which increases a person's susceptibility to developing the cancer. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 7p12.2.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, adult: Cancer of the white blood cells. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets.
  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia: Most common child form of leukemia; can also affect adults especially over 65.
  • Acute megacaryoblastic leukemia: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. More specifically, it involves the rapid proliferation of megakaryoblasts (premature form of megakaryocytes).
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 1: A form of blood cancer resulting in the rapid proliferation of immature blood cells (blast cells).
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 2: A form of blood cancer resulting in the rapid proliferation of granulocytes and monocytes.
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 3: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the rapid proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. Type 3 involves the proliferation of promyelocytes.
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 4: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the rapid proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. Type 4 involves the rapid proliferation of myelocytes and monocytes.
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 5: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. Type 5 involves the rapid proliferation of monoblasts (immature precursors of monocytes) in particular.
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 6: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the rapid proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. Type 6 involves the proliferation of the immature precursors of red blood cells called erythroblasts.
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 7: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. Type 7 involves the rapid proliferation of megakaryoblasts (premature form of megakaryocytes) in particular.
  • Acute myelocytic leukemia: A cancer of the blood-forming tissues of the bone marrow involving the proliferation of cells that normally develop into infection-fighting cells such as eosinophils, monocytes, basophils and neutrophils. The cancerous cells replace the normal bone marrow cells. Acute leukemia involves a more rapid proliferation of cancer cells compared to chronic forms of leukemia.
  • Acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes related to alkylating agent: The use of alkylating agents to treat cancer can result in leukemia in some patients.
  • Acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes related to topoisomerase type II inhibitor: The use of topoisomerase type II inhibitors to treat cancer can result in leukemia in some patients.
  • Acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes, therapy related: Certain cancer therapies can result in the development of leukemia in some patients. These therapies includes topoisomerase type II inhibitors and alkylating agents.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia: A form of rapidly progressing blood cancer resulting in the rapid proliferation of granulocytes and monocytes, red blood cells and platelets.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia, adult: A form of blood cancer resulting in the rapid proliferation of granulocytes and monocytes, red blood cells and platelets.
  • Acute non lymphoblastic leukemia: A form of rapidly progressing blood cancer resulting in the rapid proliferation of granulocytes and monocytes, red blood cells and platelets. It is one of the most common forms of leukemia in adults but can occur in children.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia: A rare bone marrow cancer characterized by a lack of mature blood cells and excessive amounts of immature blood cells (promyelocytes).
  • Adamantinoma: Adamantinoma is a rare tumor. The tumor occurs almost exclusively in the long bones; tumors in the tibia account for more than 80% of cases. The diaphyseal region is the area most commonly affected.
  • Adenocarcinoid tumor: A rare type of tumor that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and tends to metastasize. The symptoms are determined by the location of the tumors.
  • Adenocarcinoma: A carcinoma derived from/within glandular tissue.
  • Adenocarcinoma of the lung: It is one of the main types of lung cancers. Adenocarcinoma of the lung arises from the secretory (glandular) cells located in the epithelium lining the bronchi.
  • Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar: A form of lung cancer that develops in the bronchioles or alveoli.
  • Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: A type of cancer that occurs mainly in the genitourinary tract and the cells that make up the tumor are clear. It is very rare and most cases occur in females whose mothers used a drug called DES (synthetic estrogen) while pregnant.
  • Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: A type of cancer of the thyroid gland.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma: Salivary gland type malignant neoplasm arising from bronchial seromucinous glands. Composed of epithelial and myoepithelial cells in cribriform, tubular and solid growth patterns.
  • Adenoid cystic carcionoma: Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare neoplasm. It has a biological course of slow progression and near absence of Iymph node metastasis.
  • Adenoma: General term for a benign tumor of a gland
  • Adenoma, Islet Cell: A pancreatic tumor which may be benign or malignant. Symptoms may vary depending on the location and size of the tumor as well as whether the tumor secretes hormones or not. For example, the tumor may block the biliary duct.
  • Adenomatous Polyposis of the Colon, autosomal dominant: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous. The condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and occurs in a familial pattern. Most patients have at least one parent with the condition.
  • Adenosarcoma of the uterus: A tumor that develops from the glands that line the uterus.
  • Adnexal and Skin Appendage Neoplasms: A type of tumour that develops on particular organs - eyes, skin and uterus. The tumors are usually benign but some may become malignant. The symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor and whether it is benign or malignant. These type of tumors tend to be most common in middle-aged women.
  • Adrenal Cancer: A malignant cancer that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids. Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal adenoma, familial: A benign tumor that develops in the adrenal gland and tends to run in families. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids . Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal incidentaloma: A tumor of the adrenal gland that is discovered incidentally while performing an imaging examination for reasons other than an adrenal tumor. The tumor may be asymptomatic or can causes excessive secretion of adrenal hormones and resulting symptoms. The tumor may also be malignant or benign.
  • Adrenal medulla neoplasm: A tumor that develops in the part of the adrenal gland called the medulla which produces adrenalin and noradrenaline. The tumor is usually benign but can be malignant.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma: A condition which is characterized by malignancy which affects the adrenocortex.
  • Adult Fibrosarcoma: A malignant tumor that develops from fibroblasts (cells that produce connective tissue) and tends to occur in soft tissue or in areas surrounding bones. Adult fibrosarcoma tends to affect mainly deep soft tissue, trunk, head, neck and upper arms and legs. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor. The tumors are usually slow growing and can metastasize.
  • Adult T-Cell leukemia: A form of blood cancer affecting the T-cells which make up the body's immune system. The disease is caused by the HTLV-1 virus (human T-cell leukemia virus) which causes the proliferation of abnormal T-cells. The virus can be transmitted sexually and may lay dormant for decades. There are four subtypes: acute, chronic, lymphoma and smoldering. The acute and lymphoma subtypes have the poorest prognosis.
  • Adult T-Cell lymphoma: A form of blood cancer affecting the T-cells which make up the body's immune system. The disease is caused by the HTLV-1 virus (human T-cell leukemia virus) which causes the proliferation of abnormal T-cells. The virus can be transmitted sexually and may lay dormant for decades. There are four subtypes: acute, chronic, lymphoma and smoldering. The acute and lymphoma subtypes have the poorest prognosis. The lymphoma subtype is aggressive and tends to affect the lymph nodes more than the blood.
  • Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: Rare cancer of the immune system T-cells.
  • Adult low grade infiltrative supratentorial Astrocytoma: A type of brain cancer that occurs in the supratentorial region of the brain of adults and is relatively non-aggressive.
  • African Kaposi's sarcoma: Endemic Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurs in people living in Equatorial Africa and is sometimes called African KS. An aggressive form of African Kaposi's sarcoma can spread quickly to the bones. Another form found in African children does not affect the skin. Instead, it spreads through the lymph nodes and vital organs, and can quickly become fatal.
  • Aggressive NK-cell leukaemia: An aggressive form of blood cancer involving the rapid proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells.
  • Aggressive fibromatosis -- parapharyngeal space: A type of tumor that occur near in the space around the pharynx and is locally invasive but not malignant. They tend to occur mainly in the head and neck region and symptoms depend on the exact location and aggressiveness of the tumor. Tumors often reoccur after surgical removal which then requires further treatment with radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Aleukemic leukemia cutis: A rare form of leukemia where the skin is involved before the leukemic cells appear in the blood. It is usually an early sign of leukemia.
  • All Disease Categories: All major disease categories
  • Alveolar cell carcinoma: It is a malignant cancer arising from the alveolar walls
  • Alveolar soft part sarcoma: A rare slow-growing malignant connective tissue tumor. The tumors occur most frequently in the arms and legs. The deep soft tissue of the thigh, tongue, eye orbit, and head and neck regions are also common sites. Metastasis is frequent with lung and brain being most common metastatic sites. Symptoms are determined by the location, size and stage of the tumor.
  • Ameloblastoma: A very rare disorder involving the jaw and sinuses. Cyts or tumors which may be malignant form in the jaw, sinus, nose or eye socket areas.
  • Anal Cancer: Cancer (malignant) that develops in the tissues of the anus.
  • Anaplastic large cell lymphoma: A rare type of cancer where a tumor develops in lymph tissue and usually consists of white blood cells and null cells. It is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The tumors can develop in more than one lymph node and can also occur in the skin and various organs such as the liver, bones or lungs.
  • Anaplastic small cell lymphoma: A rare type of cancer where a tumor develops in lymph tissue and consists mainly of small cells. It is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The tumors can develop in more than one lymph node and can also occur in the skin and various organs such as the liver, bones or lungs.
  • Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: A form of cancer which tends to be systemic in nature and thus cancer cells can be found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, skin and bone marrow.
  • Angiomatoid melanoma: Rare type of melanoma with same bizarre morphology and an unusual, comparatively benign course, after a primary melanoma.
  • Angiomyomatous Hamartoma: A type of tumor that originates from blood vessel tissue. It is a rare type of tumor that tends to occur most often in lymph nodes in the inguinal (lower abdominal and groin) area.
  • Angiosarcoma: Angiosarcomas are a relatively rare type of malignant tumors that develop from blood vessel tissues. The cancer tends to occur mainly in the liver, skin, breasts and deep soft tissues. The cancer is prone to metastasis to the lymphatic system and is considered aggressive. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Angiosarcoma of the breast: A rare type of cancer that starts in the lining of blood vessels in the breast. It is generally an aggressive tumor which often metastasizes.
  • Angiosarcoma of the liver: A rare type of cancer that starts in the lining of blood vessels in the liver. It is generally an aggressive tumor which often metastasizes.
  • Angiosarcoma of the scalp: A rare type of cancer that starts in the lining of blood vessels in the scalp. It is generally an aggressive tumor which often metastasizes.
  • Angiotropic melanoma: Angiotropism is the presence of tumor cells closely apposed to the abluminal surfaces of blood and lymphatic vessels without intravasation. Angiotropism in melanoma could be a marker for extravascular migratory metastasis, the migration of tumor cells along the external surfaces of vessels.
