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Diseases » Chorea » Glossary
 

Glossary for Chorea

  • 3 alpha methylglutaconicaciduria, type 3: A rare genetic condition where a gene mutation prevents the production of certain protein which leads to a build-up of an acid (3-methylglutaconic acid) which can have a negative impact on the body. The condition is characterized mainly by damage to the optic nerve.
  • 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type 1: A recessively inherited metabolic disorder characterized by methylglutaconic acid in the urine.
  • Aceruloplasminemia: A rare, recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a lack of ceruloplasmin in the blood. The lack of ceruloplasmin results in abnormal iron use in the body and leads to iron deposits in various body tissues such as the brain, pancreas and liver. The iron overload results a neurodegeneration (ataxia, dementia and extrapyramidal disorders) and diabetes. Patients with only a partial absence of ceruloplasmin are often asymptomatic.
  • Acute rheumatic fever: Bacterial joint infection with risk of heart complications.
  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: A rare neurological disorder involving paralysis on one side of the body that is only temporary but occurs often. The extent of the paralysis is variable.
  • Amphetamine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Amphetamine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia: A rare inherited childhood disorder involving progressive degeneration of the nervous system.
  • Athetosis: Slow, continuous, involuntary writhing movements. Usually the hands and feet are involved but the face, tongue, neck and other muscle groups may also be involved.
  • Autoimmune diseases: A group of disorders in which the primary cause is the an inflammatory reaction caused by the body's own immune system attacking tissues
  • Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic 1: Abnormal calcium deposits in the part of the brain called the basal ganglia. Type 1 results in psychiatric, cognitive or neurological problems associated with the calcification. The symptoms experienced are variable.
  • Benedikt's syndrome: Damage to a part of the brain (intremedullary part of midbrain) can result in various neurological symptoms which can vary depending on the exact location and extent of the damage. Limb and trunk symptoms tend to be on the opposite side the eye symptoms. The damage may be caused by such things as trauma, cancer and stroke.
  • Benign hereditary chorea:
  • Brain conditions: Medical conditions that affect the brain
  • Calcification of basal ganglia with or without hypocalcemia: Calcification of a part of the brain called the basal ganglia. That calcification may be associated with conditions such as hypothyroidism, cytomegalovirus, and AIDS or may occur for no apparent reason. The severity of the condition may vary greatly from asymptomatic to neurological, psychiatric and movement disorders. The disorder may also progress at variable rates or remain stable depending on the underlying disease process.
  • Cerebral Palsy: Any brain disorder causing movement disability
  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 4: A rare inherited biochemical disorder involving the progressive accumulation of certain chemicals (lipopigments) in body tissues due to deficiency of an enzyme (palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1) needed to process it.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Toluene: Toluene is a chemical used mainly in pesticides, degreasers, glues and pain removers. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chlorpromazine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Chlorpromazine (a neuroleptic drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Chorea familial benign: A rare movement disorder which is stable and involves abnormal involuntary movements (chorea) and continuous writhing movements.
  • Chorea gravidarum: Chorea gravidarum is a specific type of abnormal involuntary movements that occur during pregnancy.
  • Chorea, remitting with nystagmus and cataracts: A rare inherited disorder characterized by chorea and involuntary horizontal eye movements that start in infancy and improve or disappear by the age of 10. Cataracts were also present.
  • Choreoacanthocytosis amyotrophic: A rare inherited disease involving neurological degeneration and abnormal red blood cell shape. The disorder progresses slowly and causes involuntary movements, loss of cognitive ability, behavioral changes and seizures.
  • Choreoathetoid movements: abnormal movements of the hands, legs
  • Choreoathetosis: Choreoathetosis is the occurrence of involuntary movements in a combination of chorea and athetosis.
  • Cornelia de Lange Syndrome: A very rare disorder involving delayed physical development and various malformations involving the head, face and limbs. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • De Barsy Syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by loose, inelastic skin, involuntary limb movements, cloudy corneas and other abnormalities.
