Cure Research for Type 1 diabetes
Cure Research discussion for Type 1 diabetes:
Genes and Disease by the National Center for Biotechnology (Excerpt)
Conscientious patient care and daily insulin dosages can keep patients comparatively healthy. But in order to prevent the immunoresponses that often cause diabetes, we will need to experiment further with mouse models of the disease and advance our understanding of how genes on other chromosomes might add to a patient's risk of diabetes.
(Source: Genes and Disease by the National Center for Biotechnology)
Devices for Taking Insulin: NIDDK (Excerpt)
Implantable insulin pumps are surgically implanted, usually on
the left side of the abdomen. The pump is disk shaped and weighs about 6
to 8 ounces. It delivers a basal dose of insulin continuously. Users
deliver bolus insulin doses with a remote control unit that prompts the
pump to give the specified amount of insulin.
An advantage of this method is that, like insulin produced naturally
from the pancreas, the insulin from the pump goes directly to the liver to
prevent excess sugar production there.
The insulin patch, placed on the skin, gives a continuous low
dose of insulin. To adjust insulin doses before meals, users can pull off
a tab on the patch to release insulin. The problem with the patch is that
insulin does not get through the skin easily.
The inhaled insulin delivery system, provides insulin as a dry
powder inhaled through the mouth directly into the lungs where it passes
into the bloodstream. This aerosol delivery system is about the size of a
flashlight and uses rapid-acting insulin. (Source: excerpt from Devices for Taking Insulin: NIDDK)
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): NIDDK (Excerpt)
The DCCT is a clinical study conducted from 1983 to 1993 by the
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).
The study showed that keeping blood glucose levels as close to normal as
possible slows the onset and progression of eye, kidney, and nerve
diseases caused by diabetes. In fact, it demonstrated that any sustained
lowering of blood glucose helps, even if the person has a history of poor
The largest, most comprehensive diabetes study ever conducted, the DCCT
involved 1,441 volunteers with type 1 diabetes and 29 medical centers in
the United States and Canada. Volunteers had diabetes for at least 1 year
but no longer than 15 years. They also were required to have no, or only
early signs of, diabetic eye disease.
The study compared the effects of two treatment regimens--standard
therapy and intensive control--on the complications of diabetes.
Volunteers were randomly assigned to each treatment group. (Source: excerpt from Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): NIDDK)
Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitors: NIDDK (Excerpt)
Over the years, scientists have been trying to find noninvasive ways
for people with diabetes to measure their blood glucose. Most methods of
monitoring blood glucose require a blood sample, usually obtained by using
an automatic lancing device on a finger. Some meters use a blood sample
from a less sensitive area, such as the upper arm, forearm, or thigh. Some
devices use a beam of light instead of a lancet to pierce the skin.
(Source: excerpt from Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitors: NIDDK)
Pancreatic Islet Transplantation: NIDDK (Excerpt)
In pancreatic islet transplantation, cells are taken from a donor
pancreas and transferred into another person. Once implanted, the new
islets begin to make and release insulin. Researchers hope that islet
transplantation will help people with type 1 diabetes live without daily
injections of insulin. (Source: excerpt from Pancreatic Islet Transplantation: NIDDK)
Pancreatic Islet Transplantation: NIDDK (Excerpt)
Scientists have made many advances in islet transplantation over the
past 25 years. Dr. James Shapiro and colleagues at the University of
Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, have used a new procedure called the Edmonton
Protocol to treat eight patients with type 1 diabetes. These patients have
been completely freed from insulin injections since the first transplant
On July 13, 2000, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International announced that they
would fund a clinical trial to test Dr. Shapiro's promising new technique
for transplanting islet cells into the large vein in the liver. The trial
will test the procedure in 40 people around the world. The NIH-funded
Immune Tolerance Network (ITN) is leading the 7-year study and will be in
charge of recruiting patients. To be considered for the trial, people must
meet the following criteria:
- Be between the ages of 18 and 65
- Have had type 1 diabetes for at least 5 years
- Be unable to control their blood sugar even with intensive
- Be unable to adequately sense the onset of hypoglycemia (low blood
- Have had at least one hypoglycemic reaction in the past 1.6 years
that cannot be otherwise explained and required medical
- Have diabetes complications--such as blurred vision or kidney,
nerve, or blood vessel problems--despite efforts to control blood
(Source: excerpt from Pancreatic Islet Transplantation: NIDDK