  • Animal-type melanoma: Pigment synthesizing melanoma is a rare histopathological variant of melanoma so termed because of prominent melanin production and its similarity to a variant of melanoma seen in grey horses.
  • Anorexia Nervosa: A disorder where a distorted sense of body image leads to self-starvation to the point of death in some cases.
  • Appendiceal tumor: A tumor of the appendix. The condition is often misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis. The cancer usually metastasizes from other sites and rarely starts in the appendix.
  • Appendix cancer: Cancer of the appendix. The cancer usually metastasizes from other sites and rarely starts in the appendix.
  • Astrocytoma: A malignant tumour of the nervous system composed of astrocytes.
  • Attenuated familial polyposis: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous. The attenuated form of the condition is distinguished by the development of polyps in old age rather than during the first decades of life.
  • Atypical mole syndrome: A condition characterized by the development of numerous moles on the skin which may become cancerous and hence need careful monitoring.
  • B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A slow progressing disease involving cancerous B-cell lymphocytes which take over the healthy cells in the lymph nodes. B-cells help the body to fight infections so when the disease becomes more advanced, the body is less able to fight infection as there are fewer healthy, functioning B-cells.
  • B-cell lymphomas: A group cancers involving the proliferation of lymphocytic B-cells. Examples include small lymphocytic lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma and lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • B-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia: A rare type of leukemia involving a proliferation of immature white blood cells (prolymphocytes - B-cells).
  • Back tumour: The presence of tumour growth in the vertebra, whether due to primary malignancies e.g. leukaemic or myeloma infiltration of the bone marrow, or due to secondary metastases from another site e.g. lung or breast.
  • Balloon cell metastatic melanoma: Balloon cell melanoma, a variant of malignant melanoma, has been reported on rare occasions in animals and is uncommon in man. Such tumours have variable numbers of large, round to polygonal cells with abundant, clear, often vacuolated cytoplasm containing fine melanin granules and variable amounts of lipid.
  • Bard-Pic syndrome: The presence of jaundice, enlarged gallbladder and progressive wasting of the body which indicates a head or pancreatic cancer.
  • Barrett syndrome: Barrett's syndrome refers to cellular changes in the lower portion of the oesophagus as a result of chronic reflux. The changes in the cells of the esophagus can lead to cancer of the esophagus (adenocarcinoma).
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma, Susceptibility to, 1: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing basal cell carcinoma. Type 1 is linked to a defective gene on chromosome 1p36.
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma, Susceptibility to, 2: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing basal cell carcinoma. Type 2 is linked to a defective gene on chromosome 1q42.
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma, Susceptibility to, 3: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing basal cell carcinoma. Type 3 is linked to a defective gene on chromosome 5p15.
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma, Susceptibility to, 4: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing basal cell carcinoma. Type 4 is linked to a defective gene on chromosome 12q13.
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma, Susceptibility to, 5: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing basal cell carcinoma. Type 5 is linked to a defective gene on chromosome 9p21.
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma, Susceptibility to, 6: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing basal cell carcinoma. Type 6 is linked to a defective gene on chromosome 7q32.
  • Basal cell carcinoma: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer.
  • Basal cell carcinoma, infundibulocystic: A variant form of skin cancer.
  • Basal cell carcinoma, multiple: A slow growing type of skin cancer that occurs in multiples. The cancer tends to remain localized but occasionally spreads to nearby tissues. The cancer may flat, slightly raised or nodular. The lesion may vary in color - white, pink, brown, flesh-colored, pearly or waxy.
  • Basal cell carcinomas with milia and coarse, sparse hair: A rare disorder characterized mainly by skin cancer, milia and coarse, sparse hair. The milia tend to disappear without treatment by adolescence.
  • Basal type breast cancer: Most of these cancers are of the so-called "triple negative" type -- that is, they lack estrogen or progesterone receptors and have normal amounts of HER2. T
  • Basisquamous basal cell carcinoma: A form of skin cancer which arises from two types of skin cells (squamous and basal cells). The cancer tends to grow faster than other basal cell carcinomas which grow slowly over a period of months or years. This cancer also has the potential to metastasize. Basisquamous basal cell carcinomas generally occur on the parts of the skin that tend to have the most sun exposure e.g. face, shoulders, back, neck and scalp.
  • Bazex-Dupre-Christol syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by decreased hair growth, basal cell cancers and destruction of skin follicles which tends to affect the extremities, elbows and knees.
  • Bednar's tumor: A rare aggressive skin tumor that develops in the skin. The tumor consists of melanin-producing cells which increases the skins pigmentation in the affected area. Metastasis is rare but it often regrows after being surgically removed. It occurs mostly on the trunk, shoulders and chest.
  • Benign tumor: A tumor or growth that remains localized; not always harmless.
  • Bile Duct Cancer: A malignancy arising in the bile ducts of the liver
  • Bile duct cancer, extrahepatic: A rare cancer that develops in the part of the common bile duct that is outside the liver. The common bile duct channels bile from the gall bladder (which stores bile) and the liver (which makes bile) to the small intestine to assist digestion.
  • Biliary tract cancer: Cancer that develops in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
  • Biphasic Mesothelioma: Biphasic mesothelioma is the second most common type of mesothelioma cancer cell Biphasic mesothelioma, or mixed mesothelioma, contains a mixture of epithelioid and sarcomatoid cells.
  • Bizarre medical conditions: Various unusual and unexpected medical disorders
  • Bladder Cancer: Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. It is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply without control in the bladder.
  • Bladder symptoms: Symptoms related to the bladder and urination.
  • Blast crisis: The final phase of chronic myeloid leukemia which has a high mortality rate. Myeloid leukemia is a form of cancer where the bone marrow makes too many myeloid cells (granulocytes and their precursors) in the bone marrow which accumulates in the blood and eventually invades various parts of the body. The three phases of the condition are the chronic phase, aggressive phase and finally the blast crisis. A blast crisis is occurs when over 30% of the cells in the blood or bone marrow are immature blood cells (blast cells). Patients in the final stage of leukemia are more prone to relapses following treatment.
  • Blastoma: A type of tumor that originates from precursor cells or blasts (immature or embryonic tissue). The symptoms can vary greatly and are determined by the part of the body that is affected. Blastomas can occur in parts of the body such as the brain, liver, kidneys, nervous system, bones and the retina.
  • Blood cancer: Malignancy of one or several of the different types of cells in the blood
  • Bone cancer: Malignancy that occurs in the bone
  • Bone dysplasia with medullary fibrosarcoma: A rare inherited bone disorder characterized by aggressive bone tumors and defective bone development. The tumors metastasized readily.
  • Bowen Disease:
  • Bowen's disease: Intraepiderman form of squamous cell skin cancer cause by sun damage to skin.
  • Brain Stem Glioma: Tumor of the brain stem consisting of neuroglia of many stages of development.
  • Brain Stem Neoplasms: A brain stem tumor. The tumor may be malignant or benign and the severity of the condition is determined by the size of the tumor and exact location.
  • Brain cancer: Cancer of the brain.
  • Brain tumor, adult: A growth or tumor that develops in the tissues of the brain in adults. The tumor can be benign or malignant.
  • Breast Cancer: Cancer of the breast.
  • Breast cancer stages: 0, I, II, III, IV: Cancer stage is based on the size of the tumor, whether the cancer is invasive or non-invasive, whether lymph nodes are involved, and whether the cancer has spread beyond the breast.

    Stage 0- is used to describe non-invasive breast cancers, such as DCIS and LCIS. In stage 0, there is no evidence of cancer cells or non-cancerous abnormal cells breaking out of the part of the breast in which they started, or of getting through to or invading neighboring normal tissue.

    Stage 1- describes invasive breast cancer (cancer cells are breaking through to or invading neighboring normal tissue) in which the tumor measures up to 2 centimeters and no lymph nodes are involved.

    Stage 2- Stage 2 is divided into subcategories known as 2A and 2B.

    Stage 2A- No tumor can be found in the breast, but cancer cells are found in the axillary lymph nodes (the lymph nodes under the arm).

    Stage 2B- the tumor is larger than 2 but no larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes.

    Stage 3- Stage III is divided into subcategories known as IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC.

    Stage 3A- no tumor is found in the breast. Cancer is found in axillary lymph nodes that are clumped together or sticking to other structures, or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone.

    Stage 3B- the tumor may be any size and has spread to the chest wall and/or skin of the breast

    Stage 3C- there may be no sign of cancer in the breast or, if there is a tumor, it may be any size and may have spread to the chest wall and/or the skin of the breast, and the cancer has spread to lymph nodes above or below the collarbone.

    Stage 4- the cancer has spread to other organs of the body -- usually the lungs, liver, bone, or brain.

  • Breast carcinoma: Carcinoma occurring in breast tissue.
  • Breast lump: Any type of lump in the breast
  • Brenner tumor of the vagina: A Brenner tumour usually occurs in the ovaries but can sometimes occur in the vagina. The tumor is generally benign.
  • Brinton disease: Thickening and hardening of the stomach wall usually associated with diffuse stomach cancer or damage due to the consumption of caustic soda.
  • Bristowe's syndrome: Symptoms caused by a brain tumor that develops in the corpus callosum which connects the two brain hemispheres.
  • Bronchial adenomata syndrome: A type of bronchial tumor that causes various respiratory symptoms.
  • Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma: Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a rare type of lung cancer, it is a sub-type of lung adenocarcinoma
  • Bronchogenic carcinoma: When cells of the lung start growing rapidly in an uncontrolled manner, the condition is called lung cancer .
  • Burkitt's lymphoma: Lymphoma associated with Epstein Barr virus.
  • Buschke-Lowenstein Tumor: A low grade wart-like tumor believed to be caused by HPV (human papilloma virus) infections. The tumor is occurs in the genital area and there is still some contention about whether the tumor is benign or borderline cancerous.
  • CAR syndrome: A progressive autoimmune eye disease caused by cancer that occurs outside the eye area. It is a type of paraneoplasic cancer which refers to distant neurological effects caused by a cancer. Eye symptoms usually occur before the cancer is detected.
