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Glossary for Congestive Heart Failure

  • ACAD9 deficiency: A metabolic disorder involving a deficiency of an enzyme (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-9). The symptoms are variable and are usually triggered by a viral infection or ingestion of aspirin which can trigger a Reye-like episode which can cause death.
  • Absence of pulmonary artery: The absence of a pulmonary artery at birth.
  • Acute megacaryoblastic leukemia: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. More specifically, it involves the rapid proliferation of megakaryoblasts (premature form of megakaryocytes).
  • Adrenal disorders: Disorders affecting the adrenal glands
  • Aging: The medical conditions from getting older.
  • Alcoholism: Alcoholism is the compulsive urge to drink alcohol despite knowing the negative impact on one's health.
  • Amyloid cardiopathy: Amyloidosis is a rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage and is potentially fatal. The cardiac form involves deposits of amyloid in the heart muscle which affects its function. The electrical conduction system of the heart is impaired.
  • Amyloid cardiopathy, familial: Amyloidosis is a rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage and is potentially fatal. The familial cardiac form is inherited and involves deposits of amyloid in the heart muscle which affects its function. The electrical conduction system of the heart is impaired.
  • Amyloidosis: A rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage and is potentially fatal. Symptoms depend on the organs involved. There are numerous forms of the condition: primary amyloidosis, secondary amyloidosis, hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis and familial amyloidosis.
  • Anemia, Blackfan Diamond: Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare genetic condition where the bone marrow is unable to make sufficient red blood cells which leads low levels of red blood cells. There are eight subtypes of the condition which differ in the location of the genetic defect and the incidence of additional symptoms such as malformations. The severity of symptoms is variable but most cases are serious.
  • Aortic arches defect: A defect in the top part of the aorta (aortic arch) that consists of several arterial branches. There is a variety of defects that can occur and symptoms will be determined by the particular defect involved. Possible types of defects includes aortic coarctation and aortic arch hypoplasia.
  • Aortic stenosis: A condition which affects the aortic valve of the heart resulting in stenosis of the valve.
  • Aortic valve disease: Disease of the heart's aortic valve
  • Aorto-ventricular tunnel: A rare heart defect where a tunnel from between the ascending aorta and the cavity of the left or sometimes right heart ventricle. The severity of the condition is highly variable from asymptomatic for many years to fetal death. Often other heart anomalies are also associated.
  • Aplastic anemia: A blood disorder where the bone marrow produces insufficient new blood cells.
  • Arterial calcification of infancy: A rare disorder involving widespread calcification of arteries which obstructs blood flow.
  • Asbestosis: Lung condition from asbestos exposure
  • Ascites: Fluid accumulation in abdominal cavity
  • Asthma: Repeated attacks of breathing difficulty.
  • Asthma in Adults:
  • Asthma in Children:
  • Asthma-like conditions: Medical conditions similar to asthma, or having similar symptoms.
  • Asymmetric septal hypertrophy: A disease of the heart muscle characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function.
  • Atrioventricular Septal Defects: Defect in the wall between the atrium and ventricle.
  • Atrioventricular septal defect: A congenital heart defect where the valves and walls between the upper and lower heart chambers (atrial and ventricular septa and the atrioventricular valves) don't develop properly. Symptoms are determined by the severity of the malformation.
  • Autoimmune Myocarditis: Inflammation of the heart muscle due to the body's own immune system attacking it.
  • Bland-Garland-White syndrome: A rare birth malformation where the left coronary artery comes out of the pulmonary artery instead of the aorta. Usually, infants are usually healthy for a few months after which they start having symptoms of heart problems. Occasionally, patients may be asymptomatic even into adulthood but usually death occurs during infancy.
  • Breathing difficulties: Various types of breathing difficulty (dyspnea).
  • Breathing-related sleep disorder: Breathing-related sleep disorder refers to a spectrum of breathing anomalies ranging from chronic or habitual snoring to upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) to frank obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or, in some cases, obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS).
  • Budd-Chiari syndrome: Budd-Chiari syndrome is the clinical picture caused by occlusion of the hepatic veins. It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites and hepatomegaly.
  • COPD: Severe obstruction of bronchial air flow typically from bronchitis and/or emphysema.
