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Diseases » Chronic diarrhea » Glossary
 

Glossary for Chronic diarrhea

  • Acanthocytosis: A rare disorder where most of the red blood cells are abnormal with spiny projections due to lipid abnormalities. The blood abnormality is seen in conditions such as abetalipoproteinemia, severe liver disease and severe malnutrition. Symptoms and prognosis depend on the underlying disorder.
  • Alcohol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Alcohol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Amebiasis: An intestinal infection caused by a parasitic amebic organism. It is usually associated with poor sanitation.
  • Amyloid Neuropathies: A peripheral nerve disorder caused by abnormal amyloid deposits in the nerves. Sensory, autonomic or motor nerves may be affected. The degree of nerve involvement, and hence symptoms, are variable.
  • Aplasia cutis congenital -- intestinal lymphangiectasia: A rare disorder characterized by a skin defect and dilated intestinal lymph vessels.
  • Aspartylglucosaminidase deficiency: A rare glycoprotein metabolism disorder caused by a deficiency of an enzyme called aspartylglucosaminidase. Patients tend to develop normally during the first few years of life and development continues slowly until adolescence when mental retardation becomes progressively worse.
  • Aspartylglucosaminuria: A rare glycoprotein metabolism disorder caused by a deficiency of an enzyme called aspartylglucosaminidase. Patients tend to develop normally during the first few years of life and development continues slowly until adolescence when mental retardation becomes progressively worse.
  • Aspartylglycosaminuria: A rare glycoprotein metabolism disorder caused by a deficiency of an enzyme called aspartylglucosaminidase. Patients tend to develop normally during the first few years of life and development continues slowly until adolescence when mental retardation becomes progressively worse.
  • Caffeine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to caffeine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Carcinoid: A carcinoid tumor is a type of neuroendocrine tumor which tends to occur in the lungs or gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Celiac Disease: Digestive intolerance to gluten in the diet.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 1: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 6p21.3. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 10: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 3q25-q26. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 11: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 3q28. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 12: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 6q25.3. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 13: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect in the SH2B3 gene on chromosome 12q24. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 2: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 5q31-q33. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 3: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q33. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 4: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 19p13.1. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 5: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 15q11-q13. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 6: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 4q27. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 7: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 1q31. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 8: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q11-q12. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 9: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 3p21. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Chronic inflammatory diarrhea: Inflammatory diarrhea occurs when there is damage to the mucosal lining or brush border, which leads to a passive loss of protein-rich fluids, and a decreased ability to absorb these lost fluids.
  • Chronic osmotic diarrhea: Osmotic diarrhea occurs when too much water is drawn into the bowels. Children: >20 g/kg/day of stool
  • Chronic secretory diarrhea: Secretory diarrhea means that there is an increase in the active secretion, or there is an inhibition of absorption.
  • Chronic steatorrheal diarrhea: Chronic steatorrheal diarrhea is a condition characterized by passage of excessive watery stools with fat usually related to malabsorptive disorders.
  • Collagenous Colitis: A chronic disorder of the digestive system characterized by inflammation and thickening of the large intestine lining.
  • Common Variable Immunodeficiency: An immunodeficiency disorder involving low blood gamma globulin levels which results in an increased susceptibility to infections. The condition may be inherited or can be caused by certain drugs (levamisole, hydantoin and carbamazepine).
  • Corneal dystrophy -- pigmentary anomaly -- malabsorption: A very rare syndrome characterized by eye problems, pigmented skin spots and malabsorption due to chronic diarrhea.
  • Crohn's disease: Crohn's disease causes inflammation of the digestive system. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease. The disease can affect any area from the mouth to the anus. It often affects the lower part of the small intestine called the ileum.
  • Cystic fibrosis -- gastritis -- megaloblastic anemia: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by cystic fibrosis, anemia and gastritis.
  • Diabetes: Failing or reduced ability of the body to handle sugars.