  • Encephalophathy recurrent of childhood: A recurring form of brain disease that has been noted to occur within families. The condition appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in these families. Symptoms tend to have a recurring nature and can last for periods of days to weeks. The condition is believed to be an inherited predisposition with underlying immunological or metabolic problems which trigger the condition.
  • Ethotoin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ethotoin (an anticonvulsant drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Facial spasms: Spasms or twitches of facial muscles
  • Fahr's Syndrome: A rare neurologic disorder where calcium is deposited in various parts of the brain resulting in progressive loss of motor and mental function.
  • Glutaricaciduria type 1: A rare inherited metabolic disorder where a genetic mutation results in the deficiency of an enzyme called glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase which is required to metabolise certain amino acids (lysine, hydroxylysine and tryptophan). Problems occur when these metabolites build up in the body and cause neurological problems. Symptoms often develop following an acute infection or fasting. The severity of the condition is highly variable from development of neurological symptoms during infancy to asymptomatic adults. The degree of enzyme deficiency will usually determine the severity.
  • Hallervorden-Spatz disease: Nerve disorder causing movement problems.
  • Haloperidol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Haloperidol (an antipsychotic drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Huntington's Disease: Inherited disease causing progressive mental deterioration.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypoparathyroidism: A condition where the parathyroid glands don't produce enough parathyroid hormone for normal body functioning. The primary function of these hormones is to regulate body calcium levels.
  • Infantile epileptic-dyskinetic encephalopathy: A genetic disorder characterized by severe epilepsy and dyskinesia that starts during infancy. This form of the condition is caused by a defect on the ARX gene.
  • Kernicterus: A rare condition involving high blood levels of bilirubin which can also accumulate in the brain and lead to neurological problems.
  • Kuf Disease:
  • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: Inherited biochemical disorder of purine metabolism caused by the virtual absence of an enzyme called hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase or HPRT.
  • Lupus: Autoimmune disease with numerous effects on various organs and linings.
  • Mc Leod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by neuromuscular, blood and central nervous system symptoms. The disease is slowly progressive.
  • Mercury poisoning -- Folk Remedies: Various folk remedies and medicines contain inorganic mercury and mercury salts. They can lead to mercury poisoning and severe cases can result in death. Children tend to be more sensitive to the effects of mercury poisoning than adults. Even low levels of exposure can cause neurological symptoms in infants and young children. Fetal exposure to mercury can also result in symptoms.
  • Mercury poisoning -- consumption of contaminated fish: Eating fish contaminated with mercury can lead to mercury poisoning in humans. The severity and range of symptoms experienced can vary greatly depending on the level and duration of exposure. Severe poisoning can lead to death. Pregnant women who eat mercury contaminated fish may give birth to infants who suffer symptoms such as ataxia, tremors, seizures, mental retardation and cerebral palsy. An epidemic was reported where hundreds of Japanese villagers suffered mercury poisoning after eating fish contaminated by a nearby factory. Nearly half of the victims eventually died and children born during that period suffered a variety of neurological problems.
  • Microcephaly -- pontocerebellar hypoplasia -- dyskinesia: A rare, recessively inherited disorder characterized by an abnormally small brain and brainstem which manifests as a small head and mental retardation. The brain progressively degenerates.
  • Mount Reback syndrome: A rare inherited condition characterized by episodes of chorea (involuntary movements) which may be triggered by such things as hunger, tiredness, stress, coffee, alcohol and tobacco. Episodes may last for minutes or hours.
  • Movement disorders: Medical conditions affecting the movement systems, such as walking or tremor.
  • Movement symptoms: Changes to movement or motor abilities
  • Muscle conditions: Any condition that affects the muscles of the body
  • Muscle spasm: A muscle spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice.
  • Muscle spasms: Involuntary movement or contraction of muscles without full control
  • Muscle twitch: Small muscle spasms
  • Musculoskeletal conditions: Medical conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system of bones, muscles and related structures.
  • Nervous system conditions: Diseases affecting the nerves and the nervous system.
