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Diseases » Epilepsy » Glossary
 

Glossary for Epilepsy

  • 2-Hydroxyglutaricaciduria: A rare metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of a certain chemical (2-Hydroxyglutaric) which causes a serious progressive neurological disease and damage to the brain. The features of this disorder are variable and some cases are milder than others.
  • 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase II Deficiency: A rare genetic disorder involving the deficiency of an enzyme (hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase). The severity of the symptoms is highly variable with some cases resulting in death during the first decade while others suffer psychomotor and regression. Symptoms tend to be more severe in males who suffer progressive neurodegeneration whereas females tend to suffer mainly from developmental delay.
  • ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. Typically, ADHD and associated hyperactivity is known as a childhood disorder, although ADD/ADHD in adults is known to be under-diagnosed. It is distinguished from Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) which has a reduced focus on hyperactivity type symptoms.
  • Abdominal seizure: A type of simple partial seizure where abnormal electrical activity in a part of the brain that control autonomic functions results in episodes of abdominal symptoms such as vomiting and nausea.
  • Absence seizure: Abnormal electrical activity in the brain resulting in a brief (10 - 30 seconds) alteration of consciousness. This type of seizure is more common in children. Seizures can occur a number of times in a day. The patient may or may not be aware that they have suffered a seizure.
  • Acrocallosal Syndrome (Schinzel Type): A rare condition characterized by absence of portion of the brain (corpus callosum), mental deficiency, duplicated toes, mental deficiency and other abnormalities.
  • Acrocallosal syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by underdeveloped or absent corpus callosum of brain, duplication of thumb or big toe and extra fingers or toes.
  • Al Gazali -- Nair syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by bone abnormalities, eye problems, seizures and developmental delay. The reported cases involved related parents.
  • Albright like syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by mental retardation, short stature and finger and toe abnormalities.
  • Alopecia, epilepsy, oligophrenia syndrome of Moynahan: A rare condition characterized by alopecia, epilepsy, mental retardation and a small head.
  • Alopecia, epilepsy, pyorrhea, mental subnormality: A rare syndrome characterized by alopecia, epilepsy, mental retardation and pus-producing gum and tooth inflammations.
  • Alveolar Hydatid Disease: Rare multi-organ tapeworm infection caught from animals.
  • Amelo-cerebro-hypohidrotic syndrome: A rare syndrome involving degeneration of the central nervous system, seizures and abnormal tooth development.
  • Ampola syndrome: A rare genetic disease characterized primarily by mental retardation, facial anomalies, short stature, seizures and finger and toe abnormalities.
  • Angelman syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by a puppet-like gait, fits of laughter and characteristic facial features.
  • Angelman-Like Syndrome, X-linked: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, mutism, facial anomalies, epilepsy and weak eye muscles. Males tended to have severe mental retardation whereas female carriers had mild or no mental retardation. Patients do eventually walk but then often lose this ability by the age of 10 years. Female carriers tend to have mild symptoms and males have severe symptoms - symptoms are variable to some degree.
  • Anophthalmia -- hypothalamo-pituitary insufficiency: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by small or absent eyes and malformations of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
  • Anophthalmia -- hypyothalamo-pituitary insufficiency: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by small or absent eyes and malformations of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
  • Aphasia-epilepsy, acquired: A rare childhood neurological disorder characterized by aphasia, epileptic seizures and inability to recognize sounds. The symptoms may develop quickly or gradually.
  • Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: A rare inborn error of metabolism involving the deficiency of an enzyme (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) needed to process aromatic amino acids. This results in a deficiency of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. The condition manifests as movement and neurological problems.
  • Arthrogryposis -- epileptic seizures -- migrational brain disorder: A rare disorder characterized by congenital joint contractures, epileptic seizures and brain development abnormalities. It can be caused by fetal exposure to alcohol or chemical products.