  • Carcinoid syndrome: Carcinoid heart disease is a rare, metastatic disease that occurs predominantly in the right heart. The tricuspid and pulmonic valves are affected, leading to right heart failure, which results in increased morbidity and mortality.
  • Cardiac malformation: Any malformation or structural defect of the heart or it's structures. Some examples include atrioventricular septal defect, conotruncal malformations, transposition of great vessels and heart valve dysplasia. The symptoms vary in nature and severity depending on the type of malformation.
  • Cardiomyopathy: Any disease of the heart muscle
  • Cardiomyopathy -- hypogonadism -- metabolic anomalies: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart muscle disease, hypogonadism, blindness, deafness and metabolic anomalies. Puberty was normal despite the hypogonadism.
  • Cardiomyopathy -- spherocytosis: A rare disorder characterized by the association of spherocytosis with heart muscle disease. Spherocytosis is a red blood cell disorder where the red blood cells have abnormal membranes which gives them a spherical shape and makes them weak resulting in their premature death.
  • Cardiomyopathy due to anthracyclines: Damage to the heart muscle caused by anthracycline drugs which are used in chemotherapy. The damage occurs more frequently with higher cumulative doses. Often the patients have no symptoms of the heart damage for many year.
  • Cardiomyopathy, dilated, with Woolly hair and keratoderma: A rare syndrome characterized by heart muscle disease involving dilation of the heart ventricles, woolly hair and thickened skin on the palms and soles.
  • Carnitine transporter deficiency: An inherited deficiency of carnitine caused by the impaired ability of the carnitine transporter protein to carry the carnitine to where it is needed. Instead the carnitine is excreted through the urine. Fasting or illness can trigger a severe attack.
  • Chagas disease: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by insect bites or blood transfusions. The disease primarily involves the heart and gastrointestinal system.
  • Chaotic atrial tachycardia: Abnormal irregular, rapid heart beat that originates in the atrial heart chamber of the heart and occurs in infants and young children. The heart has periods of normal rhythm between the periods of irregularity. The condition occurs in infants and young children but may also occur in adults who have disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Acetonitrile: Acetonitrile is a chemical used as a solvent mainly in nail removing agents. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chest conditions: Any condition affecting the chest
  • Chromosome 4, Monosomy 4q: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the long arm (q) of chromosome 4 is missing resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Chronic cough: The chronic noisy sudden expulsion of air from the respiratory tract
  • Chronic liver disease: Any form of chronic liver disease
  • Circulatory system conditions: Medical conditions affecting the heart and the circulatory system.
  • Cirrhosis of the liver: Scarring of the liver from alcohol or other causes.
  • Coal worker's pneumoconiosis: A lung disease caused by breathing in coal dust. The condition is generally associated with employees in the coal industry. Symptoms usually resolve when exposure to coal dust stops.
  • Cobalt-induced myocardial injury: Exposure to cobalt has the potential to cause damage to the heart muscle. Severe damage can result in chronic heart problems or even death in severe cases. Cobalt exposure is most likely to occur in an occupational setting.
  • Complete atrioventricular canal: A rare form of congenital heart disease where the there is a hole in the heart wall that separates the upper heart chambers, a hole the heart wall that separates the lower heart chambers and heart valve abnormalities (tricuspid and mitral valves). This results in excessive blood circulation in the lungs leading to congestive heart failure in untreated cases.
  • Congenital heart septum defect: A heart defect involving the septum which is present at birth. The defect is a hole in the wall of the heart that separates the right and left chambers and allows blood to flow through the hole. An atrial septal defect is a hole between the two upper heart chambers and a ventricular septal defect is a hole between the two lower heart chambers. Symptoms are determined by the size and exact location of the defect.
  • Congenital mitral malformation: Malformations of the mitral valve that are present at birth. The mitral valve allows blood to flow between the two chambers on the left side of the heart. Types of mitral malformation are atresia (absent mitral valve), stenosis (narrowed mitral valve) and parachute mitral valve.
  • Congenital mitral stenosis: A heart malformation that is present at birth. The mitral valve is narrower than normal which affects blood flow between the upper and lower chambers on the left side of the heart. It usually occurs in conjunction with other malformations
  • Conn's adenoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adrenal adenoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conn's syndrome: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adenoma, carcinoma or enlargement of the adrenal gland or glands. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conn-Louis Carcinoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition results from the presence of an adrenal carcinoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conotruncal heart malformations: A rare group of heart defect involving the outflow tracts. Examples include truncus arteriosus, transposition of great arteries and tetralogy of Fallot. Obviously the symptoms will be determined by which specific defect is involved.
