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Diseases » Encephalitis » Glossary
 

Glossary for Encephalitis

  • Acanthamoeba: Several conditions from infection with ameba.
  • Actinomycosis: An infection that results from the bacteria sp. Actinomyces.
  • Acute Appendicitis: Infection of the appendix
  • Addington disease: An epidemic disease which resembles polio and was first recorded in South Africa. The range and severity of symptoms experienced is variable and the disease may persist from a week to 3 months in some cases.
  • Amebic meningoencephalitis:
  • American mountain fever: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
  • Angiostrongyliasis: Infection by a parasitic worm (Angiostrongylus). Infection can occur through eating contaminated raw animals such as snails, slugs, prawns or crabs which act as hosts to these parasites.
  • Arachnoiditis: A progressive disorder where the arachnoid membrane becomes inflamed and the brain and spinal cord may also become inflamed.
  • Arbovirosis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus. The virus is transmitted by arthropods such as insects and ticks. Examples of arboviruses include Yellow Fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis. The symptoms may vary depending on the type of virus involved. The infection can lead to life-threatening brain inflammation.
  • Aspergillosis: Infection with a fungus called Aspergillus.
  • Bacterial diseases: Diseases caused by a bacterial infection
  • Bacterial meningitis: Bacterial meningitis is a form of meningitis caused by bacteria that normally lives in the mouth and throat. When the immune system is unable to supress this bacteria, it travels to the cerebrospinal spinal fluid in the brain. From there it affects the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Bartonella infections: Infection with bacteria from the Bartonella genus of bacteria. Specific bacteria from within this group are Bartonella bacilliforms (Oroya fever), Bartonella Heneslae (Cat-scratch disease). Other conditions caused by this bacteria are endocarditis, bacteremia and angiomatosis. Symptoms vary depending on the type of bacteria involved and the severity of the infection - immunocompromised patients face greater risk of severe infection.
  • Bartonellosis: An infectious disease caused by Bartonella bacilliforms and transmitted by sandflies. It causes fever, anemia and a skin rash.
  • Behcet's Disease: Recurring inflammation of small blood vessels affecting various areas.
  • Biotinidase deficiency: A metabolic disorder where the body lacks the enzyme biotinidase needed to process the vitamin called biotin (vitamin H) into carboxylase enzymes.
  • Brain abscess: Pus accumulating into an abscess on the brain
  • Brain cancer: Cancer of the brain.
  • Brain conditions: Medical conditions that affect the brain
  • Brain infection: Infection of the brain including encephalitis
  • California encephalitis: An uncommon mosquito born virus (California encephalitis virus) which can cause brain inflammation in humans. The severity of symptoms is variable. The incubation period can last from a few days to a week. Infants and children tend to be more severely affected than adults who sometimes have no obvious symptoms.
  • Cardiovirus: A viral disease caused by a virus from the Picornaviridae famiy. Any vertebrate can become infected though humans rarely are.
  • Chagas disease: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by insect bites or blood transfusions. The disease primarily involves the heart and gastrointestinal system.
  • Chickenpox: Common viral infection.
  • Cholesteatoma: Uncommon middle ear condition
  • Colorado tick encephalitis: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
  • Colorado tick fever: A tickborne condition caused by an arenavirus
  • Congenital herpes simplex: An infant born with a herpes simplex infection transmitted through the mother. The infection may be localized or involve various internal organs and even the central nervous system in which case death can occur.
  • Congenital syphilis: Syphilis inherited from mother during pregnancy.
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A very rare degenerative brain disease that can be inherited, transmitted (eg in surgical transplants using infected tissue) or as a result of genetic mutations. The condition is fatal.
  • Cryptococcosis: A fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans which primarily affects the central nervous system and the lungs. People with weakened immune systems such as AIDS sufferers are generally more susceptible to this type of infection.
  • Cytomegalovirus: A easily transmissible viral infection that is common but generally causes no symptoms except in infants and people with weakened immune systems.
  • Death: The cessation of life
  • E-coli food poisoning: Type of bacterial food poisoning
  • Eastern equine encephalitis: Is a mosquito born virus that occurs in the eastern united states and causes disease in humans, horses and some birds
  • Ehrlichiosis: Bacterial tick-borne disease
  • Encephalitis: Dangerous infection of the brain
  • Encephalomyelitis: Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Enterovirus antenatal infection: Fetal infection with enterovirus. The condition is extremely rare but infection around the time of birth often results in death or paralysis in survivors. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the exact type of virus involved and at what stage of development the infection occurs.
  • Enteroviruses: Viruses affecting the digestive tract.
  • Fetal parainfluenza virus type 3: Maternal infection with parainfluenza virus type 3 can cause a serious infection in the fetus and result in hydrocephalus. The risk is greatest during the first half of the pregnancy.