  • CDK4 linked melanoma: A mutation in the CDK4 gene can cause an increased susceptibility to melanomas.
  • Cancer of Unknown Primary Site: Metastatic cancer whose original source is unknown.
  • Cancer of floor of mouth: The floor of the mouth is a horseshoe-shaped area under the tongue, between the lower jaw bones (the mandible). When a malignant tumor grows in this area it is called floor of the mouth cancer.
  • Cancer pain: Having cancer does not always mean having pain. For those with pain, there are many different kinds of medicines, ways to receive the medicine, and nonmedicine methods that can relieve the pain they may have. Pain must not be accepted as a normal part of having cancer.
  • Cancers, Skin, General: Skin cancer is the abnormal growth of skin cells. Most skin cancers occur in sun-exposed areas of skin but can occur on skin on any part of the body. The severity of skin cancers can vary considerably depending on the particular type of skin cancer involved - melanomas are the most severe form of skin cancer.
  • Carcinoid: A carcinoid tumor is a type of neuroendocrine tumor which tends to occur in the lungs or gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Carcinoid of Gastrointestinal Tract: Carcinoid tumor in the digestive tract.
  • Carcinoid syndrome: Carcinoid heart disease is a rare, metastatic disease that occurs predominantly in the right heart. The tricuspid and pulmonic valves are affected, leading to right heart failure, which results in increased morbidity and mortality.
  • Carcinoma of the vocal tract: Cancer of the vocal cords in the larynx.
  • Carcinoma, squamous cell of head and neck: A type of cancer that occurs in the mucosal lining of parts of the head and neck e.g. esophagus, sinuses, nasal cavity, pharynx, mouth and lips. Symptoms will vary depending on the exact location of the cancer.
  • Carcinomatous polyneuropathy: It is a condition which damages nerves by directly invading or putting pressure on them or by triggering an autoimmune reaction.
  • Carotid Paraganglioma: A rare, usually benign tumor found in the carotid artery in the neck. The tumor develops from glomus cells which are located along blood vessels involved in automatic body activities such as regulation of blood pressure and blood flow.
  • Cartilaginous neoplasms: Tumors made up of cartilage tissue. The tumors may be benign or malignant and the symptoms will depend on the location and size of the tumors. The tumors can form on parts of the body such as the arm and leg bones or even in the pharynx. The tumors may cause no symptoms in some cases and are only discovered incidentally.
  • Central nervous system lymphoma, primary: A type of lymphoma that occurs in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). A lymphoma consists of cancerous lymphocytes which are a type of white blood cell. Symptoms vary according to the location of the lymphoma.
  • Cerebral astrocytoma, adult: A very rare tumor that occurs in adults and develops in brain cells called astrocytes. The part of the brain involved is the cerebrum at the top of the head which controls functions such as reading, writing, thinking, learning, speech, emotion and voluntary movement.
  • Cerebral sarcoma: A type of brain tumor that can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. The tumor arises from blood vessels in the brain. Symptoms may vary depending on the size and exact location of the tumor.
  • Cerebral ventricle neoplasm: A tumor that occurs in the fluid-filled spaces of the brain called the ventricles. Symptoms vary depending on the size and exact location of the tumor and whether it is cancerous or not.
  • Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer is malignant cancer of the cervix uteri or cervical area
  • Cervical Teratoma: A cervical teratoma is a very rare form of germ cell tumor that occurs in the neck. These tumors usually develop in the fetus and tend to be large and benign even though they grow continually. In rare cases they can occur in adults in which case they tend to be malignant. These tumors can be quite large and cause problems in other neck structures. Sometimes surgery is required in the uterus or during delivery in order to ensure the infant has access to an airway.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Radium: Radium is a chemical used mainly as an anti-cancer agent . Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Childhood liver cancer, primary: Cancer that develops in the tissue of the liver in children.
  • Chloroma: A rare type of tumor that develops from myeloid cells (type of immature white blood cell) and tends to usually have a greenish color. The tumor is essentially a localized solid collection of leukemic cells that occurs outside the bone marrow. It can occur in many parts of the body such as the chest, vertebrae, pelvis, skin, lymph nodes and parts of the skull. On rare occasions, it can occur in various organs such as the heart and brain. The tumor can occur as a primary condition or may be associated with cancerous conditions such as acute leukemia and acute promyelocytic leukemia. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Chloromyeloma: A rare type of tumor that develops from myeloid cells (type of immature white blood cell) and tends to usually have a greenish color. The tumor is essentially a localized solid collection of leukemic cells that occurs outside the bone marrow. It can occur in many parts of the body such as the chest, vertebrae, pelvis, skin, lymph nodes and parts of the skull. On rare occasions, it can occur in various organs such as the heart and brain. The tumor can occur as a primary condition or may be associated with cancerous conditions such as acute leukemia and acute promyelocytic leukemia. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Chondroid melanoma: Heterologous differentiation is exceedingly rare in melanoma. Chondroid change in the absence of osteogenic differentiation is extremely rare in malignant melanoma. Melanoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of primary cutaneous neoplasms exhibiting cartilaginous differentiation.
  • Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma is the second most frequent primary malignant tumor of bone, representing approximately 25% of all primary osseous neoplasms. Chondrosarcomas are a group of tumors with highly diverse features and behavior patterns, ranging from slow-growing non-metastasizing lesions to highly aggressive metastasizing sarcomas.
  • Chondrosarcoma (malignant): A form of bone cancer that originates from cartilage tissue. The most common areas affected are the pelvic bones, femur, humerus, arm, spine and ribs
  • Chordoma: Chordomas are rare tumors that arise from embryonic notochordal remnants along the length of the neuraxis at developmentally active sites. These sites are the ends of the neuraxis and the vertebral bodies.
  • Choriocarcinoma: Rare cancer of the placenta
  • Choriocarcinoma, infantile: A rare malignant cancer that originates in the placenta. It is an aggressive cancer which generally results in infant death.
  • Chromophil renal cell carcinoma: A type of kidney tumor where the cells that make up the tumor take up dye readily during pathology testing.
  • Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: A rare type of kidney tumor. The cells that make up the tumor tend to be clear and do not readily take up dye during pathology analysis. Metastasis often only occurs late in the course of the disease and surgical removal usually leads to a good prognosis.
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Severe chronic fatigue disorder often following infection.
  • Chronic Illness: Any form of continuing chronic illness.
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Susceptibility to: A cancer of the blood and bone marrow where too many abnormal lymphocytes (white blood cells) are produced which eventually crowds out healthy blood cells in the body. Researchers have discovered a link between a number of genetic defects and increased susceptibility to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Susceptibility to, 1: A cancer of the blood and bone marrow where too many abnormal lymphocytes (white blood cells) are produced which eventually crowds out healthy blood cells in the body. Researchers have discovered a link between a number of genetic defects and increased susceptibility to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 11q13.3
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Susceptibility to, 2: A cancer of the blood and bone marrow where too many abnormal lymphocytes (white blood cells) are produced which eventually crowds out healthy blood cells in the body. Researchers have discovered a link between a number of genetic defects and increased susceptibility to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 13q14.
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Susceptibility to, 3: A cancer of the blood and bone marrow where too many abnormal lymphocytes (white blood cells) are produced which eventually crowds out healthy blood cells in the body. Researchers have discovered a link between a number of genetic defects and increased susceptibility to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 9q34.1.
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Susceptibility to, 4: A cancer of the blood and bone marrow where too many abnormal lymphocytes (white blood cells) are produced which eventually crowds out healthy blood cells in the body. Researchers have discovered a link between a number of genetic defects and increased susceptibility to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6p25.
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Susceptibility to, 5: A cancer of the blood and bone marrow where too many abnormal lymphocytes (white blood cells) are produced which eventually crowds out healthy blood cells in the body. Researchers have discovered a link between a number of genetic defects and increased susceptibility to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 11q24.1.
  • Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia: A rare form of leukemia characterized by excessive levels of mature neutrophils.
  • Chronic adult T-Cell leukemia: A form of blood cancer affecting the T-cells which make up the body's immune system. The disease is caused by the HTLV-1 virus (human T-cell leukemia virus) which causes the proliferation of abnormal T-cells. The virus can be transmitted sexually and may lay dormant for decades. There are four subtypes: acute, chronic, lymphoma and smoldering. The acute and lymphoma subtypes have the poorest prognosis. The acute form tends to progress relatively slowly and generally responds better to treatment than the other subtypes.
  • Chronic leukemia: Leukemia in which the cell line is well differentiated, usually B lymphocytes.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A cancer of the blood and bone marrow where too many abnormal lymphocytes (white blood cells) are produced which eventually crowds out healthy blood cells in the body.
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia: A slow-growing cancer of the white blood cells where the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells which eventually invade various parts of the body.
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia: Type of leukemia mostly in adults; rarely in children.
  • Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the proliferation of immature precursors of certain blood cells - myelocytes and monocytes. The proliferation is slower than in acute forms of the disease.
  • Classic Kaposi's sarcoma: Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancerous tumor of the connective tissue, and is often associated with AIDS.
  • Classical Hodgkin disease: Hodgkin's disease is a type of cancer characterized by the abnormal proliferation of a type of white blood cell called lymphocyte. Hodgkin's lymphoma is classified into classical types and nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The nodular form tends to be more localized than the classical form. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is further subdivided into four subgroups depending on the cell composition of the lymphoma: nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte rich and lymphocyte depleted.
  • Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: A type of kidney tumor where the cells that make up the tumor are clear.
  • Collecting duct carcinoma: A rare, aggressive type of kidney cancer that arises from the kidney collecting ducts. The cancer cells can form irregular tubes.
  • Colon Cancer, Familial: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 1: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 9.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 10: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 10 is linked to a defect on chromosome 19q.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 11: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 11 is linked to a defect on chromosome 20p.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 2: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 8q24.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 3: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 16.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 4: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 15.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 5: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10p14.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 6: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 6 is linked to a defect on chromosome 8q23.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 7: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 7 is linked to a defect on chromosome 11.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 8: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 8 is linked to a defect on chromosome 14q.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 9: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 9 is linked to a defect on chromosome 16q.