  • Diabetic Diarrhea: Diarrhea that occurs in diabetics as a result of the damage done by diabetes to the digestive system. Digestive system damage is caused by intestinal neuropathy (damage to intestinal nerves) or bacterial overgrowth or both.
  • Diarrhea: Loose or watery stool.
  • Diarrhea chronic with villous atrophy: A very rare metabolic disorder which causes abnormalities in the intestinal lining which results in chronic diarrhea. The reported patients died at 12 years of age and suffered a variety of other problems.
  • Digestive Diseases: Diseases that affect the digestive system
  • Dupont-Sellier-Chochillon syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by an abnormally narrow duodenum and pancreatic dysfunction.
  • Ectodermal dysplasia, anhidrotic with T-cell immunodeficiency, autosomal dominant: An inherited disorder characterized by dry, rough skin, sparse scalp hair, cone-shaped teeth and an immune system disorder.
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IX: A rare genetic connective tissue disorder involving a defective copper metabolism and characterized by mildly hyperextensible skin, lax joints, bladder problems and chronic diarrhea.
  • Fecal incontinence: Leaking or poorly controlled bowel motions
  • Giardia: Contagious parasitic digestive infection
  • Good syndrome: A rare condition characterized by low immunity (due to reduced number of B cells) and thymoma.
  • Habba syndrome: Chronic diarrhea caused by a dysfunctional gall bladder which produces an abnormal amount of bile.
  • Hemorrhoids: Swollen blood vessels around the anus.
  • Hyper-IgM Syndrome: A rare inherited immunodeficiency disorder which causes frequent infections involving the ears, eyes, sinuses, lungs, skin, respiratory tract and other areas of the body.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • ICF syndrome: A very rare, recessively inherited syndrome characterized mainly by a weak immune system and facial anomalies.
  • Immune defect due to absence of thymus: A congenital disorder where the absence of the thymus results in immune system problems (deficiency of T-Lymphocytes). The thymus is involved in the production of mature functioning T-cells which fight infection.
  • Immunodeficiency, combined, severe, due to ZAP70 deficiency: A very rare, recessively inherited form of severe combined immunodeficiency.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome: Spasms in the colon wall
  • Isosporosiasis: A parasitic disease caused by a protozoa called Isospora belli. Infection occurs through eating contaminated food and tends to occur in tropical areas. Immunocompromised patients tend to be more susceptible to the infection and the symptoms are more severe.
  • Kashani-Strom-Utley syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a narrowed pulmonary aorta and urinary obstructive disease.
  • Lactose Intolerance: Lactose intolerance is the inability to metabolize lactose, a sugar found in milk and other dairy products, because the required enzyme lactase is absent in the intestinal system or its availability is lowered.
  • Laxative abuse: When a person uses laxatives to excess
  • Lissencephaly, X-linked 2: A rare brain malformation where the surface of the brain is smoother than normal. Genital anomalies are also associated. The severity of the disorder is variable.
  • Lymphatic Obstruction: A blockage of the lymph vessels that drain fluid from body tissues and facilitate immune system cell movement through the body. Lymphatic obstruction can be caused by such things as tumors, surgery, injury and infection. Obstruction can be primary (as in the case of inherited conditions such as lymphatic hypoplasia) or secondary (as in the case of infection).
  • Lymphocytic colitis: Inflammation of the colon which is only visible through a microscope.
  • Malabsorption due to bile acid synthesis defects, idiopathic: Impaired synthesis of bile acids which impairs digestive system functioning and results in severely inhibited absorption of fats.
  • Microvillus Inclusion Disease: A rare, inherited, progressive intestinal disease where a defect in the intestinal wall results in severe diarrhea after birth.
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type 2 Hunter syndrome- severe form: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans) in various body tissues due to insufficient amounts of the enzyme (iduronidate 2-sulfatase) needed to break it down.
  • Neural crest-derived tumors: A neuroendocrine tumor that occurs only in children and infants tends to have a chronic progression. The tumors may be benign or malignant and symptoms will vary depending on the location and malignancy of the tumor. Neural crest-derived tumors include benign swchwannomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, neurofibromas and primary melanomas.