  • Atherosclerosis, premature -- deafness -- diabetes mellitus -- photomyoclonus -- nephropathy -- degenerative neurologic disease: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, diabetes, epilepsy, kidney disease and premature hardening of the arteries.
  • Atherosclerosis- deafness -- diabetes -- epilepsy -- nephropathy: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, diabetes, epilepsy, kidney disease and premature hardening of the arteries.
  • Atonic seizure: Abnormal electrical activity in the brain which results in sudden loss of muscle tone. In mild cases, the head may simply drop down briefly but in more severe cases the person simply collapses to the floor. There is a high risk of injury in this type of seizure as the person collapses suddenly and can easily incur a head injury. The episode generally only lasts about 15 seconds. This form of seizure usually occurs with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
  • Atypical pyridoxine-dependent seizures: A form of epilepsy which responds to anticonvulsant therapy for only a period of time but are able to be managed by pyridoxine supplementation after a few months. Seizures may disappear for a few months even after pyridoxine supplementation is ceased.
  • Auditory seizure: A type of seizure where abnormal electrical activity in a part of the brain that control the sense of hearing results in episodes of abnormal hearing symptoms.
  • Autism: Childhood mental condition with social and communication difficulties.
  • Autonomic seizure: A type of seizure where abnormal electrical activity in a part of the brain that control autonomic functions results in episodes of abnormal symptoms such as vomiting, flushing and sweating.
  • Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: A rare inherited form of epilepsy characterized by seizures during the night. The seizures tend to be brief (usually less than a minute) and violent and tend to occur in clusters. Patients are usually aware during the seizure.
  • Baltic myoclonic epilepsy: A rare inherited type of progressive myoclonus epilepsy which tends to cause symptoms during childhood. The involuntary muscle movements tend to occur more frequently and become more severe with increasing age. Symptoms may occur following various stimuli such as light, stress or exercise.
  • Baraitser-Rodeck-Garner syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by mental retardation, premature fusion of skull bones, kidney anomalies, seizures and facial anomalies.
  • Basilar artery migraine: Basilar migraine (BM), also known as Bickerstaff syndrome, consists of headache accompanied by dizziness, ataxia, tinnitus, decreased hearing, nausea and vomiting, dysarthria, diplopia, loss of balance, bilateral paresthesias or paresis, altered consciousness, syncope, and sometimes loss of consciousness.
  • Battaglia Neri syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, small head, epilepsy, coarse facial features and skeletal anomalies. Only two reported cases of this syndrome.
  • Behavioral symptoms: Symptoms of personal behavior.
  • Benign familial infantile epilepsy: A harmless form of epilepsy that occurs during infancy. Psychomotor development is not affected.
  • Benign familial infantile seizures 1: A harmless form of epilepsy that occurs during infancy. Episodes of multiple seizures tend to occur over a day or few days. Psychomotor development is not affected. The seizures tend to involve increased muscle tone, apnea, cyanosis, eye deviation and psychomotor arrest. Type 1 differs from type 2 in the origin of the genetic defect (chromosome 19).
  • Benign familial infantile seizures 2: A harmless form of epilepsy that occurs during infancy. Episodes of multiple seizures tend to occur over a day or few days. Psychomotor development is not affected. The seizures tend to involve increased muscle tone, apnea, cyanosis, eye deviation and psychomotor arrest. Type 2 differs from type 1 in the origin of the genetic defect (chromosome 16).
  • Benign familial neonatal-infantile seizures: A rare dominantly inherited form of seizures that occurs during the first year of life. The seizures tend to occur in clusters. The seizures involved limb twitching, averted head, eye-blinking and lip smacking. No neurological or developmental problems are associated with this disorder.
  • Birth Injury: An injury to the mother caused by childbirth
  • Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by severe mental deficiency, large ears, hypogonadism and other abnormalities.
  • Borud Syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by numerous features including hearing and vision problems, heart muscle disease, ataxia and peripheral neuropathy.
