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Diseases » Diabetes » Glossary
 

Glossary for Diabetes

  • ACTH -- Teratogenic Agent: Experimental studies on mice indicate that the use of ACTH during pregnancy may cause various harmful effects on the fetus. The likelihood and severity of symptoms may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at. The effect on human fetuses has not been conclusively determined.
  • ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. Typically, ADHD and associated hyperactivity is known as a childhood disorder, although ADD/ADHD in adults is known to be under-diagnosed. It is distinguished from Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) which has a reduced focus on hyperactivity type symptoms.
  • Abscess: General name for any pus-filled lump or swelling
  • Acanthosis nigricans: It is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin usually present in the posterior and lateral folds of the neck, the axilla, groin, umbilicus and other areas.
  • Aceruloplasminemia: A rare, recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a lack of ceruloplasmin in the blood. The lack of ceruloplasmin results in abnormal iron use in the body and leads to iron deposits in various body tissues such as the brain, pancreas and liver. The iron overload results a neurodegeneration (ataxia, dementia and extrapyramidal disorders) and diabetes. Patients with only a partial absence of ceruloplasmin are often asymptomatic.
  • Achard-Thiers Syndrome: A hormonal disorder that occurs in diabetic postmenopausal women. It is characterized by diabetes mellitus and hirsuitism.
  • Acinic cell carcinoma: A usually slow-growing malignant tumor that that can occur in various parts of the body but is most often found in the pancreas, salivary glands, palate and upper lip. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the growth.
  • Acquired total lipodystrophy: A rare acquired disorder that involves adipose tissue abnormalities and is characterized by loss of adipose tissue through the body. The disorder is very similar to the congenital form but the liver involvement is more severe.
  • Acromegaly: A hormonal disorder involving excess growth hormone production by the pituitary gland.
  • Acute Pancreatitis: Sudden severe inflammation of the pancreas causing digestive complaints.
  • Addison's Disease: A rare progressive hormonal disorder characterized by insufficient production of certain hormones called adrenal corticosteroids.
  • Adenocarcinoma: A carcinoma derived from/within glandular tissue.
  • Adrenal Cancer: A malignant cancer that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids. Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: A tumor that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids.
  • Adrenal adenoma, familial: A benign tumor that develops in the adrenal gland and tends to run in families. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids . Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal gland hyperfunction: Excessive activity of the adrenal gland which causes excessive production of one or more adrenal hormones (aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine). The increased adrenal gland activity may be caused by an adrenal gland tumor or by excessive stimulation of the gland. Pituitary hormones stimulate adrenal gland activity.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma: A tumor of the adrenal gland that is discovered incidentally while performing an imaging examination for reasons other than an adrenal tumor. The tumor may be asymptomatic or can causes excessive secretion of adrenal hormones and resulting symptoms. The tumor may also be malignant or benign.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma: A condition which is characterized by malignancy which affects the adrenocortex.
  • Adult Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition characterized by the production of thick sticky mucus by the mucus glands in the lungs, intestines, liver and pancreas. The condition is most often diagnosed in children or young adults but occasionally, relatively mild symptoms may lead to frequent misdiagnosis or no diagnosis at all unless the symptoms become worse. The condition may be misdiagnosed as emphysema, asthma or chronic bronchitis. It is usually females with a mild form of the disease who tend to be diagnosed at a later age.
  • Alcohol-induced pseudo-Cushing syndrome: The excessive consumption of alcohol can result in symptoms similar to a condition called Cushing's syndrome. When alcohol consumption is stopped, symptoms regress.
  • All Disease Categories: All major disease categories
  • Alves Castelo dos Santos syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by hair, eye, skin and spinal abnormalities.
  • Angina: A special type of chest pain.
  • Anophthalmia -- short stature -- obesity: A very rare syndrome characterized by absent eyes, short stature and obesity.
  • Anorexia Nervosa: A disorder where a distorted sense of body image leads to self-starvation to the point of death in some cases.
  • Apolipoprotein C 2I deficiency: A rare inherited condition where a deficiency of apolipoprotein C-II impairs lipoprotein metabolism and results in a build up of chylomicrons and VLDL.
  • Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels. It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low density (especially small particle) lipoproteins (plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol from the macrophages by functional high density lipoproteins (HDL). It is commonly referred to as a hardening or furring of the arteries. It is caused by the formation of multiple plaques within the arteries.
  • Atherosclerosis, premature -- deafness -- diabetes mellitus -- photomyoclonus -- nephropathy -- degenerative neurologic disease: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, diabetes, epilepsy, kidney disease and premature hardening of the arteries.