  • Fever: Elevation of the body temperature above the normal 37 degrees celsius
  • Flavivirus Infections: Infection with a virus from the Flaviviridae family of viruses. Infections by these pathogens include Dengue fever, Rocio encephalitis, West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis. Transmission usually occurs through the bite of a mosquito.
  • Flu: Very common viral respiratory infection.
  • Galactorrhoea-Hyperprolactinaemia: Increased blood prolactin levels associated with galactorrhea (abnormal milk secretion). It may be caused by such things as certain medications, pituitary disorders and thyroid disorders. The condition can occur in males as well as females.
  • Gnathostoma Infection: Infection with a type of round worm (Gnathostoma spinigerum and Gnathostoma hispidum). Infection typically occurs through eating undercooked fish or poultry containing the roundworm larvae or by drinking contaminated water. The symptoms are determined by which tissues the worms migrate through. The worms tend to migrate mainly through the skin.
  • Gnathostoma hispidum infection: A tapeworm infection with a tapeworm species called Gnathostoma hispidum. The infection is called gnathostomiasis and usually results from eating undercooked contaminated fish or poultry or drinking contaminated water. The nature and severity of symptoms vary depending on which part of the body the tapeworms migrate through (usually the skin).
  • Gnathostoma spinigerum infection: A tapeworm infection with a tapeworm species called Gnathostoma spinigerum. The infection is called gnathostomiasis and usually results from eating undercooked contaminated fish or poultry or drinking contaminated water. The nature and severity of symptoms vary depending on which part of the body the tapeworms migrate through (usually the skin).
  • Group B Streptococcal Infections: "Strep" bacteria that may affect newborns and the immune-compromised; compare strep A.
  • HIV/AIDS: HIV is a sexually transmitted virus and AIDS is the progressive immune failure that HIV causes.
  • Hantavirosis: Infection by hantavirus which is a virus from the family Bunyaviridae. Infection generally causes severe febrile illness which can involve bleeding, shock and even death in some cases. The disease is transmitted by infected rodents.
  • Head Conditions: Conditions that affect the head
  • Headache: In medicine a headache or cephalalgia is a symptom of a number of different conditions of the head and sometimes neck. Some of the causes are benign while others are medical emergencies. It ranks among the most common pain complaints
  • Heart complications: Any complication that relates to the heart
  • Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: A condition which is characterized by an abnormal appearance of histiocytes in the blood
  • Hemophagocytic reticulosis: The abnormal proliferation of reticulum cell (histiocytes) which infiltrate various organs and. Macrophages destroy blood cells causing blood abnormalities. Meningoencephalitis frequently occurs when the histiocytes infiltrate the mininges and cerebral tissue. Symptoms start at birth or soon after and become progressively worse without treatment. Medication can control the condition but a hematopoietic stem cell transplant is needed to achieve remission.
  • Hemophilus influenzae B: Bacterial respiratory infection with dangerous complications.
  • Herpes: Virus with one subtype causing cold sores and another causing genital herpes.
  • Herpes simplex encephalitis: A form of encephalitis caused by the herpes simplex virus and characterized by fever, headache and neurological symptoms.
  • Herpes, Neonatal: Neonatal herpes is the infection of a newborn with the herpes virus within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions.
  • Herpes, Neonatal -- Central Nervous System Infection: Central nervous system herpes infection in neonates is a herpes infection of the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord) that develops in infants within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions. Central nervous system infection will occur in nearly three quarters of infants with a herpes infection.
  • Herpes, Neonatal -- Disseminated: Disseminated neonatal herpes is a widespread infection of a newborn with the herpes virus within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions. Brain infection will occur in over half of infants with the disseminated form.
  • Hyperventilation: Excessively rapid breathing causing blood gas imbalances
  • Immunosuppressive Measles Encephalitis: A rare complication of the measles virus. Some patients with a history of measles before the age of two develop progressive brain inflammation. The condition is rare and tends to only occur only in immunosuppressed children e.g. those who have acute lymphocytic leukemia. Symptoms may develop suddenly and tends to occur from weeks to months after the measles has resolved.
  • Inflammatory conditions that may be pathogenic or non-pathogenic: Medical conditions causing inflammation, whether due to a pathogen (e.g. bacteria, virus), or a systemic or other cause.
  • Japanese encephalitis: A form of encephalitis caused by a flavivirus (Japanese B encephalitis virus - JBEV) and transmitted by mosquito bites. Most cases are mild and asymptomatic but severe cases can lead to death.
  • Kawasaki disease: A childhood illness that generally affects the skin, mouth and lymph nodes.
  • Kuru: An infectious prion disease that is only found in New Guinea
  • Labrynthitis: Inner ear condition affecting various ear structures
  • Leptomeningitis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of the leptomeninges
  • Listeriosis: Bacterial food poisoning
  • Lung symptoms: Symptoms affecting one or both lungs.