  • Boudhina-Yedes-Khiari syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by short stature, small head, mental deficiency, seizures, hearing loss and skin lesions.
  • Brain cancer: Cancer of the brain.
  • Brain conditions: Medical conditions that affect the brain
  • Brain damage: Damage to the brain from various causes
  • Brain infection: Infection of the brain including encephalitis
  • Brain symptoms: Symptoms affecting the brain
  • CDG syndrome type I: A rare genetic disorder where the body is unable to synthesize glycoproteins which results in multisystem problems.
  • Carbohydrate deficiency glycoprotein syndrome type II: Congenital disorders of glycosylation is a group of very rare inherited metabolic disorder where defective carbohydrate compounds are attached to glycoproteins and thus impairing glycoprotein function. Type 2 is caused by a genetic defect which involves the gene for a particular enzyme (Golgi localized N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase II). Type 2 tends to have more severe psychomotor retardation than type 1 but there is no peripheral neuropathy or underdeveloped cerebellum.
  • Catamenial seizure: A type of seizure that is associated with the female menstrual cycle. It appears that flucutations in hormone levels leads to increased seizure activity in some women just before or during their menstrual cycle. Simple or complex partial seizures or generalized tonic-clonic seizures may be involved.
  • Celiac disease -- epilepsy -- occipital calcifications: A rare syndrome characterized by celiac disease and epilepsy with brain calcifications.
  • Centrotemporal epilepsy: A benign form of childhood epilepsy that tends to occur at night (during sleep) and involves mainly the face and mouth but may be generalized. The seizures tend to be short-lived and only involve one side of the face. The epilepsy usually resolves itself by adulthood and responds well to medication.
  • Cerebral Palsy: Any brain disorder causing movement disability
  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 8, northern epilepsy variant: A rare metabolic disorder that affects the nerve cells of the body and is characterized by the deposits of lipopigments (lipofuscin). Type 8, northern epilepsy variant is distinguished from other types by the origin of the genetic defect. Mental retardation tended to occur by middle age despite normal development during the first few years of life.
  • Choreoacanthocytosis amyotrophic: A rare inherited disease involving neurological degeneration and abnormal red blood cell shape. The disorder progresses slowly and causes involuntary movements, loss of cognitive ability, behavioral changes and seizures.
  • Chromosome 15q triplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of a part of the long arm of chromosome 15 resulting in various anomalies.
  • Chromosome 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome: A genetic disorder characterized by the deletion of a small portion of genetic material at the chromosomal location of 15q13.3. A rare syndrome characterized mainly by seizures, mental retardation, and slightly unusual facial features.
  • Chromosome 20 ring: A rare chromosomal disorder where genetic material from one or both ends of chromosome 20 is missing and the two broken ends have rejoined to form a ring. The resulting type and severity of symptoms is determined by the amount and location of genetic material missing.
  • Chromosome 4, trisomy 4p: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of chromosome four is duplicated so there is three copies of it instead of the normal two.
  • Chromosome 9, Partial Monosomy 9p: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the short arm (p) of chromosome 9 is missing resulting in various abnormalities. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the amount of genetic material that is missing.
  • Chromosome 9, monosomy 9p: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the short arm (p) of chromosome 9 is missing resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Chronic Illness: Any form of continuing chronic illness.
  • Classical pyridoxine-dependent seizures: A form of epilepsy which responds to pyridoxine hydrochloride administration and not to standard anticonvulsant medication.
  • Clonic seizures: Abnormal electrical activity in a part of the brain which results in rhythmic jerking limb movements. Limbs on one or both side of the body may be affected. The duration of the episodes is variable but usually only lasts a few minutes. Clonic seizures can occur at any age and episodes are generally not followed by tiredness and confusion. Clonic seizures usually start in early childhood.
  • Coffin syndrome 1: A rare inherited syndrome characterized mainly by spasticity, seizures, congenital heart defects, short stature and delayed mental and motor development.