  • Constrictive pericarditis: Inflammation, swelling and thickening of the pericardium (fibrous sac surrounding the heart) which causes it to tighten around the heart and affect its function. The condition may be misdiagnosed as a heart attack and vice versa.
  • Constrictive tuberculous pericarditis: Inflammation and swelling of the pericardium (fibrous sac surrounding the heart) that occurs as a complication of tuberculosis. The condition may be misdiagnosed as a heart attack and vice versa.
  • Cor pulmonale: Enlarged heart due to respiratory difficulty.
  • Coronary artery aneurysm: Abnormal dilation or swelling of a heart artery. The dilated portion is weakened and can burst.
  • Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome: A familial polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract associated with ectodermal defects such as alopecia and onychodystrophy
  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia: Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare genetic condition where the bone marrow is unable to make sufficient red blood cells which leads low levels of red blood cells. There are eight subtypes of the condition which differ in the location of the genetic defect and the incidence of additional symptoms such as malformations. The severity of symptoms is variable but most cases are serious.
  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia 1: Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare genetic condition where the bone marrow is unable to make sufficient red blood cells which leads low levels of red blood cells. There are eight subtypes of the condition which differ in the location of the genetic defect and the incidence of additional symptoms such as malformations. Type 1 is caused by a defect on the RPS19 gene located on chromosome 18q13.2.
  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia 2: Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare genetic condition where the bone marrow is unable to make sufficient red blood cells which leads low levels of red blood cells. There are eight subtypes of the condition which differ in the location of the genetic defect and the incidence of additional symptoms such as malformations. Type 2 is caused by a defect on chromosome 19q13.2.
  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia 3: Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare genetic condition where the bone marrow is unable to make sufficient red blood cells which leads low levels of red blood cells. There are eight subtypes of the condition which differ in the location of the genetic defect and the incidence of additional symptoms such as malformations. Type 3 is caused by a defect on the RPS24 gene located on chromosome 10q22-q23.
  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia 4: Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare genetic condition where the bone marrow is unable to make sufficient red blood cells which leads low levels of red blood cells. There are eight subtypes of the condition which differ in the location of the genetic defect and the incidence of additional symptoms such as malformations. Type 4 is caused by a defect on the RPS17 gene located on chromosome 15q.
  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia 5: Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare genetic condition where the bone marrow is unable to make sufficient red blood cells which leads low levels of red blood cells. There are eight subtypes of the condition which differ in the location of the genetic defect and the incidence of additional symptoms such as malformations. Type 5 is caused by a defect on the RPL35A gene located on chromosome 3q29-qter.
  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia 6: Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare genetic condition where the bone marrow is unable to make sufficient red blood cells which leads low levels of red blood cells. There are eight subtypes of the condition which differ in the location of the genetic defect and the incidence of additional symptoms such as malformations. Type 6 is caused by a defect on the RPL5 gene located on chromosome 1p22.1.
  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia 7: Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare genetic condition where the bone marrow is unable to make sufficient red blood cells which leads low levels of red blood cells. There are eight subtypes of the condition which differ in the location of the genetic defect and the incidence of additional symptoms such as malformations. Type 7 is caused by a defect on the RPL11 gene located on chromosome 1p36.1-p35.
  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia 8: Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare genetic condition where the bone marrow is unable to make sufficient red blood cells which leads low levels of red blood cells. There are eight subtypes of the condition which differ in the location of the genetic defect and the incidence of additional symptoms such as malformations. Type 8 is caused by a defect on the RPS7 gene on chromosome 2p25.
  • Difficulty breathing when lying down: also known as orthopnea is the dyspnoea which occurs on lying down and is relieved on sitting up
  • Double outlet -- right ventricle I: A very rare birth defect where the aorta and the pulmonary artery both exit from the right ventricle and thus blood is unable to be pumped to the lungs. However, a hole connects the two ventricles and ultimately allows some blood flow to the lungs. In the type I the hole is located just below the aorta and there is no narrowing of the pulmonary valve.