  • Colorectal adenomatous polyposis, recessive: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous.
  • Colorectal cancer: Cancer of the colon (bowel) or rectum.
  • Conn Syndrome-induced hypertension: Conn Syndrome-induced hypertension is high blood pressure associated with Conn Syndrome. It results from excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal glands. The high blood pressure often responds poorly to the usual medications. Death can result in severe cases.
  • Conn's adenoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adrenal adenoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conn-Louis Carcinoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition results from the presence of an adrenal carcinoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Costello syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by papillomas which may become malignant.
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: A malignancy of the T-cells which make up part of the body's immune system. The cancer is characterized by the excessive proliferation of T-cells which are a type of white blood cell. The degree of skin involvement is variable.
  • Cutaneous desmoplastic melanoma: Cutaneous desmoplastic melanoma is a rare variant of a spindle cell melanoma.
  • Cutaneous lymphoma: Cutaneous lymphoma is a term used to describe a group of lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by localization of neoplastic T lymphocytes to the skin.
  • Cutaneous metastatic melanoma: Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer and accounts for about three-quarters of all skin cancer deaths.
  • Cyst: Lump produced by over-secreting gland
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes: A rare type of breast cancer that may be benign or malignant. The tumor is usually benign and tends to grow quickly and to a large size. Metastasis often involves the lungs with the skeleton, heart and liver also being common sites.
  • Cytosine arabinose syndrome: Symptoms following the use of a chemotherapy drug called cytosine arabinose.
  • Damocles syndrome: Stress, anxiety and uncertainty experienced by people who have been successfully treated for childhood cancer.
  • Deafness -- lymphoedema -- leukemia: A rare syndrome characterized by deafness, early-onset leukemia and lymphoedema in the lower legs.
  • Dental tissue neoplasm: A tumor that develops from tissues inside the mouth that form the teeth. There are a number of types of tumors that can develop from tooth forming tissues: ameloblastoma, Pindorg tumor, cementoblastoma and many others. The tumor may be benign or malignant but can cause dental problems even if it is benign.
  • Denys-Drash Syndrome: A condition which is characterized by gonadal dysgenesis, nephropathy and the occurrence of Wilm's tumour
  • Dermal melanoma: The term "primary dermal melanoma" has been used to describe a solitary melanoma lesion confined to the dermal and/or subcutaneous tissue in primary unknown melanoma cases. There are no significant histopathological differences between primary dermal melanoma and cutaneous metastasis of melanoma. The most important distinction to be made is with metastatic melanoma, because the prognoses for stage IV melanoma and primary dermal melanoma are vastly different.
  • Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: A rare form of slow growing tumor that develops deep in the skin. Metastatis is rare but it often regrows after being surgically removed. It occurs mostly on the trunk, shoulders and chest.
  • Desmoplastic cerebral astrocytoma of infancy: A rare type of brain tumor that occurs in infants. The tumor consists of cancerous astrocytes.
  • Desmoplastic infantile ganglioma: A rare type of brain tumor that occurs in infants. The tumor may be slow-growing and benign or fast-growing and malignant.
  • Desmoplastic neurotrophic melanoma: Desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma (DNM) is a rare variant of a spindle cell melanoma.
  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor: A rare aggressive tumor that usually develops in soft tissue and tends to grow to a large size. It usually occurs in the abdomen but may also in other parts of the body such as abdominal organs, brain, testicles, ovaries, spinal cord and skull.
  • Diabetic Diarrhea: Diarrhea that occurs in diabetics as a result of the damage done by diabetes to the digestive system. Digestive system damage is caused by intestinal neuropathy (damage to intestinal nerves) or bacterial overgrowth or both.
  • Diabetic Gastroparesis: Gastroparesis is a diabetic complication that occurs from neuropathy of the stomach nerve (called the "vagus nerve"). This causes digestive difficulties as the food starts to move too slowly through the stomach.
  • Diaphyseal medullary stenosis with malignant fibrous histiocytoma: A rare form of inherited bone cancer which tends to develop malignant changes. The condition has been observed in only a few families worldwide.
  • Diaphyseal medullary stenosis with malignant fibrous histocytoma:
  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A common form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by abnormal proliferation of B-lymphocytes. It is a cancer of the B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) which, if untreated, can spread to other parts of the body such as the bones and the liver. It differs from follicular lymphoma in that it is a high-grade lymphoma that usually develops rapidly. Follicular lymphoma often transforms into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Digestive symptoms: Any symptoms affecting the digestive tract.
  • Digestive system cancer: A malignancy that affects the gastrointestinal cancer
  • Digestive tract cancer:
  • Distal colorectal cancer: Approximately 75% of colorectal cancers are sporadic and develop in people with no specific risk factors. The remaining 25% of cases occur in people with significant risk factors.
  • Drash syndrome: A ver rare disorder involving kidney dysfunction, genital abnormalities and a kidney tumor (Wilm's tumor).
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ: Ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS) is a noninvasive condition. DCIS can progress to become invasive cancer, but estimates of the likelihood of this vary widely.
  • Dysgerminoma: A rare form of cancer of the germ cells in the ovary. It is generally asymptomatic in the early stages. Prognosis with treatment is generally quite good.
  • Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: A rare inherited skin blistering condition which can vary in severity depending on how it is inherited. Recessively inherited are more severe than dominantly inherited cases and can cause the loss of patches of skin and scarring which can impair limb function.
  • EAF: A very rare type of tumor that occurs in the sinus and nasal tracts and upper respiratory system.
  • Ectopic ACTH Syndrome: A tumour arising in the body which releases excess quantities of ACTH
  • Endocrine pancreatic cancer: Any disease that affects the endocrine pancreas
  • Endocrine system cancer: Cancer that affects any gland in the endocrine system
  • Endodermal sinus tumor: A form of malignant germ cell tumor that occurs mainly in young children. They can occur in the testis, ovaries, uterus, abdomen, thorax, tailbone region, vagina, liver, retroperitoneum and pineal ventricle of the brain. Symptoms will vary depending on the exact location of the tumor.
  • Endometrial Cancer: Cancer of the endometrium (uterus lining).
  • Endometrial stromal sarcoma: A rare type of cancer that develops from the endometrial layer of the uterus. The cancer may be slow-growing or aggressive and may metastasize.
  • Enteropathy type T-cell lymphoma: A rare subtype of gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Uncontrolled celiac disease appears to be a risk factor for developing this type of lymphoma.
  • Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma: An aggressive form of lymphoma that is generally only associated with celiac disease.
  • Eosinophilic granuloma: A fairly benign form of bone tumor.
  • Ependymoma: A tumor that occurs in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Symptoms vary according to the aggressiveness, size and exact location of the tumor.
  • Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma: The most common type of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in the United States is epidemic or AIDS-related KS. This type of KS develops in people who are infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma: A non-small-cell type of lung cancer. The cancer develops from cells that line the inside of the lungs.
  • Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma: A rare slow-growing type of cancer that occurs in the salivary duct - usually the parotid gland. The cancer tends to occur in older patients. The cancer tends to reoccur readily and can metastasize.
  • Epithelioid Mesothelioma: Epithelioid mesothelioma, is a type of cancer that occurs in the mesothelium, which is an epithelium that surrounds certain organs.
  • Esophageal carcinoma: A cancer of the esophagus.
  • Esophagus Cancer: Cancer of the esophagus in the throat.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma: A rare type of tumor that occurs in the upper nasal cavity. The tumor may obstruct one or both nostrils.
  • Ewing's family of tumors: A rare condition where tumors develop in bone or soft tissue. Usually teenagers are affected.
  • Ewing's sarcoma: Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant round-cell tumor. It is a rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the bone or in soft tissue. The most common areas in which it occurs are the pelvis, the femur, the humerus, and the ribs.
  • Exfoliative dermatitis: Form of dermatitis where skin flakes or falls off.
  • Extra-upper Aerodigestive Tract NK/T cell lymphoma: A form of lymphoma that occurs externally to the lymph nodes but is located in sites other than the upper aerodigestive tract, nasopharynx and nasal cavity. This particular type of lymphoma is rare but tends to be aggressive.
  • Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor: A rare form of cancer that originates in germ cells that are found in areas such as the brain, chest, tailbone or abdomen rather than the ovaries or testicles. Germ cells are the precursors for male sperm and female eggs. The symptoms are determined by the location and size of the tumor.
  • Extramedullary Myeloid Tumor: A rare type of tumor that develops from myeloid cells (type of immature white blood cell) and tends to usually have a greenish color. The tumor is essentially a localized solid collection of leukemic cells that occurs outside the bone marrow. It can occur in many parts of the body such as the chest, vertebrae, pelvis, skin, lymph nodes and parts of the skull. On rare occasions, it can occur in various organs such as the heart and brain. The tumor can occur as a primary condition or may be associated with cancerous conditions such as acute leukemia and acute promyelocytic leukemia. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue: A rare type of cancer where the B cells (a type of white blood cell) in lymph tissue associated with mucosa begin to proliferate. The cancer can affect any mucosal membrane tissue but is most common in the gastric mucosal membranes. Symptoms may vary considerable depending on the stage and location of the cancer.
  • Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma: A form of lymphoma that occurs externally to the lymph nodes. It usually in the nasal area but can also occur in the gastrointestinal tract, trachea, skin, liver and other soft tissues. This particular type of lymphoma is rare but tends to be aggressive.
  • Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal: A form of lymphoma that occurs externally to the lymph nodes and in particular, is located in the nasal region. This particular type of lymphoma is rare but tends to be aggressive. It is often associated with the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type: A form of lymphoma that occurs externally to the lymph nodes. It usually in the nasal area but can also occur in the gastrointestinal tract, trachea or skin. This particular type of lymphoma is rare but tends to be aggressive. Specific symptoms will vary depending on the exact location of the tumor.
  • Eye cancer: A malignancy that affects the eye
  • Eye melanoma: Melanoma develops in the cells that produce melanin - the pigment that gives the skin its color. the eyes also have melanin-producing cells and can develop melanoma.