  • Non infectious chronic diarrhea: Diarrhoea that lasts for more than 2 weeks is considered persistent or chronic.
  • Pancreatic insufficiency: Impaired pancreatic functioning. The pancreas does not produce sufficient digestive enzymes to properly digest lipids and proteins. Pancreatic insufficiency may be caused by such things as pancreatic cancer, cystic fibrosis, pancreatic resection and chronic pancreatitis.
  • Parasitic Conditions: A condition that is characterised by another organism living off another organism
  • Pearson's anemia: Pearson's anemia is a rare progressive condition characterized by abnormal pancreatic functioning and sideroblastic anemia. Diagnosis usually occurs within the first 7 years of life and death in infancy is common.
  • Retinal telangiectasia and hypogammaglobulinemia: A rare disorder characterized by the association of poor immunity with dilated retinal blood vessels.
  • SCID: Major failure of the immune system, usually genetic.
  • Scleroderma: A rare, progressive connective tissue disorder involving thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissue. There are a number of forms of scleroderma with some forms being systemic (involving internal organs).
  • Severe combined immunodeficiency, X-linked: A rare inherited disorder where a genetic mutation results in a deficiency of normal lymphocytes which results in a poorly functioning immune system. Sufferers are prone to infections which would probably be harmless in people with fully functioning immune systems.
  • Short Bowel Syndrome: Disorder of shortened bowel usually from bowel surgery.
  • Strongyloidiasis: A parasitic infectious disease involving the intestines and caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Infection usually occurs in crowded, unsanitized populations.
  • Tropical sprue: A rare digestive disease where the small intestine can't absorb nutrients properly.
  • Ulcerative colitis: Ulcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis is a form of colitis, a disease of the intestine, specifically the large intestine or colon, that includes characteristic ulcers, or open sores, in the colon.
  • Van Bogaert disease: A rare inherited condition where cholesterol is deposited in the brain and other parts of the body. The disease is classified as a lipid storage disorder due to the abnormal deposition of cholesterol and cholestanol in various parts of the body - especially the brain, lungs and Achilles tendon. The condition is possibly highly underdiagnosed.
  • Van Bogaert's disease: A rare inherited condition where cholesterol is deposited in the brain and other parts of the body. The disease is classified as a lipid storage disorder due to the abnormal deposition of cholesterol and cholestanol in various parts of the body - especially the brain, lungs and Achilles tendon. The condition is possibly highly underdiagnosed.
  • Van Bogaert-Scherer-Epstein Disease: A rare inherited condition where cholesterol is deposited in the brain and other parts of the body. The disease is classified as a lipid storage disorder due to the abnormal deposition of cholesterol and cholestanol in various parts of the body - especially the brain, lungs and Achilles tendon. The condition is possibly highly underdiagnosed.
  • Vipoma: A rare disorder caused by an increase in secretion of vasoactive intestinal peptide by the pancreas. The syndrome is often caused by an islet-cell tumor (except for beta cells) in the pancreas.
  • Whipple's Disease: Rare malabsorption disease from bacterial digestive infection
  • XLAG syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by genital anomalies and abnormal brain development which results in severe neurological symptoms. Epilepsy usually starts during infancy. The disorder is inherited in a X-linked manner so only males manifest the full severity of symptoms whereas female carriers are asymptomatic or suffer only mild symptoms.
  • Xanthomatosis cerebrotendinous: A rare inherited condition where cholesterol is deposited in the brain and other parts of the body. The disease is classified as a lipid storage disorder due to the abnormal deposition of cholesterol and cholestanol in various parts of the body - especially the brain, lungs and Achilles tendon. The condition is possibly highly underdiagnosed.
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: A rare disorder where excessive levels of the hormone gastrin are released into the stomach which increases stomach acidity which results in peptic ulcer development. A hormone secreting pancreatic or duodenal tumor is usually the cause.

 

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