  • Double outlet -- right ventricle II: A very rare birth defect where the aorta and the pulmonary artery both exit from the right ventricle and thus blood is unable to be pumped to the lungs. However, a hole connects the two ventricles and ultimately allows some blood flow to the lungs. In the type II the hole is located in the infracristal area and there is no narrowing of the pulmonary valve.
  • Double outlet right ventricle: A very rare birth defect where the aorta and the pulmonary artery both exit from the right ventricle and thus blood is unable to be pumped to the lungs. However, a hole connects the two ventricles and ultimately allows some blood flow to the lungs. The severity of symptoms varies depending on the location of the connecting hole in the heart and the exact location of the two arteries with respect to the heart.
  • Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy: Heart disease caused by the use of a cancer drug called Doxorubicin.
  • Emphysema: Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is defined as an abnormal, permanent enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis.
  • Essential thrombocytopenia: A rare blood disorder characterized by an excessively low number of platelets in the blood which often results in hemorrhages.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 1: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 1 is caused by a defect on chromosome 14q12.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 10: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 10 is caused by a defect in the MYL2 gene on chromosome 12q23-q24.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 2: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 2 is caused by a defect in the troponin-T2 gene on chromosome 1q.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 3: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 3 is caused by a defect in the alpha-tropomyosin gene on chromosome 15q22.1.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 4: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 4 is caused by a defect in the cardiac myosin binding protein-C gene on chromosome 11p11.2.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 5:
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 6: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 7q31-qter.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 7: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 7 is caused by a defect in the TNNI3 gene on chromosome 19q13.4.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 8: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 8 is caused by a defect in the MYL3 gene on chromosome 3p.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 9: An inherited condition characterized by increased thickness of the wall of the heart ventricle which affects the hearts function. Type 9 is caused by a defect in the TTN gene on chromosome 2q24.3.
  • Familial renal cell carcinoma: A genetic form of kidney cancer that develops in the lining of the tubules in the kidney and tends to run in families.
  • Fatigue: Excessive tiredness or weakness.
  • Gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: A rare form of gastrointestinal tumor. It includes two main groups of cancer called carcinoid and endocrine pancreatic tumors. Some of the tumors consist of hormone secreting cells which results in excessive secretion of certain hormones.
  • Heart conditions: Any condition that affects the heart
  • Heart failure: Slow failure of the heart (cardiac insufficiency).
  • Hematochromatosis: Hemochromatosis is the abnormal accumulation of iron in parenchymal organs, leading to organ toxicity. It is the most common inherited liver disease in whites and the most common autosomal recessive genetic disorder.
  • Hemochromatosis: Excess of iron leading to problems with joints, liver, heart and pancreas.
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome: A rare condition characterized by acute kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia (reduced blood platelet count). The condition is often caused by upper respiratory infections or infectious diarrhea.
  • Hepatic cystic hamartoma: A cystic liver tumor.
  • Hepatic veno-occlusive disease -- immunodeficiency: A rare form of liver disease involving the blockage of veins in the liver due to thickening of the blood vessel walls as well as immunodeficiency. The disease may be caused by a variety of factors including bone marrow transplant and genetic defects.
  • Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: A rare genetic disorder characterized by epistaxes and multiple telangiectases.
  • Hypereosinophilic syndrome: A rare condition where too many eosinophils are produced over an extended period of time for no apparent reason. The eosinophils can infiltrate various organs and tissues and cause dysfunction or damage
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A rare condition where an infant is born with an underdeveloped left side of the heart which prevents the heart from pumping oxygenated blood efficiently to various parts of the body.
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • I cell disease: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the harmful accumulation of chemicals (glycoproteins and glycoplipids) due to the deficiency of an enzyme (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-I-phosphotransferase).
  • Infectious myocarditis: Inflammation of the muscle of the heart (myocardium) due to an infection. It often occurs as a complication of various bacterial, viral or parasitic infections such as rubella, polio and rheumatic fever.
  • Infective endocarditis: The infection and inflammation of the inner heart layers, especially the valves. The infection is usually bacterial. The condition carries a high risk of death.
  • Inherited Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A condition which is characterized by thrombotic microangiography occurring with renal failure, hemolytic anemia and severe thrombocytopenia
  • Kawasaki disease: A childhood illness that generally affects the skin, mouth and lymph nodes.