  • Fallopian tube cancer: A cancer that originates in the fallopian tubes which form part of the female reproductive organs. This type of cancer is relatively uncommon.
  • Familial Colorectal Cancer: An inherited disorder in which affected individuals have a higher-than-normal chance of developing colorectal cancer and certain other types of cancer, often before the age of 50.
  • Familial Intestinal Polyposis: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous.
  • Familial Multiple Polyposis: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous.
  • Familial Wilms tumor 2: A familial form malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children. Type 2 differs from other forms of Wilms tumor by the origin of the genetic defect (chromosome 19q13.4).
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis, autosomal dominant: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous. The condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and occurs in a familial pattern. Most patients have at least one parent with the condition.
  • Familial platelet syndrome with predisposition to acute myelogenous leukemia: A rare inherited blood disorder that is associated with an increased risk of myeloid malignancies - especially acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • Familial polyposis -- classical: An inherited condition where polyps develop in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The polyps are initially benign but may become malignant if untreated.
  • Familial polyposis, autosomal recessive: An inherited condition where polyps develop in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The polyps are initially benign but may become malignant if untreated. The autosomal recessive form of this condition is characterized by fewer polyps than in other forms (less than 100) and is due to mutations in a different gene.
  • Familial renal cell carcinoma: A genetic form of kidney cancer that develops in the lining of the tubules in the kidney and tends to run in families.
  • Fanconi syndrome: Fanconi syndrome that occurs secondary to the accumulation of crystals of light-chain immunoglobulin molecules in the kidney tubules which affects their functioning.
  • Fatigue: Excessive tiredness or weakness.
  • Fibrosarcoma: Fibrosarcoma is a malignant tumor derived from fibrous connective tissue and characterized by immature proliferating fibroblasts or undifferentiated anaplastic spindle cells.
  • Follicular Lymphoma, Susceptibility to, 1: Follicular lymphoma is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by an abnormal proliferation of B-lymphocytes. It is a cancer of the B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) which, if untreated, can spread to other parts of the body such as the bones and the liver. It differs from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in that it is a low-grade lymphoma that usually develops slowly. Follicular lymphoma often transforms into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Susceptibility type 1 means that a genetic defect on chromosome 6p21.33 makes a person more susceptible to developing follicular lymphoma.
  • Follicular dendritic cell tumor: A rare form of malignant tumor. Follicular dendritic cells are immune system cells found in lymph follicles. The tumor tends to be low grade and tends to reoccur after removal and occasionally metastasizes. The symptoms are determined by the location and size of the tumor. The tumor can occur on various parts of the body such as lymph nodes, tonsils, armpits and mediastinum but is most common in the neck lymph nodes.
  • Follicular lymphoma: A form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by an abnormal proliferation of B-lymphocytes. It is a cancer of the B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) which, if untreated, can spread to other parts of the body such as the bones and the liver. It differs from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in that it is a low-grade lymphoma that usually develops slowly. Follicular lymphoma often transforms into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Follicular malignant melanoma: Follicular malignant melanoma can be regarded as a rare and unique presentation of melanoma. It is characterized by a deep-seated follicular structure in which atypical melanocytes extend downward along the follicular epithelium and permeate parts of the follicle as well as the adjacent dermis.
  • Forbes-Albright syndrome: A rare condition where a hormone secreting pituitary or hypothalamic tumor causes galactorrhea and amenorrhea.
  • Functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor: Tumors that develop in the pancreas and cause excessive secretion of one or more pancreatic hormones such as insulin, somatostatin, glucagons, gastrin, ACTH (corticosteroids) and vasoactive intestinal peptidase.
  • Gall Bladder Cancer: Cancer of the gall bladder.
  • Ganglioglioma: A type of tumor that develops in the central nervous system. The tumor originates from glial and nerve cells. The tumor may grow rapidly and symptom will vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Gastric cancer, borrmann 4: A form of malignant gastric tumor which results in the stomach tissue becoming thick and rigid.
  • Gastric lymphoma: A rare type of tumor that occurs in the lining of the stomach. The tumor may be primary or have spread there from other parts of the body. This type of tumor is more common in old people.
  • Gastrinoma: Rare tumors secreting the digestive hormone gastrin.
  • Gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: A rare form of gastrointestinal tumor. It includes two main groups of cancer called carcinoid and endocrine pancreatic tumors. Some of the tumors consist of hormone secreting cells which results in excessive secretion of certain hormones.
  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Cancer that develops from stroma cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The primary locations are the small intestine, esophagus and esophagus with symptoms being determined by the location, stage and size of the tumor.
  • Gastrointestinal neoplasm: A growth or excessive proliferation of cells in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract which includes the esophagus, intestine, pharynx and stomach. The growth may be benign or malignant. The symptoms are determined by the size, location and stage of the tumor.
  • Genital system cancer: A malignancy that affects the genital system
  • Gestational trophoblastic tumor: A rare tumor that develops in the uterus from cells formed after an abnormal conception (abnormal union of sperm and egg cell). Gestational trophoblastic tumors can also develop from a normal placenta. There are two type of gestational trophoblastic tumors: choriocarcinoma and hydatidiform mole.
  • Giant cell malignant melanoma: Malignant melanoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. Malignant melanoma of the oral mucosa is a rare tumor. The clinical image can vary, so that diagnostic errors are possible. The case of a primary malignant melanoma camouflaging a giant cell granuloma is presented. The importance of biopsy and histological diagnosis is underlined.
  • Giant cell tumor: Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a rare, aggressive non-cancerous (benign) tumor.
  • Glassy cell carcinoma of the cervix: A rare type of cervical cancer.
  • Glaucoma in Intra ocular tumours: Intraocular tumors are rare causes of glaucoma. The tumor may not be directly visible in many instances, and different methods of indirect visualization may need to be used.
  • Glioblastoma: An aggressive primary brain tumour of the glial (supporting) cells.
  • Glioma: A rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Glioma Susceptibility: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. There have been at least 8 genetic defects linked to an increased glioma susceptibility.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 1: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 3p25.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 2: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 10q23.31.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 3: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 13q12.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 4: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 15q23-q26.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 5: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 9p21.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 6: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 20q13.33.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 7: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 7 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 8q24.21.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 8: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 8 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 5p15.33.
  • Gliomatosis cerebri: A rare, aggressive type of malignant brain tumor. Cancerous glial cells infiltrate various parts of the brain and can result in a variety of symptoms.
  • Gliosarcoma: A type of brain tumor that originates from glial cells. The tumor may grow rapidly and symptom will vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Glomus vagale tumors: A rare, usually benign tumor that tends to occur mainly in the skin and soft tissues of lower parts of limbs and under the nails but may also rarely occur in other parts of the body including organs. Symptoms depend on the location, size and malignancy of the tumor.
  • Glucagonoma: Rare cancer of the glucagon-producing pancreas cells.
  • Glucagonoma syndrome: A rare condition characterized by a tumor which secretes glucagon and a characteristic spreading rash, diabetes mellitus and various other symptoms.
  • Granuloma inguinale: Granulomous disease spread sexually.
  • Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: A rare type of ovarian tumor which can cause excess estrogen hormone production. The tumor is a low grade malignant tumor.
  • Graves Disease: is an autoimmune disease characterized by hyperthyroidism due to circulating autoantibodies. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs) bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors, causing the thyroid gland to grow and the thyroid follicles to increase synthesis of thyroid hormone.
  • Group A Streptococcal Infections: "Strep" bacteria responsible for strep throat, impetigo and some other strep conditions.
  • Gum cancer: The gum is the soft tissue surrounding the base of the teeth, any malignant proliferation of cells of the gums is called gum cancer.
  • Gynandroblastoma: A type of ovarian tumor that causes feminizing and masculinizing effects of estrogen and androgen.
  • HOTS: High blood calcium levels and bone resorption that occurs in some patients with T-cell lymphoma which is a cancer of the white blood cells.
  • Hairy cell leukemia: A chronic leukemia which causes an excess of abnormal mononuclear cells which appear hair like under microscopy
  • Halitosis: Bad breath
  • Hamartomatous colorectal cancer: The hamartomatous polyposis syndromes are a heterogeneous group of disorders that share an autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance and are characterized by hamartomatous polyps of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Head Cancer: A malignancy that occurs on the head
  • Heart cancer: A malignancy that is located in the heart
  • Hemangioendothelioma: A rare type of blood vessel tumor that can occur anywhere in the body but is most often found in the skin, liver and spleen. Symptoms vary according to the exact location.
  • Hemangiopericytoma: A slow growing tumor that develops in deep soft tissues an tends to occur mainly in the abdomen (pelvic retroperitoneum specifically), hips, shoulders, upper arms and upper legs.
  • Hepatoblastoma: A primary malignant liver tumor which is rare in infants and children.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (fibrolamellar variant): A rare form of liver cancer. The prognosis for this variant of hepatocellular cancer is better than for hepatocellular cancer.
  • Hepatoma: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver.
  • Heptaosplenic T-cell Lymphoma: A rare subtype of lymphoma which originates from T-cell lymphocytes in the liver and the spleen. This form of lymphoma is considered quite aggressive. People with solid organ transplants tend to be more susceptible to this form of cancer, possibility because of the need to take immune suppressing drugs to avoid rejection of the transplanted organ.
  • Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer: A rare inherited condition characterized by the presence of tumors that develop from smooth muscle tissue in the skin, uterus and the kidneys. The skin anomalies can occur on any part of the body and gradually increase in number and size with age. Kidney tumors develop in only a relatively small proportion of patients with the condition.
  • Hereditary Polyposis Coli: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous.
  • Hereditary colorectal cancer: Individuals affected with hereditary colorectal cancer inherit a mutation in one of several genes involved in DNA mismatch repair, including MSH2, MLH1, and PMS2. ras gene mutations have been detected in the stool of patients with colorectal cancer and may in the future be useful in early diagnosis.
  • Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer: A rare disorder characterized by the inherited predisposition to develop colorectal cancer as well as cancers in other locations, particularly near the bowel. Even though sufferers face an increased risk of various cancers it does not mean that they will actually develop the cancer.