Diabetes: NWHIC (Excerpt)
In recent years, advances in diabetes research have led to better ways
to manage diabetes and treat its complications. For example, the insulin
pump, new oral medications, and better ways of monitoring blood glucose
have become available. In the future, it may be possible to administer
insulin through inhalers, a pill, or a patch. Devices are also being
developed that can monitor blood glucose levels without having to prick a
finger to get a blood sample. Researchers continue to search for the cause
or causes of diabetes and ways to prevent and cure the disorder. (Source: excerpt from Diabetes: NWHIC)
Medical research for Type 1 diabetes: medical news summaries:
The following medical news items
are relevant to medical research for Type 1 diabetes:
Clinical Trials for Type 1 diabetes
Some of the clinical trials for Type 1 diabetes include:
Evidence Based Medicine Research for Type 1 diabetes
Medical research papers related to Type 1 diabetes include:
- C-peptide levels and insulin independence following autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.
- Metformin added to insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus in adolescents
- Central nervous system function in youth with type 1 diabetes 12 years after disease onset
- A risk score for type 1 diabetes derived from autoantibody-positive participants in the diabetes prevention trial-type 1
- Time trends in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in Finnish children: a cohort study.
- Treatment satisfaction and quality of life with insulin glargine plus insulin lispro compared with NPH insulin plus unmodified human insulin in people with Type 1 diabetes
- A randomized, controlled trial comparing twice-a-day insulin glargine mixed with rapid-acting insulin analogs versus standard neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) therapy in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes
- Shared and Distinct Genetic Variants in Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease.
- Nasal insulin to prevent type 1 diabetes in children with HLA genotypes and autoantibodies conferring increased risk of disease: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.
- Severe hypoglycaemia and glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes: meta-analysis of multiple daily insulin injections compared with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion
- What is the evidence for using metformin in people with type 1 diabetes who are obese and poorly controlled?
- High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes: the role of intrauterine hyperglycemia
- GAD Treatment and Insulin Secretion in Recent-Onset Type 1 Diabetes.
- Should angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors be used in children with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria?
- Suggested insulin regimens for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who wish to fast during the month of Ramadan
- Diabetes Education for Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Their Families
- Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: impact on thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome
- Type 1 diabetes, hyperglycaemia, and the heart.
- Insulin glulisine (Apidra) Type 1 diabetes mellitus in adolescents and children 6 years or older
- Long-term efficacy and safety of insulin detemir compared to Neutral Protamine Hagedorn insulin in patients with Type 1 diabetes using a treat-to-target basal-bolus regimen with insulin aspart at meals: a 2-year, randomized, controlled trial
- Insulin therapy, hyperglycemia, and hypertension in type 1 diabetes mellitus
- A randomized trial comparing continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion of insulin aspart versus insulin lispro in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes
- Cost of severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes in Spain and the cost-effectiveness of insulin lispro compared with regular human insulin in preventing severe hypoglycaemia
- Risk of microalbuminuria and progression to macroalbuminuria in a cohort with childhood onset type 1 diabetes: prospective observational study.
- Clinical effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in Type 1 diabetes: results from the BITES (Brief Intervention in Type 1 diabetes, Education for Self-efficacy) trial
- Diabetes education for children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and their families
- Comparison of once- versus twice-daily administration of insulin detemir, used with mealtime insulin aspart, in basal-bolus therapy for type 1 diabetes: assessment of detemir administration in a progressive treat-to-target trial (ADAPT)
- Role of blood pressure in development of early retinopathy in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: prospective cohort study.
- Effect of candesartan on prevention (DIRECT-Prevent 1) and progression (DIRECT-Protect 1) of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: randomised, placebo-controlled trials.
- Intermediate acting versus long acting insulin for type 1 diabetes mellitus
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