  • Colpocephaly: A rare brain malformation that is present at birth. The cavities present at the back of the brain are larger than normal as the brain tissue has failed to develop normally to fill some of the space. Severity of symptoms are variable depending on the degree of abnormality.
  • Complex partial seizure: A complex seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in only one part of the brain and resulting in symptoms related to the body functions or parts that are controlled by that part of the brain. Partial seizures where the patient has altered consciousness are called complex partial seizures. During a simple partial seizure movement, sensations, feelings or emotions may be affected. Partial seizures may spread to other parts of the brain and are then called generalized seizures. These seizures usually only last a few minutes.
  • Complex partial seizure disorder: Complex partial seizure disorder is an electrical disturbance that originates in only one part of the brain and resulting in symptoms related to the body functions or parts that are controlled by that part of the brain. Partial seizures where the patient has altered consciousness are called complex partial seizures. During a simple partial seizure movement, sensations, feelings or emotions may be affected. Partial seizures may spread to other parts of the brain and are then called generalized seizures. These seizures usually only last a few minutes.
  • Concussion: Brain injury causing loss of consciousness and bruising of the brain
  • Congenital Bilateral Perisylvian Syndrome: A condition apparent at birth which causes partial paralysis, pseudobulbar palsy, dysarthria and dysohagia
  • Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1K: Congenital disorders of glycosylation is a group of very rare inherited metabolic disorder where defective carbohydrate compounds are attached to glycoproteins and thus impairing glycoprotein function. Type Ik is caused by a defect on chromosome 16p13.3 and involves a defect in the gene for beta-1,4-mannosyltransferase. The disorder is generally fatal within a year or two of birth.
  • Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2E: Congenital disorders of glycosylation is a group of very rare inherited metabolic disorder where defective carbohydrate compounds are attached to glycoproteins and thus impairing glycoprotein function. Type 2e is caused by a defect on chromosome 16p and involves a defect in the gene for oligomeric complex-7.
  • Congenital hypoparathyroidism, seizures, growth and mental retardation and unusual facies: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by growth and mental retardation, seizures, unusual facial appearance and congenital hypoparathyroidism.
  • Continuous spike-wave during slow sleep syndrome: A rare form of epilepsy that occurs between the ages of 3 and 7 and is diagnosed by the observation through an EEG of continuous spike and wave discharges during the slow sleep phase which is detected. The seizures often occur during sleep. Children outgrow the condition before adulthood but some of the effects of the disorder may continue longer.
  • Convulsions: Involuntary spasms especially those affecting the full body
  • Convulsions benign familial neonatal dominant form: A rare dominantly inherited type of epilepsy that occurs in newborns. The seizures can occur during sleep or while awake and may be partial or generalized.
  • Convulsions, benign familial infantile, 1: An inherited form of seizures that occurs in infancy and early childhood. Symptoms only occur during the seizures. The seizures tend to occur in clusters.
  • Convulsions, benign familial infantile, 3: An inherited form of seizures that occurs in infancy and early childhood. Symptoms only occur during the seizures. The seizures tend to occur in clusters. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q23-q24.3.
  • Convulsions, benign familial infantile, 4: An inherited form of seizures that occurs in infancy and early childhood. Symptoms only occur during the seizures. The seizures tend to occur in clusters. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1p36.12-p35.1.
  • Cornelia de Lange syndrome 2: A very rare disorder involving delayed physical development and various malformations involving the head, face and limbs. Type 2 is not as severe as type 1 with some of the abnormalities not presenting until later in life or absent altogether. The range and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Cortes-Lacassie syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by nail, hair and teeth abnormalities, malformed hands and feet and seizures. The disorder has only been reported in one cause which resulted in death at 31 months
  • Cortical dysplasia -- focal epilepsy syndrome: Abnormal development of the brain cortex which results in focal epilepsy and progressive neurological deterioration once the epilepsy starts in early childhood.
  • Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia: A very rare bone disorder where excess calcium is deposited mainly in the skull bones which can result in compression of various nerves in the skull and even the brain.