  • Kidney Cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the kidneys
  • Left heart failure: Failure of the left side of the heart
  • Levotransposition of the great arteries: A very rare heart defect where the aorta originates from the right heart ventricle and the pulmonary artery from the left ventricle. The aorta is located in front of and to the left of the pulmonary artery. This means that oxygen-poor blood that has returned from the body is pumped into the right side of the heart and then out through the aorta and back to the body. The oxygenated blood from the lungs is sent to the left side of the heart, through the pulmonary artery and back to the lungs. Thus, the body is deprived of oxygenated blood unless. Often there is an associated heart defect such as a hole between the chambers which allows some mixing of the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood but surgery is usually urgently required. Without treatment, half of the patients with this defect will die within months of birth and nearly all will die within a year.
  • Loeffler's endocarditis: Heart muscle disease caused by infiltration of the heart by eosinophils (type of white blood cell). It occurs as a complication long-term, high eosinophilic levels in the peripheral blood.
  • Lung symptoms: Symptoms affecting one or both lungs.
  • Lymphatic Filariasis: Parasitic worm infection of the lympatic system
  • Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness with cardiomyopathy: A rare inherited disorder characterized by deafness, heart muscle disease and diabetes.
  • Medullary cystic kidney disease: A rare genetic kidney disease involving the development of cyst in the kidney which causes problems with kidney function.
  • Medullary cystic kidney disease, dominant: A rare genetic kidney disease which can lead to kidney failure.
  • Mitral regurgitation: A condition which is characterized by a regurgitation of blood from the left ventricle into the atrium due to a problem with the mitral valve
  • Mosse syndrome: A condition involving the association of liver cirrhosis with polycythemia which is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the excessive production of mainly red blood cells by the bone marrow.
  • Mountain sickness: Illness from poor adjustment to low oxygen at altitude.
  • Mucolipidosis III: A rare metabolic disorder where deficiency of a particular enzyme leads to the buildup of mucopolysaccharides and mucolipids in the body which is harmful to the body and leads to premature death.
  • Muscular dystrophy, Duchenne and Becker type: An inherited l disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness. The disorder is caused by a genetic anomaly and results in insufficient quantities of or ineffective dystrophin which is needed for normal muscle functioning. The disorder is expressed in males but females can be carriers.
  • Myocarditis: Inflammation of the myocardium (muscle walls of the heart)
  • Myxedema: Skin and tissue disorder usually due to hypothyroidism
  • Nephronophthisis, autosomal dominant: A rare genetic kidney disease which can lead to kidney failure.
  • Nephrotic syndrome: Various kidney glomeruli conditions
  • Nevi -- atrial myxoma -- myxoid neurofibromata -- ephelides: A very rare syndrome characterized by spotty pigmentation on the skin and the development of multiple benign tumors (myxoma) that can occur just about anywhere in the body but mainly in the skin, breast and heart and endocrine glands such as the thyroid and pituitary gland. The symptoms are highly variable depending on the location, size and number of tumors. Endocrine gland tumors can affect hormone production and hence result in a range of symptoms.
  • Obesity: An increase in the body weight greater than that required for normal function that is characterised by the accumulation of excessive fat
  • Paget's disease of bone: A chronic, slowly progressing bone disorder where the bone is destroyed rapidly and replaced by abnormal bone which is dense and fragile.
  • Paget's disease, type 1: A chronic, slowly progressing bone disorder where the bone is destroyed rapidly and replaced by abnormal bone which is dense and fragile. Type 1 is caused by a mutation on chromosome 6p21.3.
  • Paget's disease, type 4: A chronic, slowly progressing bone disorder where the bone is destroyed rapidly and replaced by abnormal bone which is dense and fragile. Type 1 is caused by a mutation on chromosome 5q31.
  • Peripartum cardiomyopathy: A rare condition involving weakening of the heart in the final stages of pregnancy or within five months of giving birth. The cause of the condition is unknown and patients usually have no history of heart disease. The breathing difficulty associated with the condition is often ignored as a normal symptom in the late stages of pregnancy which increases the risk of potentially fatal complications developing.
  • Persistent Truncus Arteriosus: A congenital heart defect that occurs during fetal development where the truncus arteriosis fails to separate into an aorta and pulmonary aorta before birth. This causes blood from both ventricles to mix.
  • Pierre Robin's sequence: A rare genetic disorder characterized by an underdeveloped jaw, cleft soft palate and abnormal tongue location.