  • Lupus: Autoimmune disease with numerous effects on various organs and linings.
  • Lyme disease: Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia.
  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis: Rodent-borne viral disease often causing meningitis or encephalitis
  • Lymphoproliferative Syndrome, X-Linked, 1: A rare inherited immunodeficiency disorder where the body's immune systm is unable to respond appropriately to certain viral infections (Epstein Barr virus). The immune system becomes weakened following and EBV infection. As the condition in inherited in a X-linked manner, males tend to suffer the full extent of the disease which tends to be eventually fatal in most cases. Female carriers tend not to develop and problems following an EBV infection. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome Xq25.@
  • Lymphoproliferative Syndrome, X-Linked, 2: A rare inherited immunodeficiency disorder where the body's immune systm is unable to respond appropriately to certain viral infections (Epstein Barr virus). The immune system becomes weakened following and EBV infection. As the condition in inherited in a X-linked manner, males tend to suffer the full extent of the disease which tends to be eventually fatal in most cases. Female carriers tend not to develop and problems following an EBV infection. Type 2 is linked to a defect in the XIAP gene on chromosome Xq25.
  • Lyssavirus: A group of viruses that infect mammals and arthropods
  • Measles: Once common viral infection now rare due to vaccination.
  • Measles Encephalitis in Children with Immunosuppression: A rare complication of the measles virus. Some patients with a history of measles before the age of two develop progressive brain inflammation. The condition is rare and tends to only occur only in immunosuppressed children e.g. those who have acute lymphocytic leukemia. Symptoms may develop suddenly and tends to occur from weeks to months after the measles has resolved.
  • Meningitis: Dangerous infection of the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Meningococcal disease: Dangerous bacterial infection causing meningitis or bacteremia.
  • Meningoencephalitis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of the brain and meninges
  • Mild fever: The occurance of a fever but in a mild form
  • Mononucleosis: Common infectious virus.
  • Mosquito bite: Bite from a mosquito.
  • Mosquito-borne diseases: Diseases that are carried by the mosquito
  • Mountain fever: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
  • Mountain tick fever: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
  • Mumps: An acute viral disease that causes the salivary glands to become swollen, sore and inflamed. Immunization had greatly reduced the incidence of this disease.
  • Murray Valley encephalitis: Severe viral form of encephalitis in Australia
  • Nervous system conditions: Diseases affecting the nerves and the nervous system.
  • Neurological disorders related to AIDS: It usually occurs due to decreased immunity.
  • Neurosyphilis: A complication of untreated syphilis where the infection invades the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and causes a range of neurological symptoms. The condition can be life-threatening but some cases are asymptomatic. There are four forms of the condition: asymptomatic, meningovascular, tabes dorsalis and general paresis.
  • Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A block in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, causing enlarged ventricles and brain atrophy.
  • Opisthotonus: is a state of extreme hyperextension and spasticity of the head, neck and spinal column
  • Paraneoplastic Neurologic Disorders: A term used to describe the distant neurological effects of cancer. It results from an autoimmune attack against antigens present in cancer and the nervous system. Peripheral nerves, central nervous system and muscle controlling nerves may be affected. Often the effects become obvious before the cancer is detected. Types of PNS include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, subacute cerebellar ataxia, opsoclonus-myoclonus, retinopathies, limbic encephalitis, chronic gastrointestinal pseudoobstruction, sensory neuronopathy, encephalomyelitis, dermatomyositis, Stiff-Person syndrome and melanoma-associated retinopathy.
  • Permanent brain damage: A condition which is characterized by damage to the brains function that is permanent in nature
  • Photophobia: An exaggerated or irrational fear of light.
  • Plague: A rare but serious bacterial infection involving the bacterium Yersinia Pestis which can be carried by rodents and transmitted to humans by flea bites or through direct contact with an infected animal.
  • Pneumococcal meningitis: Pneumococcal meningitis is an inflammation or infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (also called pneumococcus).
  • Pneumococcus: Bacteria causing ear infections, pneumococcal pneumonia, and pneumococcal meningitis.
  • Polio: Dangerous virus now rare due to vaccination.
  • Pontiac fever: Mild form of legionellosis usually in healthy people.
  • Post-vaccinial encephalitis: Post-vaccinial encephalitis is a brain infection that occurs after a smallpox vaccination.
  • Poxviridae disease: A group of infectious diseases that cause puss filled skin eruptions. Chicken pox and small pox are examples.
  • Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis: Meningitis/encephalitis from amebic infections.
  • Rabies: An infectious disease that can affect any mammal including humans and is transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal. The infectious agent is the Neurotropic lyssavirus which affects the salivary gland and also causes neurological symptoms.
  • Rasmussen's Encephalitis: Rare possibly-autoimmune brain condition.
  • Reye's Syndrome: A syndrome in children recovering from infection and associated with aspirin.