  • Atherosclerosis- deafness -- diabetes -- epilepsy -- nephropathy: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, diabetes, epilepsy, kidney disease and premature hardening of the arteries.
  • Athlete's foot: Fungal skin condition typically of feet or toes.
  • Autoimmune Diabetes Insipidus: Autoimmune disorder leading to diabetes insipidus.
  • Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome: An inherited autoimmune condition characterized by proliferation of lymphocytes and autoimmunity against the body's own blood cells resulting in premature death of certain blood cells.
  • Autonomic neuropathy: A disorder of the nervous system concerned with regulation of activity of cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands, usually restricted to the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 1: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 1 is caused by a defect in chromosome 11q13.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 10: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 10 is caused by a defect in chromosome 12q.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 11: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 11 is caused by a defect in chromosome 9q33.1.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 12: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 12 is caused by a defect in chromosome 4q27.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 2 is caused by a defect in chromosome 16q21.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 3: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 3 is caused by a defect in chromosome 3p12-q13.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 4: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 4 is caused by a defect in chromosome 15q22.3.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 5: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 5 is caused by a defect in chromosome 2q31.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 6: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 6 is caused by a defect in chromosome 20p12.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 7: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 7 is caused by a defect in chromosome 4q27.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 8: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 8 is caused by a defect in chromosome 14q32.11.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 9: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 9 is caused by a defect in chromosome 7p14.
  • Bell's Palsy: A usually temporary facial nerve disorder where a part or all of the face becomes suddenly paralysed.
  • Benign Prostate Hyperplasia: Non-cancerous prostrate enlargement common with aging
  • Biliary cirrhosis: Biliary cirrhosis is a condition where the bile ducts are unable to transport bile effectively due to blockage, inflammation, scarring or some other damage to the bile ducts. The condition may result from such things as congenital defect of the bile ducts (e.g. biliary atresia), cystic fibrosis, gallstones or a variety of other secondary conditions. The cause of primary biliary cirrhosis is not fully understood.
  • Birth symptoms: Symptoms related to childbirth.
  • Breathing difficulties: Various types of breathing difficulty (dyspnea).
  • Bruns-Garland syndrome: Spinal cord damage that occurs in some diabetics and results in weakness and wasting in the arms and legs.
  • Candidiasis: Fungal infection of moist areas such as mouth or vagina
  • Carcinoid syndrome: Carcinoid heart disease is a rare, metastatic disease that occurs predominantly in the right heart. The tricuspid and pulmonic valves are affected, leading to right heart failure, which results in increased morbidity and mortality.
  • Cardiomyopathy diabetes deafness: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of heart muscle disease, diabetes and deafness.
  • Cardiovascular Disease: Diseases of the heart or blood vessels including cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke.
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Hand or wrist problems; often from repetitive motion.
  • Cataracts: Cloudy areas on the eye's cornea interfering with vision.
  • Cerebrovascular Conditions: Conditions of the brain's blood vessels including stroke.
  • Christian-Demyer-Franken syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation and skeletal abnormalities.
  • Chromosome 15q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving an extra copy of genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 15. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 15q, deletion: A rare chromosomal disorder involving deletion of genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 15.
  • Chromosome 15q, trisomy: A rare chromosomal disorder involving an extra copy of genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 15. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the duplicated genetic material.
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Severe chronic fatigue disorder often following infection.
  • Chronic Illness: Any form of continuing chronic illness.
  • Chronic Pancreatitis: Chronic ongoing inflammation of the pancreas causing digestive complaints.
  • Chronic diarrhea: Chronic diarrhea is long-term, ongoing lose, watery and frequent stools.
  • Chronic kidney failure: Gradual failure of the kidneys over a period of time
  • Conduct Disorder: Behavioral disorder with antisocial behaviors
  • Congenital conditions: Any condition that you are born with such as birth defects or genetic diseases.
  • Coronary heart disease: Disease affecting the heart's arteries (narrowed arteries)
  • Corticotropin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Corticotropin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cushing's disease: A condition of hyperadrenocorticism which is secondary to excessive pituitary secretion of ACTH. Cushing's disease is different to Cushing's syndrome which refers to the effects of glucocorticoid excess from any cause.
  • Cushing's syndrome: A rare syndrome where excessive secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex leads to a variety of symptoms. Hormone-secreting adrenal or pituitary tumors are often the cause of the excessive corticosteroid secretion.
  • Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease affecting the exocrine (mucus) glands of the lungs, liver, pancreas, and intestines, causing progressive disability due to multisystem failure.
  • DEND syndrome: An inherited disorder characterized by developmental delay, epilepsy and diabetes.
  • DIDMOAD Syndrome, Mitochondrial form: A rare association of diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness which results in mitochondrial defects.
  • Dental symptoms: Symptoms affecting teeth or mouth area.
  • Depression: Various syndromes with excessive anxiety, phobias, or fear.
  • Depressive disorders: Depression or its various related conditions.
  • Diabetes Insipidus: Rare pituitary disorder often affecting the kidneys.
  • Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy: A rare association of diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness.
  • Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, mitochondrial form: A rare association of diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness which results in mitochondrial defects.
  • Diabetes-like conditions: Medical conditions that appear to be similar to diabetes.
  • Diabetic Diarrhea: Diarrhea that occurs in diabetics as a result of the damage done by diabetes to the digestive system. Digestive system damage is caused by intestinal neuropathy (damage to intestinal nerves) or bacterial overgrowth or both.
  • Diabetic Gastroparesis: Gastroparesis is a diabetic complication that occurs from neuropathy of the stomach nerve (called the "vagus nerve"). This causes digestive difficulties as the food starts to move too slowly through the stomach.
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Life-threatening complication of high blood sugars and diabetes.
  • Diabetic Lens Osmosis: Eye lens vision changes due to diabetic sugars; usually reversible.
  • Diabetic Nephropathy: Kidney disease from diabetic blood sugars.
  • Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Diabetic nerve damage affecting toes, feet, and sometimes hands.
  • Diabetic Retinopathy: Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and a leading cause of blindness in American adults. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina.
  • Diabetic neuropathy: Nerve damage from diabetes affecting any body part; most commonly feet.
  • Diarrhea -- polyendocrinopathy -- infections, X-linked: A rare X-linked disorder characterized by diarrhea and severe, fatal infections during infancy. The body's immune system attacks it's own endocrine glands and various other organs. Females are carriers and can have mild symptoms whereas males suffer the fatal course of the disease.
  • Diarrhea chronic with villous atrophy: A very rare metabolic disorder which causes abnormalities in the intestinal lining which results in chronic diarrhea. The reported patients died at 12 years of age and suffered a variety of other problems.
  • Digestive symptoms: Any symptoms affecting the digestive tract.
  • Diseases associated with senile cataract: It is a vision impairing disease characterised by gradual , progressive thickening of the lens.
  • Dizziness: Feelings of lightheadedness or giddiness.
  • Down Syndrome: A chromosome syndrome causing physical effects and mental retardation.
  • Dry mouth: A condition characterized by the sensation of a dry mouth
  • Dup (2) (q11.2-q21.1): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in two reported cases. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Eclampsia: Eclampsia is the development of seizures or coma in pregnant women suffering from high blood pressure. Eclampsia is a serious condition which requires urgent medical treatment. Eclampsia may be associated with moderate as well as significant increases in blood pressure. The blood pressure can return to normal after delivery or may persist for a period of time.
  • Ectopic ACTH Syndrome: A tumour arising in the body which releases excess quantities of ACTH
  • Eczema: Eczema is a chronic skin condition characterized by skin inflammation and irritation. The severity of extent of the condition is highly variable. It may be caused by allergies, irritants or other factors such as stress.
  • End-stage renal disease: Final stage of total kidney failure.
  • Endocrine disorders: Any disorder that affects the endocrine system
  • Endocrine pancreatic cancer: Any disease that affects the endocrine pancreas
  • Endocrine system conditions: Medical conditions affecting the endocrine systems, such as the related hormones or glands.
  • Endometrial Cancer: Cancer of the endometrium (uterus lining).
  • Erythrasma: A condition where there is a bacterial skin infection that is located in the armpits or the groin
  • Eye neuropathy: Neuropathy of the eye nerves
  • Eye symptoms: Symptoms affecting the eye
  • Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A genetic abnormality which causes patients to have abnormally high cholesterol levels (low-density lipoproteins). The condition usually leads to early cardiovascular disease.
  • Familial isolated deficiency of vitamin E: A rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by an inherited condition where the body is unable to absorb vitamin E from the food consumed.
  • Fatigue: Excessive tiredness or weakness.
  • Fecal incontinence: Leaking or poorly controlled bowel motions
  • Feigenbaum-Bergeron-Richardson syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, diabetes, epilepsy, kidney disease and premature hardening of the arteries.