  • Pneumoconiosis: A lung disease caused by breathing in air contaminated with particles of dust such as coal, kaolin, asbestos and talc. It is generally an occupation disease where people are exposed to the contaminated air for prolonged periods of time. Generally symptoms stop once the exposure ceases.
  • Pneumonia: Infection of the lung by bacteria, viruses or fungus.
  • Posthemorrhagic anemia: Posthemorrhagic anemia refers to a reduced number of red blood cells in the body due to bleeding.
  • Primary Hypertension: A condition which is characterized by high blood pressure not associated with any identifiable pathological cause
  • Pulmonary artery agenesis: A rare defect where the pulmonary artery or a portion of it fails to develop. The pulmonary artery has two branches, each of which goes to a different lung. The affected lung tends to be smaller and the bronchial arteries that supply it tend to be enlarged.
  • Pulmonary artery coming from the aorta: A rare congenital heart defect which is usually fatal. The pulmonary artery is abnormally placed and comes out of the aorta.
  • Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect: A congenital heart defect where the pulmonary artery is closed off so that blood is unable to flow out to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. An abnormal opening between the two sides of the heart also allow blood to flow between the two heart chambers. The severity of symptoms depends on the degree of abnormality. Symptoms may be evident at birth or later.
  • Pulmonary edema: Severe condition of excess fluid in the lungs.
  • Pulmonary embolism: Blocked lung blood vessel often from a blood clot.
  • Pulmonary hypertension: Pulmonary hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs. Blood pressure in other parts of the body is normal or sometimes even low. The condition may be caused by such things as lung conditions (e.g. emphysema, chronic bronchitis), heart conditions (e.g. congestive heart failure, birth defects involving heart), AIDS or medications such as fenfluramine (a diet drug). Sometimes it occurs for no apparent reason and is called primary pulmonary hypertension.
  • Pulmonary valve stenosis: Often a congenital defect but may be caused by such things as rheumatic fever or bacterial endocarditis. Severity depends on the degree of narrowing of the pulmonary valve.
  • Pulmonary veins stenosis: A congenital malformation where the pulmonary veins are narrowed.
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma 2: A genetic form of kidney cancer.
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma 3: A dominantly inherited form of kidney cancer which is linked to chromosome 5q.
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma 4: A genetic form of kidney cancer.
  • Renal cancer, familial: A genetic form of kidney cancer that tends to run in families.
  • Restrictive cardiomyopathy: A condition which is characterized by restriction to the function of the walls of the heart
  • Right heart failure: Heart failure of the right side of the heart
  • Rostan asthma: Shortness of breath caused by fluid accumulation in the lungs associated with congestive heart failure. Symptoms usually occur at night.
  • Scleroderma: A rare, progressive connective tissue disorder involving thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissue. There are a number of forms of scleroderma with some forms being systemic (involving internal organs).
  • Senile amyloidosis: Amyloidosis is a rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage. In senile amyloidosis the pancreas, heart and sometimes the brain are affected.
  • Shortness of breath: The feeling of being short of breath
  • Shortness of breath from exercise: Feeling short of breath from exercise or exertion
  • Sleep apnea: Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Supravalvular aortic stenosis:
  • Thiamine deficiency: Dietary deficiency of vitamin B1 (thiamine)
  • Thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune: A rare blood disorder where a low number of platelets impairs the bloods ability to clot and results in bleeding into the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Truncus Arteriosus: A rare congenital heart vessel abnormality where the heart has only one artery coming out of it which forms the aorta and pulmonary artery and delivers blood to the body and the lungs. Normally the blood flow to the body and the lungs is carried out through separate blood vessels.
  • Valvular dysplasia of the child: A condition which is characterised by the dysplasia of one or more of the valves to a childs heart
  • Vein of Galen aneurysm: A rare condition which is characterised by an aneurysm resulting from a intracranial vascular malformation
  • Ventricular septal defect: An abnormal connection between the 2 lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart.
  • Ventriculo-arterial discordance, isolated: A rare birth disorder where the right atrium is connected to the left ventricle and vice versa. The position of the heart ventricles is also inverted which allows normal blood oxygenation. Symptoms generally only occur later in life or if other heart defects are present which is usually the case.
  • Wheezing: A whistling like continuous sound that is caused by the respiratory system

 

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