  • Rift Valley Fever: Mosquito-borne viral infection affecting animals and humans
  • Rocio encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain caused by a flavivirus called Rocio virus. It occurs in south-eastern Brazil with transmission occurring through mosquito bites. The incubation period is 1-2 weeks. Death is not an uncommon outcome.
  • Rubella: A contagious viral infection caused by the Rubella virus which produces a rash and lymph node swelling. It can have serious implication in pregnant women as the virus can be transmitted through the placenta and cause serious fetal defects or even fetal death.
  • Rubella congenital syndrome: The transplacental infection of a fetus with rubella
  • Secondary syphilis: A condition which is characterized by fever, multiform skin eruptions, iritis, alopecia, mucous patches and severe pain in the head and joints
  • Sensorineural hearing loss: Hearing loss due to abnormal functioning or damage to the hearing nerve or the cochlea (inner ear) or the part of the brain that processes sound. The hearing problem may be present at birth or may be acquired through such things as aging, excessive noise or diseases such as meningitis.
  • Shingles: Infectious viral infection occuring years after chickenpox infection.
  • Simian B virus infection: A type of herpesvirus which occurs in monkeys but can be transmitted to humans through bites or through contact with infected monkey tissue as in a laboratory situation. The virus infects the brain (encephalitis) and the surrounding membrane (meningitis).
  • Sinusitis: Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
  • Skull fracture: A fracture of the bones of the skull
  • Smith disease: A harmless condition involving increased lymphocyte levels which may manifest as a variety of symptoms or may be asymptomatic. Diseases such as whooping cough and German measles are believed to be possible causes. The disease most commonly occurs in children and young adults.
  • St. Louis encephalitis: Mosquito-borne type of brain infection (encephalitis)
  • Staphylococcal infection: Any infection caused by the bacteria staphylococcal
  • Stiff back: Reduced mobility or movement of the back
  • Stiff neck: Reduced mobility of the neck
  • Stroke: Serious brain event from bleeding or blood clots.
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage: A condition which is characterized by haemorrhage of blood into the subarachnoid space
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Brain bleeding in the subarachnoid area
  • TORCH Syndrome: Infection of a fetus by any of a group of infectious agents which have been transmitted from the mother through the placenta. The infections include toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus, hepatitis and syphilis. The severity and nature of symptoms is determined by the type of infection.
  • Tick-borne encephalitis: A viral infection (flavivirdae) of the central nervous system which is transmitted by ticks. Ticks usually feed on small rodents who are the main carriers of the virus. Transmission may also occur through the consumption of untreated milk. The incubation period is usually 1 to 2 weeks. The symptoms occur in two phases: the first involves symptoms of a general viral illness (fever, headache, nausea, aching muscles) followed by a period of remission and then central nervous system inflammation such as meningitis. However, many patients only suffer the first phase of the disease.
  • Togaviridae disease: Infection with any of a number of togaviridae viruses which can caused conditions such as Equine encephalitis, Ross River virus and Rubella virus. Symptoms are determined by the type of virus involved. Togaviridae are arboviruses and are transmitted by arthropods.
  • Toxoplasmosis: Infection often caught from cats and their feces.
  • Trichinosis: Worm infection usually caught from pigs
  • Trypanosomiasis, east-African: A rare infectious disease caused by a parasite called Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and is transmitted through the bite of an infected Tsetse fly. The infection causes an acute illness with symptoms occurring from days to weeks after infection. Death relatively common, especially in untreated cases.
  • Typhoid fever: Fever from bacterial food poisoning.
  • Vaccinia: A cowpox virus that was initially used for human smallpox vaccines.
  • Vague symptoms: Vague, unclear, mild or non-specific symptoms
  • Varicella -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the development of Varicella during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis: A mosquito-borne virus that usually affects horses and related animals but may also infect humans. Young, weak and old people may become very sick and in some cases death can occur. It occurs in Central and South America. The incubation period is 2-5 days. The period of illness is usually 3-8 days but relapses are possible.
  • Viral diseases: Any disease that is caused by a virus
  • Viral meningitis: Viral meningitis refers to meningitis caused by a viral infection
  • Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome: A rare condition characterized by poliosis and hair, skin, eye and ear abnormalities as well as retinal detachment and neurological involvement.
  • Vomiting: Vomiting or retching symptoms.
  • West African Trypanosomiasis: West African sleeping sickness from the tsetse fly
  • West Nile fever: Mosquito-borne infectious virus.
  • West nile encephalitis: A virus that is of the Flavivirus genus that causes the condition West Nile encephalitis
  • Western equine encephalitis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus (Alphavirus - Togaviraidae) and transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The infection primarily attacks that central nervous system and severity can range from asymptomatic to severe complications and even death in rare cases.
  • Whooping Cough: An infectious condition caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis

 

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