  • Fibromyalgia: A difficult to diagnose condition affecting the muscles and/or joints
  • Flu: Very common viral respiratory infection.
  • Foot symptoms: Symptoms affecting one or both feet
  • Friedreich's ataxia: Progressive muscle weakness from nerve damage.
  • Frostbite: Tissue damage from freezing
  • Frozen Shoulder: Frozen shoulder, or adhesive capsulitis, is a condition that causes restriction of motion in the shoulder joint.
  • Fructosuria: A rare harmless asymptomatic condition caused by a lack of the liver enzyme called fructokinase which is needed to turn fructose into glycogen.
  • Functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor: Tumors that develop in the pancreas and cause excessive secretion of one or more pancreatic hormones such as insulin, somatostatin, glucagons, gastrin, ACTH (corticosteroids) and vasoactive intestinal peptidase.
  • Furukawa-Takagi-Nakao syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, ataxia, diabetes and eye problems.
  • Gallstones: Stone-like deposits in the gall bladder.
  • Gastrocutaneous syndrome: A arare inherited disorder characterized by peptic ulcers, hiatus hernia, eye abnormalities and skin pigmentation.
  • Gestational diabetes: Diabetes that occurs in pregnant women, usually resolving after birth.
  • Gigantism: A rare endocrine disorder where excess growth hormone is produced prior to puberty.
  • Glaucoma: Glaucoma is the term for a diverse group of eye diseases, all of which involve progressive damage to the optic nerve. Glaucoma is usually, but not always, accompanied by high intraocular (internal) fluid pressure. Optic nerve damage produces certain characteristic visual field defects in the individual's peripheral (side), as well as central, vision.
  • Glossodynia: A rare condition where there is a burning sensation in the mouth and tongue.
  • Glucagonoma: Rare cancer of the glucagon-producing pancreas cells.
  • Granuloma annulare: A harmless skin disease characterized by raised, bumpy, ring-shaped skin lesions.
  • Group A Streptococcal Infections: "Strep" bacteria responsible for strep throat, impetigo and some other strep conditions.
  • Group B Streptococcal Infections: "Strep" bacteria that may affect newborns and the immune-compromised; compare strep A.
  • Hand neuropathy: Neuropathy (nerve damage) affecting the hands
  • Heart attack: Serious and often fatal acute heart condition
  • Heart block: Failure of the heart's normal rhythm controls leading to arrhythmia
  • Heart complications: Any complication that relates to the heart
  • Heart disease: Any of various heart conditions.
  • Heart failure: Slow failure of the heart (cardiac insufficiency).
  • Heart symptoms: Symptoms affecting the heart
  • Heat exhaustion: Overheating of the body with exhaustion or collapse
  • Hematochromatosis: Hemochromatosis is the abnormal accumulation of iron in parenchymal organs, leading to organ toxicity. It is the most common inherited liver disease in whites and the most common autosomal recessive genetic disorder.
  • Hemochromatosis: Excess of iron leading to problems with joints, liver, heart and pancreas.
  • Hemochromatosis type 1: A genetic disorder where too much iron is absorbed from food and it is stored in various parts of the body which can cause damage. Type 1 is the most common form of the disorder, has an adult onset and is inherited recessively.
  • Hemochromatosis type 2: A rare genetic disorder where too much iron is absorbed from food and it is stored in various parts of the body which can cause damage. Type 2 is a more severe type, has a juvenile onset and is inherited recessively.
  • Hemochromatosis type 3: A rare genetic disorder where too much iron is absorbed from food and it is stored in various parts of the body which can cause damage. Type 3 has an onset that is between type 1 and type 2 and is inherited recessively.
  • Hemochromatosis type 4: A rare genetic disorder where too much iron is absorbed from food and it is stored in various parts of the body which can cause damage. Type 4 has an adult onset but is inherited dominantly.
  • Hereditary Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder where too much iron is absorbed from food and it is stored in various parts of the body which can cause damage. There are 4 types of hemochromatosis and they are distinguished by age of onset, genetic cause and type of inheritance. Some sufferers may be asymptomatic.
  • Hereditary pancreatitis: A rare inherited condition involving recurring bouts of pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) often leading to chronic pancreatitis due to scarring of the pancreas.
  • Huntington's Disease: Inherited disease causing progressive mental deterioration.
  • Hyperadrenalism: Excessive levels of adrenal hormones in the body. Symptoms depend on which hormone is involved and the degree of involvement. Adrenal hormones are aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome: Life-threatening complication of high blood sugars and diabetes.