  • Cutler Syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by multisystem disorders including muscle wasting, ataxia, epilepsy, anemia and kidney disease. The kidney disease is most likely present at birth.
  • DEND syndrome: An inherited disorder characterized by developmental delay, epilepsy and diabetes.
  • Dandy-Walker malformation with mental retardation, basal ganglia disease, and seizures: A rare X-linked syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation and seizures.
  • De Lange 1: A rare disorder involving a variety of congenital abnormalities including retarded growth, behavioral problems, characteristic facial features and upper limb abnormalities.
  • Deafness -- onychodystrophy -- osteodystrophy -- mental retardation: A very rare inherited disorder involving deafness (D), onychodystrophy (O - nail malformation), osteodystrophy (O - bone malformation) and mental retardation (R).
  • Deafness, congenital onychodystrophy, recessive form: A very rare inherited disorder involving deafness (D), onychodystrophy (O - nail malformation), osteodystrophy (O - bone malformation) and mental retardation (R).
  • Death: The cessation of life
  • Developmental delay -- epilepsy -- neonatal diabetes: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by developmental delay, epilepsy and early-onset diabetes.
  • Devriendt syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by Robin sequence, short stature and seizures.
  • Diomedi-Bernardi-Placidi syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by epilepsy, mental retardation and progressive leg weakness and spasticity.
  • Dissociative disorder: A sudden change in the state of consciousness and identity
  • Double cortex syndrome: A rare brain development disorder which causes mental retardation and epilepsy. An extra layer of nerves develops under the brain cortex.
  • Dravet syndrome: A rare, severe form of generalized infant epilepsy that starts after a fever. Initial infant development is normal but once the seizures start, psychomotor development slows and mental decline occurs. The seizures usually occur every month or two to start with.
  • Dup (2) (q11.2-q13): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in one reported case. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Dup (3) (pter-p24.3) and del (7) (pter-p22.1): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in one reported case. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Electrolyte abnormality: An imbalance in the level of any of a number of chemicals (electrolytes) in the blood stream e.g. chloride, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphate and bicarbonate. Symptoms can vary depending on which electrolyte is involved and the severity of the imbalance - severe cases can readily lead to death. An electrolyte abnormality can be caused by such things excessive loss of body fluid through vomiting or diarrhea, kidney conditions, malabsorption and various drugs such as diuretics and chemotherapy drugs.
  • Emotional seizure: A emotional seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in a part of the brain involved with emotions. The resulting symptoms such as sudden inexplicable fear, anger or happiness.
  • Emotional symptoms: Symptoms affecting the emotions.
  • Encephalitis: Dangerous infection of the brain
  • Encephalopathy, familial, with neuroserpin inclusion bodies: A rare neurodegenerative disorder involving brain disease due to a genetic chemical abnormality which results in the abnormal deposit of neuroserpin inclusion bodies which is harmful to the nerves.
  • Epilepsy -- mental deterioration, Finnish type: A rare disorder that occurs predominantly in people of Finnish origin and is characterized by the association of epilepsy with mental retardation.
  • Epilepsy -- microcephaly -- skeletal dysplasia: A rare syndrome characterized by epilepsy, a small head and skeletal abnormalities.
  • Epilepsy -- telangiectasia: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of epilepsy with telangiectasias on the conjunctiva of the eyelids.
  • Epilepsy benign neonatal dominant form: A recessively inherited form if seizures that starts during early infancy.
  • Epilepsy benign neonatal recessive form: A recessively inherited form if seizures that starts during early infancy.
  • Epilepsy juvenile absence: A rare form of epilepsy that occurs around the time of puberty. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures occur when waking up and myoclonic seizures can also occur.
  • Epilepsy occipital calcifications: A rare disorder characterized by calcification of the occipital part of the brain, epilepsy. Celiac disease is also usually associated with the disorder.
  • