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Diseases » Diabetes » Complications
 

Complications of Diabetes

Complications list for Diabetes:

The list of complications that have been mentioned in various sources for Diabetes includes:

See also the symptoms of Diabetes and Diabetes: Introduction.

Complications of Diabetes:

Diabetes Overview: NIDDK (Excerpt)

Diabetes is associated with long-term complications that affect almost every part of the body. The disease often leads to blindness, heart and blood vessel disease, strokes, kidney failure, amputations, and nerve damage. Uncontrolled diabetes can complicate pregnancy, and birth defects are more common in babies born to women with diabetes. (Source: excerpt from Diabetes Overview: NIDDK)

Facts About Diabetes: CDC-OC (Excerpt)

Cardiovascular disease is 2-4 times more common among persons with diabetes; the risk of stroke is 2-4 times higher; 60%-65% have high blood pressure; and 60%-70% have mild to severe diabetic nerve damage. (Source: excerpt from Facts About Diabetes: CDC-OC)

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): NIDDK (Excerpt)

The retina is the light-sensing tissue at the back of the eye. According to the National Eye Institute, one of the National Institutes of Health, as many as 24,000 persons with diabetes lose their sight each year. In the United States, diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults under age 65. (Source: excerpt from Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): NIDDK)

Diabetes Statistics in the United States: NIDDK (Excerpt)

Complications of diabetes Heart disease

  • Heart disease is the leading cause of diabetes-related deaths. Adults with diabetes have heart disease death rates about 2 to 4 times as high as those of adults without diabetes.
Stroke
  • The risk of stroke is 2 to 4 times higher in people with diabetes.
High blood pressure
  • An estimated 60 to 65 percent of people with diabetes have high blood pressure.
Blindness
  • Diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in adults 20 to 74 years old.
  • Diabetic retinopathy causes from 12,000 to 24,000 new cases of blindness each year.
Kidney disease
  • Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, accounting for about 40 percent of new cases.
  • 27,851 people with diabetes developed end-stage renal disease in 1995.
  • In 1995, a total of 98,872 people with diabetes underwent dialysis or kidney transplantation.
Nervous system disease
  • About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have mild to severe forms of nervous system damage (which often includes impaired sensation or pain in the feet or hands, slowed digestion of food in the stomach, carpal tunnel syndrome, and other nerve problems).
  • Severe forms of diabetic nerve disease are a major contributing cause of lower extremity amputations.
Amputations
  • More than half of lower limb amputations in the United States occur among people with diabetes.
  • From 1993 to 1995, about 67,000 amputations were performed each year among people with diabetes.
Dental disease
  • Periodontal disease (a type of gum disease that can lead to tooth loss) occurs with greater frequency and severity among people with diabetes. Periodontal disease has been reported to occur among 30 percent of people age 19 years or older with type 1 diabetes.
Complications of pregnancy
  • The rate of major congenital malformations in babies born to women with preexisting diabetes varies from 0 to 5 percent among women who receive preconception care to 10 percent among women who do not receive preconception care.
  • Between 3 and 5 percent of pregnancies among women with diabetes result in death of the newborn; the rate for women who do not have diabetes is 1.5 percent.
Other complications
  • Diabetes can directly cause acute life-threatening events, such as diabetic ketoacidosis* and hyperosmolar nonketotic coma.*
  • People with diabetes are more susceptible to many other illnesses. For example, they are more likely to die of pneumonia or influenza than people who do not have diabetes.
*Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar nonketotic coma are medical conditions that can result from biochemical imbalance in uncontrolled diabetes. (Source: excerpt from Diabetes Statistics in the United States: NIDDK)

Keep your eyes healthy: NIDDK (Excerpt)

High blood sugar and high blood pressure from diabetes can hurt four parts of your eye:

  1. Retina (REH-ti-nuh). The retina is the lining at the back of the eye. The retina's job is to sense light coming into the eye.

  2. Vitreous(VIH-tree-us). The vitreous is a jelly-like fluid that fills the back of the eye.

  3. Lens. The lens is at the front of the eye and it focuses light on the retina.

  4. Optic nerve. The optic nerve is the eye's main nerve to the brain.
(Source: excerpt from Keep your eyes healthy: NIDDK)

Keep your nervous system healthy: NIDDK (Excerpt)

Having high blood sugar for many years can damage the blood vessels that bring oxygen to some nerves. High blood sugar can also hurt the covering on the nerves. Damaged nerves may stop sending messages. Or they may send messages too slowly or at the wrong times.

Diabetic neuropathy (ne-ROP-uh-thee) is the medical name for damage to the nervous system from diabetes. (Source: excerpt from Keep your nervous system healthy: NIDDK)

Keep your teeth and gums healthy: NIDDK (Excerpt)

People with diabetes can have tooth and gum problems more often if their blood sugar stays high. High blood sugar can make tooth and gum problems worse. You can even lose your teeth. (Source: excerpt from Keep your teeth and gums healthy: NIDDK)

Heart Disease & Women Controlling High Blood Pressure A Woman's Guide: NHLBI (Excerpt)

Diabetes is a chronic condition. If you have it, you're more likely to have certain health problems than women without it. You're 2 to 4 times more likely to develop cardiovascular disease, and 2.5 times more likely to have a stroke. As many as 65 percent of those with diabetes have high blood pressure. (Source: excerpt from Heart Disease & Women Controlling High Blood Pressure A Woman's Guide: NHLBI)

Are You at Risk for Diabetic Eye Disease: NEI (Excerpt)

Diabetic eye disease refers to a group of eye problems that people with diabetes may face as a complication of this disease. All can cause severe vision loss or even blindness. (Source: excerpt from Are You at Risk for Diabetic Eye Disease: NEI)

Are You at Risk for Diabetic Eye Disease: NEI (Excerpt)

A person with diabetes is nearly twice as likely to get glaucoma as other adults. And, as with diabetic retinopathy, the longer you have had diabetes, the greater your risk of getting glaucoma. Glaucoma may be treated with medications, laser, or other forms of surgery. (Source: excerpt from Are You at Risk for Diabetic Eye Disease: NEI)

Are You at Risk for Diabetic Eye Disease: NEI (Excerpt)

Studies show that you are twice as likely to get a cataract as a person who does not have the disease. Also, cataracts develop at an earlier age in people with diabetes. Cataracts can usually be treated by surgery. (Source: excerpt from Are You at Risk for Diabetic Eye Disease: NEI)

Urinary Incontinence: NWHIC (Excerpt)

Often, diabetics endure a particular type of incontinence known as urge incontinence. This happens when you can’t hold your urine long enough to reach a toilet. Some diabetics have neurological problems; thus the nerve supply to the bladder and urethra can be affected and the sphincter controlling urine flow becomes dysfunctional. (Source: excerpt from Urinary Incontinence: NWHIC)

What You Need To Know About Cancer of the Pancreas: NCI (Excerpt)

Pancreatic cancer occurs more often in people who have diabetes than in people who do not. (Source: excerpt from What You Need To Know About Cancer of the Pancreas: NCI)

Medical news summaries about complications of Diabetes:

The following medical news items are relevant to complications of Diabetes:

Complication statistics for Diabetes:

The following are statistics from various sources about the complications of Diabetes:

  • 138,483 under treatment for ESRD resulting from diabetes in the USA 2001 (United States Renal Data System 2003 Annual Data Report, 2003)
  • Women with diabetes have an 8 times greater risk of developing coronary heart disease (World Heart Federation Fact-Sheet, 2002
  • 13 women per 100,000 people are hospitalised for end-stage renal disease associated with diabetes in Australia 1998-99 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 152 women per 100,000 people are hospitalised for coronary heart disease associated with diabetes in Australia 1998-99 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 17 men per 100,000 people are hospitalised for end-stage renal disease associated with diabetes in Australia 1998-99 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 268 men per 100,000 people are hospitalised for coronary heart disease associated with diabetes in Australia 1998-99 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 6 people per 1,000 population over 18 who have diabetes develop diabetic eye disease in Australia 2002 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 6 people per 1,000 population over 18 who have diabetes develop diabetic foot problems in Australia 2002 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 6 people per 1,000 population over 18 who have diabetes develop myocardial infarction in Australia 2002 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 26% of new cases of end-stage renal disease were due to diabetic nephropathy in Australia 2002 (McDonald & Russ, 2003, Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 268 new cases of end-stage renal disease per 1,000 population have diabetic nephropathy as a causal factor in Australia 2001 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 0.7% of diabetics had a lower limb amputation in Australia 2002 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 0.8% of diabetic adults attending specialist diabetes services suffered new blindness in Australia 2002 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 13.5% of diabetic adults attending specialist diabetes services had peripheral vascular disease in Australia 2002 (NADC, 2003, Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 2.1% of diabetic adults attending specialist diabetes services had a stroke in Australia 2002 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 2.2% of diabetic adults attending specialist diabetes services had a current foot ulcer in Australia 2002 (NADC, 2003, Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 26% of diabetic adults attending specialist diabetes services had peripheral neuropathy in Australia 2002 (NADC, 2003, Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 3.3% of diabetic adults attending specialist diabetes services had a heart attack in Australia 2002 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 3.9% of diabetic men attending specialist diabetes services had an erectile dysfunction in Australia 2002 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • 4.2% of adults attending specialist diabetes services had a severe hypoglycaemic episode in Australia 2002 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • Nearly 0.1% of diabetic adults attending specialist diabetes services suffered end-stage renal disease in Australia 2002 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • Statistics on the underlying causes of deaths due to diabetes and diabetes-related complications:
    • 65% of deaths among diabetics is due to heart disease or stroke in the US (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
    • 50% of deaths from diabetes also had heart disease as an associated cause of death in Australia, 2002 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
    • 22% of deaths from diabetes also had stroke as an associated cause of death in Australia, 2002 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
    • 15% of deaths from diabetes also had renal failure as an associated cause of death in Australia, 2002 (Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW)
  • Risk for stroke amongst diabetics is two to four times higher than those without diabetes in the US (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • 12,000-24,000 new cases of blindness annually are due to diabetic retinopathy in the US (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • 44% of new cases of end-stage renal disease is due to diabetes in the US (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • 42,813 diabetics began treatment for end-stage renal disease in the US 2001 (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • 142,963 diabetics with end-stage renal disease were living on chronic dialysis or with a kidney transplant in the US 2001 (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • 60-70% of diabetics have some nervous system damage in the US 2001 (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • 60% of nontraumatic lower-limb amputations occurs among diabetics in the US 2001 (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • 82,000 nontraumatic lower-limb amputations was performed annually on diabetics in the US 2000-2001 (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • Almost 1/3 of diabetics have severe periodontal disease in the US 2001 (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • Poorly controlled diabetes before conception and during first trimester of pregnancy can cause major birth defects in 5-10% of pregnancies in the US 2001 (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • Poorly controlled diabetes before conception and during first trimester of pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortions in 15-20% of pregnancies in the US 2001 (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • Poorly controlled diabetes during 2nd and third trimester of pregnancy can cause overly large babies in the US 2001 (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • Diabetics are more susceptible to many illnesses and often have a worse prognosis after acquiring the illness in the US 2001 (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • Blood pressure control can reduce cardiovascular disease by 33-50% in the US (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • Blood pressure control can reduce microvascular disease by about 33% in the US (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • Generally, for every 10mm of mercury reduction in systolic blood pressure, the risk for diabetes complications is reduced by 12% in the US (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • Improving cholesterol or blood lipids can reduce cardiovascular complications by 20-50% in the US (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • Detection and treatment of diabetic eye disease with laser therapy can reduce the development of acute vision loss by 50-60% in the US (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • Comprehensive foot care programs may reduce amputation rates by 45-85% in the US (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • Early detection and treatment of diabetic kidney disease by lowering blood pressure can reduce decline in kidney function by 30-70% in the US (National Diabetes Statistics fact sheet, NIDDK, 2003)
  • Diabetes causes 8,000 new cases of blindness in the US (Research to Prevent Blindness, NISE, NSF)

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About complications:

Complications of Diabetes are secondary conditions, symptoms, or other disorders that are caused by Diabetes. In many cases the distinction between symptoms of Diabetes and complications of Diabetes is unclear or arbitrary.

 

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