  • Hyperinsulinemia: High insulin levels in the blood
  • Hyperinsulinism due to glucokinase deficiency: An inherited condition characterized by high insulin levels due to deficiency of glucokinase. The lack of glucokinase prevents the pancreas from detecting low blood sugar so insulin continues to be secreted which keeps the blood sugar level low. Severe symptoms such as seizures and coma can result if sugar levels drop too low.
  • Hyperinsulinism, diffuse: A rare inherited condition where there are abnormal islet cells spread throughout the pancreas. The islet of Langerhans cells produce insulin which regulates the body's sugar level.
  • Hyperprolactinemia: High levels of prolactin in the blood.
  • Hypertension: High blood pressure
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar level
  • Hypogonadism: Medical term for a defect of the reproductive system that results in lack of function of the gonads (ovaries or testes).
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Ichthyosis and male hypogonadism: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by scaly skin and insufficient hormone production by the male gonads.
  • Ichthyosis male hypogonadism: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by scaly skin and insufficient hormone production by the male gonads.
  • Immune deficiency conditions: Any of various diseases that suppress the immune system.
  • Impaired glucose tolerance: Mild glucose metabolism problems not severe enough to be called diabetes.
  • Impotence: Inability to attain or sustain an erection.
  • Insulin Resistance: The resistance of the body to insulin
  • Insulin lispro -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Insulin lispro during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Insulin-resistance type B: A very rare syndrome where insulin resistance is associated with autoimmune disease. The disorder is caused by antibodies which attack the bodies insulin receptors.
  • Insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans, type A: A patch of velvety, pigmented skin that occurs in association with insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus.
  • Interferon Alpha -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Interferon Alpha during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Invasive group A Streptococcal disease: Infection with Group A Streptococcal bacteria
  • Irritable bowel syndrome: Spasms in the colon wall
  • Juvenile tropical pancreatitis syndrome: A disease that tends occurs in tropical developing countries. It involves calcification and chronic inflammation of the pancreas. The condition tends to affect mainly young people.
  • Kearns-Sayre Syndrome: A rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by pigmented deposits on the retina, heart disease and progressive paralysis of some eye muscles.
  • Kidney disease: Reduced kidney function from various causes.
  • Kidney symptoms: Symptoms affecting one or both kidneys.
  • Klinefelter syndrome: A genetic condition where males have at least one extra X chromosome or extra copies of both the X and Y chromosomes in each cell. Normally male cells contain one X and one Y chromosome in each cell. The condition is not inherited but is a result of problems during cell division. Klinefelter syndrome variants is a more severe form of the condition as it involves more than one extra X or X and Y chromosome in each cell.
  • Kyrle disease: A skin disorder often associated with diabetes mellitus or kidney failure.
  • L-Asparaginase -- Teratogenic Agent: Experimental studies on rabbits indicate that the use of L-Asparaginase during pregnancy may cause various harmful effects on the fetus. The likelihood and severity of symptoms may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at. The effect on human fetuses has not been conclusively determined.
  • Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: A condition which is characterized by proliferation of Langerhans cells
  • Lawrence-Seip syndrome: Lawrence-Seip syndrome is a relatively uncommon condition involving generalized loss of skin fat that is acquired rather than congenital as in Berardinelli-Seip Syndrome. Patients can also develop diabetes mellitus and other problems. The loss of skin fat tends to occur during childhood or adolescence and is often triggered by infections such as measles and hepatitis. The diabetes tends to occur after fat loss begins. The limbs and face tend to be the most affected.
  • Leprechaunism: A very rare genetic disorder characterized by insulin resistance which leads to growth delay and endocrine system abnormalities.
  • Lipoatrophic diabetes:
  • Lipoatrophy with diabetes, hepatic steatosis, cardiomyopathy, and leukomelanodermic papules: A rare inherited disorder characterized by loss of fat under the skin, diabetes, heart muscle disease, fatty liver
  • Lipodystrophy: A rare group of disorders that can be acquired or inherited and involves adipose tissue abnormalities. The disorder is characterized by varying degrees of loss of body fat. The three forms of the condition are: total lipodystrophy, partial lipodystrophy and localized lipodystrophy.
  • MODY diabetes: Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young affects approximately one or two per cent of people who have diabetes, and may often go unrecognised in its early stages. It is a form of diabetes that develops before the patient reaches 25. It also runs in families, and can pass from one generation to the next. MODY does not always require insulin treatment.
  • Malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus: Diabetes mellitus that is caused by a chronic malnutrition state
  • Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness: A rare disorder characterized by deafness associated with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
  • Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness with cardiomyopathy: A rare inherited disorder characterized by deafness, heart muscle disease and diabetes.
  • Melioidosis: Bacterial infection from soil or water.
  • Mental retardation -- epileptic seizures -- hypogonadism -- hypogenitalism -microcephaly -- obesity: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental deficiency, epilepsy, small head, small genitals and obesity. Death occurs within the first two years of life.
  • Mental retardation syndrome, Belgian type: A rare form of mental retardation reported in a Belgian family.
  • Mental retardation, epileptic seizures, hypogonadism and hypogenitalism, microcephaly, and obesity: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental deficiency, epilepsy, small head, small genitals and obesity. Death occurs within the first two years of life.
  • Metabolic Syndrome: A common body syndrome with the "deadly quartet" of major conditions: obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and high lipids.
  • Metabolic disorders: Disorders that affect the metabolic system in human
  • Metformin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Metformin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Mouth conditions: Any condition that affects the mouth
  • Multiple Sclerosis: Autoimmune attack on spinal nerves causing diverse and varying neural problems.
  • Muscle cramps: A condition which is characterized by the uncontrolled contractions of muscles
  • Myotonic Dystrophy: An inherited disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting as well as eye defects, heart abnormalities and other anomalies. The severity of the condition is greatly variable. There are two type of myotonic dystrophy with type 1 being more severe than type 2.
  • Neurogenic bladder: Problems with the nerves controlling the bladder and urination.
  • Neuropathy: Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness.
  • Neuropathy, hereditary motor and sensory, Okinawa type: A dominantly inherited, slow-progressing motor and sensory nerve disease which primarily involves the proximal muscles (i.e. the muscles closest to the trunk of the body).
  • Niacin overdose: Excessive vitamin B3 (niacin) supplement or medication
  • No symptoms: The absence of noticable symptoms.
  • Nocturia: Urination during the night
  • Norrie Disease: A rare form of blindness that occurs at birth or soon after due to eye defects. The severity and range of symptoms is variable.
  • Norrie syndrome: A rare form of blindness that occurs at birth or soon after due to eye defects. The severity and range of symptoms is variable.
  • Obesity: An increase in the body weight greater than that required for normal function that is characterised by the accumulation of excessive fat
  • Oral thrush: Candida fungal infection of the mouth.
  • POEMS: A very rare disorder that has widespread effects on the body: P -- polyneuropathy, O -- organopathy, E -- endocrinopathy, M -- monoclonal gammopathy and S -- skin changes.
  • POEMS syndrome: A very rare disorder that has widespread effects on the body: P - polyneuropathy, O - organopathy, E - endocrinopathy, M - monoclonal gammopathy, S - skin changes.
  • Pancreas conditions: Any condition that affects the pancreas
  • Pancreatic Islet Cell Cancer: A malignant carcinoma that is located in the islet cells of the pancreas
  • Pancreatic cancer: Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas
  • Pancreatic insufficiency: Impaired pancreatic functioning. The pancreas does not produce sufficient digestive enzymes to properly digest lipids and proteins. Pancreatic insufficiency may be caused by such things as pancreatic cancer, cystic fibrosis, pancreatic resection and chronic pancreatitis.
  • Pancreatic islet cell tumors (functioning tumor): A tumor that arises from the pancreatic islet cells and produces too many hormones.
  • Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas causing digestive complaints.
  • Paresthesia: Pins-and-needles or burning-like sensations.
  • Peripheral neuropathy: Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness.
  • Pheochromocytoma: Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth and secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Physical inactivity: When an individual is physically inactive
  • Pituitary cancer, childhood: Cancer (malignant) of the pituitary gland in children. The pituitary gland produces various hormones and some pituitary tumors (functioning tumors) can affect the secretion of one or more of these hormones resulting in a range of symptoms depending on the exact location of the tumor. Some pituitary tumors do not affect hormone production (nonfunctioning tumors).
  • Pituitary tumors, adult: A benign or cancer tumor that develops in the tissue of the pituitary gland in adults. The pituitary gland produces various hormones and some pituitary tumors (functioning tumors) can affect the secretion of one or more of these hormones resulting in a range of symptoms depending on the exact location of the tumor. Some pituitary tumors do not affect hormone production (nonfunctioning tumors).
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder that affects approximately 5% of all women.