  • Hip cancer: The presence of tumour growth in the bone of the hip, whether due to primary malignancies e.g. leukaemic or myeloma infiltration of the bone marrow, or due to secondary metastases from another site e.g. lung or breast; cancer affecting bone of hip likely to affect other bones e.g. vertebra, ribs
  • Hirschsprung disease ganglioneuroblastoma: A rare disorder characterized by an intestinal defect tumors of the nerves.
  • Histiocytoma, angiomatoid fibrous: A variant form of malignant fibrous histiocytoma which is characterized by the development of nodules under the skin. It is a rare soft tissue tumor that occurs mainly on the trunk or limbs and is considered a low-grade malignancy. The exact symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor and how it affects surrounding blood vessels, nerves etc.
  • Hochenegg ulcer: A rare, firm type of rectal tumor which is ulcerated in the middle.
  • Hodgkin disease, X-linked pseudoautosomal: An inherited form of Hodgkin disease which is a common cancer of the lymph node.
  • Hodgkin lymphoma, childhood: A type of cancer that originates from lymphocytes (white blood cells). It is more common during adolescence but can occur during childhood.
  • Hodgkin lymphoma, during pregnancy: A cancer of the lymph system that occurs during pregnancy. The dilemma is that treatment can't be initiated until the baby is delivered or terminated. If the pregnancy is in the early stages, termination is recommended. If the pregnancy is in the later stages when the lymphoma occurs, the baby is usually delivered as early as safely possible in order to commence cancer treatment as soon as possible. The more prompt the treatment, the better the prognosis.
  • Hodgkin's Disease: A form of cancer that affects the lymphatic system.
  • Hodgkin's disease, adult: A type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system in adults. The lymphatic system forms part of the body's immune system. This type of cancer can also occur in children.
  • Hodgkin's disease, childhood: A type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system in children. The lymphatic system forms part of the body's immune system. This type of cancer can also occur in children.
  • Hodgkin's disease, nodular sclerosis: Hodgkin's disease is a type of cancer characterized by the abnormal proliferation of a type of white blood cell called lymphocyte. Hodgkin's lymphoma is classified into classical types and nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The nodular form tends to be more localized than the classical form. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is further subdivided into four subgroups depending on the cell composition of the lymphoma: nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte rich and lymphocyte depleted. The nodular sclerosing form is the most common subtype of classical Hodgkin's disease.
  • Human T Cell Leukemia Virus 1: A type of retrovirus that can infect a type of white blood cell called T cells and result in leukemia. The infection can be spread by sexual contact, breast feeding, transfusions and sharing syringes.
  • Human T-cell leukemia viruses type 2: A type of retrovirus that can infect a type of white blood cell called T cells and result in leukemia. The infection can be spread by sexual contact, breast feeding, transfusions and sharing syringes.
  • Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle: A slow-growing form of malignant melanoma which is the abnormal proliferation of pigment cells called melanocytes. It tends to occur on sun-exposed skin of the face, scalp or neck. The melanoma can remain non-invasive for many years.
  • Hydatidiform mole: A rare condition where an abnormal union between an egg and a sperm results in the formation of grape-like cysts instead of a baby. The growth is not malignant.
  • Hypertrichosis lanuginosa, acquired: Excessive hair growth associated with certain cancers such as lymphoma or cancers involving the digestive system, bronchi, uterus, ovary or urinary tract. Metabolic disorders, certain drugs or anorexia nervosa may also cause the excessive hair growth. The excessive hair growth can occur on the face, neck, limbs and trunk. The hair growth may be patchy or cover most of the body and the hair is usually fine and pale.
  • Hypopharyngeal cancer: Cancer of the bottom part of the throat (hypopharynx).
  • Indigestion: Various eating symptoms of indigestion (dyspepsia)
  • Infantile Fibrosarcoma: A tumor that develops from fibroblasts (cells that produce connective tissue) and tends to occur in soft tissue or in areas surrounding bones. Juvenile fibrosarcoma tends to have a much better prognosis compared to adult fibrosarcoma.
  • Inflammatory breast cancer: Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare and aggressive form of invasive breast cancer, where the skin of the breast becomes red, inflamed and pitted in appearance.
  • Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors: A rare tumor that tends to occur mainly in the soft tissue and internal body organs. The more common specific locations are soft tissue, mediastinum, pancreas, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, mouth, skin, breast, nerve, bone and central nervous system. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the location and size of the tumor.
  • Insulinoma: A rare form of pancreatic cancer that causes excessive secretion of the hormone insulin. A relatively small number of cases are malignant.
  • Intracranial germ cell tumour: A brain tumor that arises from germ (sex) cells. This type of tumor tends to occur in patients under the age of 30, usually in the second decade. Symptoms depend on the size, exact location and rate of growth of the tumor.
  • Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A slow growing malignant cancer that occurs in the bile ducts in the liver.
  • Intraocular melanoma: A type of cancer that develops from pigment producing cells in the eye. The cancer can occur in the iris, choroids or ciliary body. The melanoma may metastasize in some cases. The condition is often asymptomatic.
  • Invasive breast cancer: Invasive breast cancers usually are epithelial tumors of ductal or lobular origin. Features such as size, status of surgical margin, estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR), nuclear and histologic grade, DNA content, S-phase fraction, vascular invasion, tumor necrosis, and quantity of intraductal component are all important in deciding on a course of treatment for any breast tumor.
  • Invasive ductal carcinoma: Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), sometimes called infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is the most common type of breast cancer. About 80% of all breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinomas.
  • Invasive group A Streptococcal disease: Infection with Group A Streptococcal bacteria
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma: Invasive lobular carcinoma is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and then invades surrounding tissues.
  • Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer that occurs in children and involves the proliferation of immature precursors of certain blood cells - myelocytes and monocytes. The proliferation is slower than in acute forms of the disease.
  • Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma: A type of brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. The tumor is derived from a type of cell called an astrocyte and it can occur in various parts of the brain as well as the optic pathways and the spinal cord. Malignancy is rare. Symptoms may vary depending on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Juvenile polyposis of infancy: A genetic inherited risk of developing gastrointestinal tumors. The condition is characterized by gastrointestinal polyps which have a high risk of eventually becoming malignant. The polyps can cause gastrointestinal symptoms even if they aren't malignant.
  • Juvenile polyposis syndrome: An inherited or sporadic condition characterized by the development of multiple noncancerous polyps in the digestive tract usually by the second decade of life. The polyps are generally noncancerous but there may be an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer. The number and size of polyps and the risk of cancer is variable.
  • Juvenile polyposis syndrome, infantile form: A genetic inherited risk of developing gastrointestinal tumors. The condition is characterized by gastrointestinal polyps which have a high risk of eventually becoming malignant. The polyps can cause gastrointestinal symptoms even if they aren't malignant.
  • Kaposi sarcoma: A form of cancer caused by a type of herpesvirus that occurs mainly in the skin but may also affect the lymph nodes, internal organs and mucosal areas. There are four forms of the condition: Classical Indolent form, Endemic African KS, iatrogenic KS and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated KS. Symptoms depend on the extent of internal organ and lymphatic system involvement.
  • Kaposi sarcoma, Endemic African form: A form of cancer caused by a type of herpesvirus that occurs mainly in the skin but may also occur in lymph nodes, internal organs and mucosal areas. The classic type tends to occur mainly on the extremities and internal organ involvement is common in adults. An aggressive form of the condition occurs in children and also involves the lymph nodes. The condition is aggressive in children but fairly benign in adults. Symptoms depend on the extent of internal organ and lymphatic system involvement.
  • Kaposi sarcoma, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated form: A form of cancer caused by a type of herpesvirus that occurs mainly in the skin but may also occur in lymph nodes, internal organs and mucosal areas. The AIDS-associated form is aggressive and tends to occur mainly on the face, genitals and lower extremities with internal organs often being involved as well. Symptoms depend on the extent of internal organ involvement.
  • Kaposi sarcoma, classical indolent form: A form of cancer caused by a type of herpesvirus that occurs mainly in the skin but may also occur in lymph nodes, internal organs and mucosal areas. The classic type tends to occur mainly on the lower legs but the lymph nodes and internal organs may rarely be involved. Symptoms depend on the extent of internal organ involvement.
  • Kaposi sarcoma, iatrogenic form: A form of cancer caused by a type of herpesvirus that occurs mainly in the skin but may also occur in lymph nodes, internal organs and mucosal areas. The iatrogenic form tends to occur mainly on the lower legs but the internal organs are often involved as well. It generally affects immunosuppressed patients and can be aggressive or fairly benign. Symptoms depend on the extent of internal organ involvement.
  • Kaposi's Sarcoma: Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancerous tumor of the connective tissue, and is often associated with AIDS.
  • Kaposiform hemangio-endothelioma: A rare blood vessel tumor that occur primarily in children. It causes localized damage but is not metastatic. Main sites affected are the retroperitoneum and skin but can also occur in the head and neck area, mediastinum and deep soft tissue of the trunk and limbs. Symptoms and prognosis is determined by the size and location of the tumors.
  • Keratoacanthoma, familial: A rare inherited condition characterized by sebaceous gland tumors on the skin and internal malignancies usually involving the digestive tract.
  • Keratosis Palmaris Et Plantaris with Esophageal Cancer: A condition characterized by thickening of the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet as well as an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer which increases with age.
  • Keratosis Palmoplantaris -- Esophageal Carcinoma: A condition characterized by thickening of the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet as well as an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer which increases with age.
  • Keratosis palmoplantaris -- adenocarcinoma of the colon: A rare disorder characterized by cancer of the secretory lining of the colon as well as thickening of the skin on the palms and soles. The colon cancer tends to grow slowly.
  • Keratosis palmoplantaris -- esophageal cancer:
  • Keratosis palmoplantaris with esophageal cancer: A very rare condition involving thickening and hardening of the horny layer of skin on the palms and soles as well as an frequent association with esophageal cancer.
  • Kidney Cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the kidneys
  • Krukenberg carcinoma: A form of ovarian cancer.
  • Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome: A condition where a patient with a carcinoma suffers from progressive muscular weakness.