  • Neuhauser-Eichner-Opitz syndrome: A very rare form of brain disease which causes recurring bouts of symptoms that may last from days to weeks.
  • Neuroacanthocytosis: An autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by tics, chorea, and personality changes
  • Neuroferritinopathy: A rare disorder where a genetic mutation results in a neurological disease resulting from abnormal iron and ferritin deposits in the brain.
  • Olivopontocerebellar atrophy I: A disorder where degeneration of certain parts of the brain and spinal cord and results in symptoms such as muscle problems, chorea and speech disturbance.
  • Oral contraceptives -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Oral contraceptives during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis: A rare inherited neurological disorder involving short, recurring attacks of involuntary movement. The attacks usually only last for 5 to 10 seconds.
  • Polycythemia: Excess red blood cells in the blood
  • Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Type 2B: A rare inherited condition where the brainstem and part of the brain (cerebellum) is abnormally small. Type 2B differs from other types with respect to the location of the genetic defect.
  • Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Type 2C: A rare inherited condition where the brainstem and part of the brain (cerebellum) is abnormally small. Type 2C differs from other types with respect to the location of the genetic defect.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Phenytoin: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Phenytoin (an anticonvulsant medication) has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Post-Streptococcal Neurologic Disorders: A rare autoimmune disorder where the body develops an abnormal autoimmune response to streptococcal infection and causes neurological symptoms.
  • Pregnancy: The condition of supporting a fetus from conception till birth.
  • Psychogenic Movement Disorders: Movement problems for which no neurological, chemical or structural cause can be determined. The condition is believed to be the result of a psychiatric problem and symptoms occur subconsciously.
  • Pyruvate decarboxylase deficiency: A rare genetic disorder involving an enzyme (pyruvate decarboxylase) deficiency which results in symptoms such as failure to thrive, psychomotor retardation, small head, eye problems, increased blood ammonia levels and lactic acidosis which can result in infant death in severe cases.
  • Respiratory failure: Failure of the respiratory system
  • Rheumatic fever: An inflammatory disorder that can occur as a complication of untreated streptococcal bacterial infection such as strep throat or scarlet fever. The condition may affect the brain, skin, heart and joints.
  • Seizures -- intellectual deficit due to hydroxylysinuria: A rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, seizures and high levels of hydroxylysine in the urine.
  • Spasms: Involuntary muscle movements without full control.
  • Spastic paraplegia 20, autosomal recessive: A rare disorder characterized mainly by progressive stiffness, weakness and wasting of the lower leg muscles. The thumb muscle and speech is also affected.
  • Spinocerebellar Ataxia: A condition characterised by a failure of muscle coordination due to pathology arising in the spinocerebellar tract of the spinal cord
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 17: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 6q27 defect) characterized by . Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy, type 2: A neurological disorder characterized by progressive ataxia, tremor and muscle weakness and wasting. The rate of progression and severity is variable with some needing wheelchairs in their second decade and others still capable of some walking in their 4th decade.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 1: A neurological disorder characterized by progressive ataxia, tremor and muscle weakness and wasting. The rate of progression and severity is variable with some needing wheelchairs in their second decade and others still capable of some walking in their 4th decade.
  • Sydenham chorea: Brain disease causing involuntary movements or spasms.
  • Tardive Dyskinesia: The toxic neurological side effects of neuroleptic drugs that have been used long term.
  • Tics: Involuntary muscle twitches
  • Tourette Syndrome: A neurological disorder involving vocal and movement tics where where uncontrollable movements or verbal utterances are made.
  • Twitches: Involuntary sudden movements of part of the body
  • Valproic Acid -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Valproic Acid during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: The bovine spongiform encephalopathy affects cattle but the variant form can infect humans. Human infection can occur by consuming infected cattle products, especially the brain and other central nervous system tissues.
  • Westphal disease: A condition that is closely associated with Huntington's disease and is a clinical variant of it
  • Wilson's Disease: Wilson disease, or hepatolenticular degeneration, is a neurodegenerative disease of copper metabolism.
  • Wolfram's disease: A condition that is inherited and consists of multiple symptoms

 

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