  • Polydipsia: This is where there is a chronic excessive thirst that is also accompanied by excessive fluid intake
  • Polyendocrine deficiency: The deficiency in the body of multiple endocrine hormones
  • Polyendocrine deficiency syndrome: A condition where more than one endocrine gland fails to function normally in terms of production of hormones. Symptoms can vary depending on the glands involved and the severity of the gland dysfunction.
  • Polyendocrine deficiency syndrome type 2: Multi-endocrine syndrome usually affecting young adults.
  • Polygenic diseases: Any diseases that are caused by conditions that affect several different genes
  • Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome type 3: A rare genetic disorder characterized by the malfunction of more than one endocrine gland resulting in impaired hormone production. The gland malfunction results from autoimmune damage to the tissue. There are four subtypes of the disorder with type 3 occurring mainly in female adults. Type 3 usually starts with thyroid gland problems and then other autoimmune conditions such as diabetes.
  • Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome type 4: A rare genetic disorder characterized by the malfunction of more than one endocrine gland resulting in impaired hormone production. The gland malfunction results from autoimmune damage to the tissue. Type 4 tends to have a different pattern to the other types with adrenal and thyroid problems often not occurring whereas other autoimmune conditions such as diabetes tend to predominate the initial stages of the condition.
  • Polyuria: Excessive urination during pregnancy.
  • Porphyria: A group of disorders characterized by excess production of porphyrin or its precursors which affects the skin and/or nervous system.
  • Powell-Buist-Stenzel syndrome: A rare syndrome inherited in a X-linked manner and characterized by diarrhea, endocrine disease and severe infections during infancy which lead to death. The condition is possibly due to an overactive immune system.
  • Prader-Willi syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by reduced muscle tone, obesity and small hands and feet.
  • Prednisolone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Prednisolone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Pregnancy symptoms: Symptoms related to pregnancy.
  • Premature aging, Okamoto type: A form of premature aging.
  • Presbycusis: Progressive deterioration of hearing ability that affects both ears and occurs with aging. The hearing loss is sensorineural in nature and is most noticeable at high frequencies. There are a number of risk factors associated with age-related hearing impairment: smoking, ototoxic medication, cardiovascular disease and exposure to loud noise. It is estimated that a third of people over the age of 60 have some hearing loss and more than half of people over the age of 75 years have hearing loss.
  • Primary Aldosteronism: Primary aldosteronism is a condition which the body's adrenal glands produce too much of the hormone aldosterone, causing retention sodium and loss of potassium.
  • Primary Hyperaldosteronism: A condition characterised by the excessive production and release into the circulation of aldosterone
  • Primary lipodystrophies: A group of rare diseases which involve loss of body fat. The body fat loss may be localized to certain parts of the body or may be generalized depending on the particular subtype.
  • Progeria: A rare fatal genetic disorder characterized by extremely premature aging.
  • Prolactinoma: Benign cancer of the pituitary gland producing prolactin.
  • Prostate Cancer: Cancer of the prostate.
  • Proteinuria: Protein in the urine
  • Psoriasis: Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin condition where the defective immune system causes skin cells to grow rapidly. It affects a significant number of people. Arthritis, which can be severe, is associated with the psoriasis in up to a third of cases. Not all patients who are susceptible to the condition will develop it - roughly 10% of those susceptible will actually develop the condition. There are various environmental factors which can trigger the onset of the disease e.g. strep throat (common trigger), some medication, stress and cold weather. Once the disease develops, it may resolve on its own or with treatment or may become a persistent chronic condition. The severity and duration of symptoms is variable.
  • Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome: A very rare genetic disorder involving severe insulin resistance which is where the body fails to be able to use insulin which is needed to control blood sugar levels.
  • Radiculopathy: A condition characterized by disease of the nerve roots
  • Rash: General name for any type of skin inflammation.
  • Renal carbuncle: Kidney abscess
  • Renal tubular acidosis, distal, type 4: A rare disorder where the kidney tubules fail to remove acids from the blood and into the urine which results in high blood acidity. The disorder is caused by low levels of the aldosterone hormone or the kidneys inability to respond to the hormone.
  • Restrictive cardiomyopathy: A condition which is characterized by restriction to the function of the walls of the heart
  • Retinal detachment: Partial or total detachment of retina from the back of the eye.
  • Retinohepatoendocrinologic syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized mainly by eye, liver and endocrine function abnormalities.
  • Reye's Syndrome: A syndrome in children recovering from infection and associated with aspirin.
  • Scleroderma: A rare, progressive connective tissue disorder involving thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissue. There are a number of forms of scleroderma with some forms being systemic (involving internal organs).
  • Secondary Biliary Cirrhosis: Secondary biliary cirrhosis is a condition where the bile ducts are unable to transport bile effectively due to a secondary cause which results in blockage, inflammation, scarring or some other damage to the bile ducts. The condition may result from such things as congenital defect of the bile ducts (e.g. biliary atresia), cystic fibrosis, gallstones or a variety of other secondary conditions.
  • Senior health conditions: Medical conditions affecting seniors, male or female.
  • Sexual neuropathy: Nerve damage resulting in reduced sexual function in men or women
  • Short stature cranial hyperostosis hepatomegaly diabetes: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by enlarged liver, diabetes, short stature and a thickened skull.
  • Short stature, cranial hyperostosis, hepatomegaly and diabetes: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by enlarged liver, diabetes, short stature and a thickened skull.
  • Sialadenitis: Salivary gland inflammation due to obstruction of the salivary gland or a duct.
  • Siderosis: Abnormal deposits of iron in body tissues. Symptoms will depend on which tissues the iron is deposited in.
  • Silent conditions: Any condition that is not visible clinically
  • Skin infections: Infection or inflammation of the skin.
  • Somatostatinoma: A very rare disorder where tumors in glands that produce somatostatin affect the secretion of the hormone. The tumor mainly occurs in the pancreas but can also occur in the intestinal tract.
  • Stiff-Person Syndrome: A very rare progressive neurological disorder involving muscle tightness and painful muscle spasms.
  • Streptococcal Infections: Various "strep" bacterial infections.
  • Stroke: Serious brain event from bleeding or blood clots.
  • Systemic disorders: Any condition that occurs in a system of the body
  • Tacrolimus -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Tacrolimus during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by megaloblastic anemia, hearing loss and diabetes. The condition is caused by a deficiency of a thiamine (vitamin B1) transporter protein which means that the body is unable to effectively utilize thiamine from the diet.
  • Thromboembolism: Lodgement of a blood clot causing blockage
  • Toxemia: A medical condition that occurs when there is a release of toxins from bacteria within the bloodstream
  • Transient Ischemic Attack: Temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that persists, by definition, for less than 24 hours.
  • Traveler's diarrhea: Various diarrheal conditions often caught on international travel.
  • Troell-Junet syndrome: A disorder involving enlarged extremities, diabetes, skull abnormalities and excessive thyroid hormone production.
  • Tuberculosis: Bacterial infection causing nodules forming, most commonly in the lung.
  • Turner Syndrome: Rare chromosome syndrome with one X but no second X or Y chromosome.
  • Type 1 diabetes: Severe insulin-treated diabetes typically occurring in young people.
  • Type 2 diabetes: Most common diabetes in adults, usually progressing slowly, mostly treated without insulin at diagnosis.
  • Ulcer: A local defect in the mucosa
  • Under-diagnosed conditions: Any medical condition that is undiagnosed
  • Urinary Incontinence: Reduced ability to control urine flow.
  • Urinary tract infections: Infection of the urinary system; usually bacterial.
  • Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the uterus.
  • Vaginal Dryness: Vaginal dryness interfering with sex.
  • Vaginitis: Vaginal inflammation or infection of any type.
  • Vague symptoms: Vague, unclear, mild or non-specific symptoms
  • Van Goethem syndrome: A syndrome which is characterised by multiple birth defects.
  • Vascular neuropathy: Neuropathy affecting the nerves controlling blood vessels
  • Werner syndrome: A form of premature aging where sufferers start aging during adolescence or soon after and appear old by the time they reach their 30's or 40's. Milder forms of the condition may also occur.
  • Wolfram Syndrome 2: Wolfram Syndrome is a condition characterized by the association of diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness. Type 2 is the result of a genetic defect and is similar to type 1 but there is no diabetes insipidus and patients tend to develop gastrointestinal problems.
  • Wolfram Syndrome, Mitochondrial form: A rare association of diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness which results in mitochondrial defects.
  • Wolfram's disease: A condition that is inherited and consists of multiple symptoms
  • X-linked sideroblastic anaemia:
  • X-linked sideroblastic anemia: X-linked sideroblastic anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of iron in the red blood cells which makes them unable to function properly. The body continues to absorb more iron from digesting food in order to try and correct the problem but this simply leads to excessive iron being deposited in body tissues as the it can't use the iron properly. The severity of the condition is variable.
  • Xerostomia: A medical term for a dry mouth due to insufficient saliva. There are numerous causes of a dry mouth including medications and nerve damage.

 

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