  • Langerhans cell sarcoma: A rare cancerous growth of Langerhans cells that can develop in the lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen and bones.
  • Large cell carcinoma: Large cell carcinoma is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lungs. This non-small cell lung cancer that represents 10% to 20% of all tumors that start in the bronchi, which are the main branches of the trachea that lead to the lungs.
  • Large granular lymphocyte leukemia: A form of leukemia characterized by an increased number of circulating granular lymphocytes.
  • Laryngeal carcinoma: Cancer of the laryngeal area. Smoking and alcohol increase the risk of this cancer.
  • Larynx Cancer: Cancer of the voice box or nearby areas.
  • Leiomyosarcoma: A rare soft tissue cancer that arises from smooth muscle cells which form the involuntary muscles. Smooth muscle cells can occur in the skin, uterus, stomach, intestine and blood vessel walls. The main location for these tumors is in the uterus, retroperitoneum, pelvis and large blood vessels such as the inferior vena cava. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Lentigo maligna: Lentigo maligna is a melanoma in situ that consists of malignant cells but does not show invasive growth..
  • Lentigo maligna melanoma: A slow-growing form of malignant melanoma which is the abnormal proliferation of pigment cells called melanocytes. It tends to occur on sun-exposed skin of the face, scalp or neck. The melanoma can remain non-invasive for many years.
  • Leukemia: Cancer of the blood cells, usually white blood cells.
  • Leukemia subleukemic: A classification of leukemia where the white blood count is normal (less than 15,000) but there are abnormal white blood cells present in the peripheral blood.
  • Leukemia, B-cell, chronic: A slow growing cancer of the immune system involving proliferation of B-cells.
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, L1: Acute lymphocytic leukemia is a cancer of the white blood cells. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets. There are three main subtypes (L1, L2 and L3) which are differentiated by the appearance of the cancerous cells: L1 is characterized by small, uniform cancer cells with a round nucleus and very little cytoplasm. L1 has a better prognosis than L2. L1 is the main form in children (about 85%) but is less common in adults (about 30%).
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, L2: Acute lymphocytic leukemia is a cancer of the white blood cells. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets. There are three main subtypes (L1, L2 and L3) which are differentiated by the appearance of the cancerous cells: L2 is characterized by larger cells, an irregular-shaped nucleus, more cytoplasm and significant variation between cells. L2 has a poorer prognosis than L1. L2 is the main form in adults (about 65%) but is less common in children (about 15%).
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, L3: Acute lymphocytic leukemia is a relatively aggressive cancer of the white blood cells. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets. There are three main subtypes (L1, L2 and L3) which are differentiated by the appearance of the cancerous cells. L3 is quite uncommon but is very similar to Burkitt's lymphoma - in fact, they may be considered the same disease with different manifestations.
  • Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute: A cancer of the blood-forming tissues of the bone marrow involving the proliferation of a type of infection-fighting white blood cell called a monocyte. Acute leukemia involves a more rapid proliferation of cancer cells compared to chronic forms of leukemia.
  • Leukemia, Myeloid: A form of blood cancer that causes a proliferation of the precursors or immature red blood cells, platelets and certain white blood cells such as granulocytes and monocytes.
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Aggressive-Phase: Myeloid leukemia is a form of cancer where the bone marrow makes too many myeloid cells (granulocytes and their precursors) in the bone marrow which accumulates in the blood and eventually invades various parts of the body. The aggressive phase of myeloid leukemia follows the chronic form and is a sign that the condition is progressing more rapidly to a blast crisis which is the final stage of leukemia.
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic: A slow-growing cancer where the bone marrow makes too many myeloid cells (granulocytes and their precursors) in the bone marrow which accumulates in the blood and eventually invades various parts of the body.
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic-Phase: Myeloid leukemia is a form of cancer where the bone marrow makes too many myeloid cells (granulocytes and their precursors) in the bone marrow which accumulates in the blood and eventually invades various parts of the body. The chronic phase of myeloid leukemia usually involves few if any symptoms. This is the early stage of the disease and without treatment it generally progresses to the accelerated phase of the condition. The majority of patients diagnosed with myeloid leukemia are diagnosed during the chronic phase.
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Philadelphia-Negative: Acute lymphocytic leukemia is a relatively aggressive cancer of the white blood cells. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets. The Philadelphia negative form of the condition is not associated with a genetic mutation. It is distinguished from the positive form by the clinical course which is initially the same but progresses to eventual bone marrow failure without a distinct increase in blast cells. Other differences include poor response to chemotherapy, lower white blood cell counts, greater monocytosis, less basophilia, lower bone marrow myeloid to erythroid ratio and increased likelihood of developing thrombocytopenia. Philadelphia negative patients also tend to be older and median survival rates tend to be poorer.
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Philadelphia-Positive: A relatively aggressive cancer of the cells that produce white blood cells. The Philadelphia form of myeloid leukemia carries a relatively poor prognosis. It involves an acquired genetic mutation which results in the production tyrosine kinase which causes too many abnormal white blood cells to be produced which results in a shortage of other blood cell types. Treatment is aimed at inhibiting the production of tyrosine kinase.
  • Leukemia, T-Cell: A form of blood cancer characterized by the proliferation of cancerous T-cells which make up part of the body's immune system. The exact symptoms and progression vary depending on the subtype involved.
  • Leukemia, T-Cell, Acute: A form of blood cancer characterized by the proliferation of cancerous T-cells which make up part of the body's immune system. The exact symptoms and progression vary depending on the subtype involved. The acute form involves a rapid proliferation of cancerous T-cells and hence a more rapid disease progression and increased severity of symptoms.
  • Leukemia, T-cell, chronic: Cancer of blood cells called T-cells which form part of the immune system.
  • Leukemia, mast-cell: A very aggressive form of leukemia - a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. The cancer can in rare cases develop from chronic myeloid leukemia or systemic mastocytosis but generally develops on its own.
  • Leukoplakia: A mouth disorder where white patches form on the inside of the mouth and on the tongue. Mostly occurs in older people.
  • Lhermitte-Duclos disease: A rare disorder characterized by a slow growing brain tumor located in the cerebellum.
  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by tumor development by young adulthood.
  • Lip and oral cavity cancer: Cancer of the lip or inside the mouth.
  • Lip cancer: It is the main type of oral cancer. Cancer involving the lips
  • Lipoblast-like malignant melanoma: Two distinctive types of signet ring cells may be observed in this variant: (1) the usual type, composed of polygonal cells with accumulation of vimentin filaments in the cytoplasm, which displace the nucleus to the periphery of the cell and also confer a semilunar shape, and (2) a rarer variant, composed of cells with intracytoplasmic vacuoles and scalloped eccentric nuclei. In such situations, the neoplastic cells may resemble monovacuolated lipoblasts. Lipoblast-like cells are very unusual features of metastatic MMs and may be observed in metastatic deposits of signet ring and in balloon cell melanomas.
  • Liposarcoma: A form of malignant mesenchymal tumour usually occurring in the thigh
  • Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: A usually benign type of tumor that develops in the spleen. The name arises from the fact that the tumor develops from the littoral cells which line the blood vessels in the spleen.
  • Liver cancer: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver.
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ: The hollow glands or lobules where milk accumulates in the breast sometimes fill with abnormal ("atypical") cells. This is a precancerous condition and does not directly lead to breast cancer.
  • Locally advanced breast cancer:
  • Lump: Any type of lump on the skin or body areas
  • Lung Cancer Susceptibility 1: Researchers have linked a number of genes to an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The genetic predisposition plus environmental factors and lifestyle factors such as smoking translate to an increased risk of cancer. The genetic predisposition is believed to be insufficient on its own and appears to require the presence of environmental and lifestyle factors such as smoking in order to result in the development of lung cancer. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q23-q25.
  • Lung Cancer Susceptibility 2: Researchers have linked a number of genes to an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The genetic predisposition plus environmental factors and lifestyle factors such as smoking translate to an increased risk of cancer. The genetic predisposition is believed to be insufficient on its own and appears to require the presence of environmental and lifestyle factors such as smoking in order to result in the development of lung cancer. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 15q25.1.
  • Lung Cancer Susceptibility 3: Researchers have linked a number of genes to an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The genetic predisposition plus environmental factors and lifestyle factors such as smoking translate to an increased risk of cancer. The genetic predisposition is believed to be insufficient on its own and appears to require the presence of environmental and lifestyle factors such as smoking in order to result in the development of lung cancer. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 15p15.33.
  • Lung Cancer Susceptibility 4: Researchers have linked a number of genes to an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The genetic predisposition plus environmental factors and lifestyle factors such as smoking translate to an increased risk of cancer. The genetic predisposition is believed to be insufficient on its own and appears to require the presence of environmental and lifestyle factors such as smoking in order to result in the development of lung cancer. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6p21.33.
  • Lung cancer: Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis, which is the invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs. Most lung tumors are malignant.
  • Lymph node neoplasm: Lymph node tumor.
  • Lymphatic neoplasm: A tumor that develops in lymphatic tissue. The tumor may be cancerous or benign.
  • Lymphoblastic lymphoma: A cancer of the lymph system which usually involves immature T-lymphocytes and sometimes B-lymphocytes. The cancer usually affects the mediastinum (between the lungs), bone marrow, brain and spinal cord.
  • Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkin's disease: Hodgkin's disease is a type of cancer characterized by the abnormal proliferation of a type of white blood cell called lymphocyte. Hodgkin's lymphoma is classified into classical types and nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The nodular form tends to be more localized than the classical form. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is further subdivided into four subgroups depending on the cell composition of the lymphoma: nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte rich and lymphocyte depleted. The lymphocyte depleted form is the least common form of Hodgkin's disease.
  • Lymphocytic leukemia: A condition characterized by the proliferation of lymphoid tissues
  • Lymphoma: Cancer involving lymph nodes and the immune system.
  • Lymphoma of the breast: Lymphomas of the breast are rare, accounting for 1.7% to 2.2% of extranodal lymphomas and 0.38% to 0.7% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Although secondary breast lymphomas are also rare, they represent the largest group of metastatic tumors of the breast.
  • Lymphoma, AIDS-related: HIV patients face an increased risk of various infections and cancers. AIDS-related lymphoma is lymphoma that occurs in AIDS patients. Lymphomas are white blood cell cancers (white blood cells form part of the body's immune system).
  • Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Follicular: A cancer of cells in the immune system. The cancer is comprised of large cells and tends to be aggressive and metastasizes readily.
  • Lymphoma, Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue: Malignancies that occur in the lymphoid tissue found in mucosal linings (MALT) e.g. gastrointestinal tract, skin and lungs. Symptoms may vary considerably depending on which organs are involved but usually the stomach is involved. A significant portion of patients suffering from MALTomas also have autoimmune diseases.
  • Lymphoma, gastric non-Hodgkins type: A very rare form of malignant stomach cancer involving lymph tissue.
  • Lymphoma, large-cell: A cancer of cells in the immune system. The cancer is comprised of large cells and tends to be aggressive and metastasizes readily.
  • Lymphoma, large-cell, immunoblastic: A cancer of the immune system characterized by the presence of immunoblasts. Immunoblasts are T cells which have been transformed due to stimulation by an antigen.
  • Lymphoma, small cleaved-cell, diffuse: A slow-growing cancer of the lymph system that involves small cells. The diffuse form has no distinguishable pattern of progression through the lymph node.
  • Lymphoma, small cleaved-cell, follicular: A slow-growing cancer of the lymph system consisting of small cells that can circulate readily in the blood. The cancer occurs in a follicular pattern. Despite it's ability to spread, the cancer tends to be less aggressive than the large cell variety.
  • Lynch Syndrome 1:
  • Lynch Syndromes:
  • Lynch syndrome I: A rare disorder characterized by the inherited predisposition to develop colorectal cancer which usually occurs at a younger age than non-inherited forms. Type I differs from Type II in that there is an increased risk of colorectal cancers but not necessarily other cancers.
  • Lynch syndrome II: A rare disorder characterized by the inherited predisposition to develop colorectal cancer in the colorectal which usually occurs at a younger age than non-inherited forms. Type II differs from type I in that there is an increased risk of cancers in various parts of the body as well as colorectal cancer.
  • Lynch syndrome type I: Lynch syndrome is a rare disorder.The estimated proportion of all Colorectal cancers that are caused by Lynch syndrome depends on how this syndrome is defined, with traditional definitions being based on family history and age of onset. It is also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome(HNPCC). The syndrome is classified as Type I in the absence of extracolonic cancers and Type II if these are present.
  • Lynch syndrome type II: Lynch syndrome is a rare disorder.The estimated proportion of all Colorectal cancers that are caused by Lynch syndrome depends on how this syndrome is defined, with traditional definitions being based on family history and age of onset. It is also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome(HNPCC). The syndrome is classified as Type I in the absence of extracolonic cancers and Type II if these are present.
  • MN1: A rare genetic defect that can cause meningiomas to develop. A meningioma is a tumor of the meninges which is a membrane that encloses the brain and spinal cord The genetic defect occurs on chromosome 22. The tumor is usually slow-growing and benign.
  • MSI-H colorectal cancer: MSI sporadic colorectal cancers with a high level of MSI (MSI-H) form a well defined group with distinct clinicopathologic features characterized by an overall better long-term prognosis.
  • MSI-L colorectal cancer: Colorectal cancer is classified based on the microsatellite instability status and this is important for effective clinical management. MSI-L colorectal cancer is not clearly defined.
  • MSS colorectal cancer: Microsatellite analysis is commonly used initial screening tests for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.
  • Male Breast Cancer: Cancer of the breast in males.
  • Malignant Lung Cancer: Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis, which is the invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs. Most lung tumors are malignant. This means that they invade and destroy the healthy tissues around them and can spread throughout the body
  • Malignant Teratocarcinosarcoma: A rare type of cancer that involves connective (bone, cartilage, fat) and epithelial (skin and lining of internal organs) tissue and tends to be of a large size. It often tends to occur in the nose, pharynx and sinus areas. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor.
  • Malignant astrocytoma: A very malignant primary brain tumor consisting of astrocytes. The tumor spreads throughout the brain and a third of patients dying in the first year.
  • Malignant fibrous histiocytoma: A type of malignant cancers that develops in fibrous support tissue or bone. Symptoms will depend on the exact location of the tumor. Tumors most often occur in the extremities but can occur in just about any part of the body.
  • Malignant germ cell tumor: Malignant tumors that are made up of germ cells which are immature cells that eventually become reproductive system tissues in males and females. The symptoms depend on the location of the tumor which may occur in the ovaries, testes or anywhere along the body's midline such as the chest, head, abdomen, pelvis and lower back.
  • Malignant mesenchymal tumor: A malignant tumor that arises from soft tissue. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor. It is a usually aggressive tumor that can occur muscle, fat, bone and blood vessels.
  • Malignant mesothelioma: Malignant mesothelioma affects the lining or membranes of certain large cavities in the body. These cavities, called the serous cavities, house certain major organs in the body including the heart, lungs, abdomen and others
  • Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor: A rare malignant cancer that develops in the uterus, ovary or fallopian tubes. The tumor contains epithelial and stromal cells. The cancer may be slow-growing or aggressive and may metastasize.
  • Malignant obstructive biliary disease: Obstruction or blockage in one of the bile ducts by a tumor. Bile ducts are vessels which carry bile from the liver to the digestive system or gallbladder. Jaundice is usually one of the main symptoms.
  • Malignant peptic ulcer: Malignant ulcers are the complications of an untreated chronic gastric ulcers. A peptic ulcer is erosion in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine.
  • Malignant rhabdoid tumors: An aggressive malignant tumor that occurs in children. Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor. The tumors often form in the kidneys and then tend to metastasize to the brain and sometimes the lungs. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Mantle cell lymphoma: A form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (a cancer of the B-lymphocytes) which has a very poor prognosis with the 5-year survival rate being about 25%. The lymphoma can spread to other parts of the body such as the liver, spleen or bone marrow.
  • Mast cell sarcoma: A mast cell sarcoma is an aggressive form of cancerous tumor that is derived from mast cells and connective tissue. The tumor is quite rare but tends to be common in dogs and cats.
  • Mediastinal endodermal sinus tumors: A rare yolk sac tumor that occurs in the mediastinal area (the area that separates the lungs). It is a type of cancer that originates from immature cells (germ cells) that evolve into gonadal tissue but can also be found in other parts of the body such as the chest. The tumors tend to be quite aggressive and often metastasize.
  • Medullary carcionoma: Medullary carcinoma of the breast is a variant of breast cancer. These tumors have a similar presentation to other breast cancers but are distinguished by a characteristic histologic appearance.
  • Medulloblastoma: A type of brain tumor.
  • Melanoma: Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. It is the leading cause of death from skin disease. It involves cells called melanocytes, which produce a skin pigment called melanin. Melanin is responsible for skin and hair color.
  • Melanoma -- astrocytoma syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of a melanoma with a type of brain tumor called an astrocytoma. The exact symptoms may vary depending on the exact location of the brain tumor.
  • Melanoma of the choroid: A type of eye cancer that occurs in the pigment-producing cells of the choroid which is a layer beneath the retina consisting mainly of blood vessels.
  • Melanoma of the ciliary body: A type of eye cancer that occurs in the pigment-producing cells of the ciliary body which is located between the iris and the choroid.
  • Melanoma of the iris: A cancer that develops in pigment-producing cells in the iris (colored part) of the eye. This type of melanoma usually grows slowly and rarely spreads to other parts of the eye.
  • Melanoma, familial: Melanoma that occurs in a familial pattern. Melanoma is a cancer of pigment-producing cells and can occur in a number of parts of the body such as the skin and eyes.
  • Melioidosis: Bacterial infection from soil or water.
  • Meninges cancer: A disorder where a cancerous malignancy is found in the meninges of the brain
  • Meningioma: A slow-growing tumor of the meninges that is not cancerous. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor.
  • Merkel cell cancer: A rapidly growing, aggressive form of skin cancer that occur on or just under the skin.
  • Mesothelioma: Type of lung cancer associated with asbestos.
  • Mesothelioma, adult malignant: A rare type of malignant cancer that occurs in the pleura (chest lining) or peritoneum (abdominal lining). The cancer develops in people who have inhaled asbestos fibres. Symptoms tend to occur many years or even decades after the exposure.
  • Mesothelioma, adult malignant -- peritoneal: A rare type of malignant cancer that occurs in the peritoneum (abdominal lining). The cancer develops in people who have inhaled asbestos fibers. Symptoms tend to occur many years or even decades after the exposure.
  • Mesothelioma, adult malignant -- pleural: A rare type of malignant cancer that occurs in the pleura (chest lining). The cancer develops in people who have inhaled asbestos fibers. Symptoms tend to occur many years or even decades after the exposure.
  • Metaplastic carcinoma: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is a rare neoplasm containing a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal elements.
  • Metastatic adrenal cancer: The adrenal gland is a common site of metastatic disease. The adrenal gland is the fourth most common site of metastasis, after the lung, liver, and bone.
  • Metastatic blood cancer: Cancer cells can "break away" from a primary tumor, enter lymphatic and blood vessels, circulate through the bloodstream, and settle down to grow within normal tissues elsewhere in the body.
  • Metastatic bone cancer: Cancer cells that break off from a primary tumor and enter the bloodstream can reach nearly all tissues of the body. Bones are a common place for these cancer cells to settle in and start growing.
  • Metastatic breast cancer: Metastatic breast cancer is the term used to describe cancer that has spread from the original site in the breast to other organs or tissues in the body.
  • Metastatic cancer: Any cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
  • Metastatic insulinoma: A rare form of pancreatic cancer that causes excessive secretion of the hormone insulin and can spread to other parts of the body (metastasis).
  • Metastatic liver cancer: Metastatic liver cancer is a cancer that has spread to the liver from elsewhere in the body.
  • Metastatic lymph cancer: Metastasis is a complex series of steps in which cancer cells leave the original tumor site and migrate to other parts of the body via the lymphatic system.

 

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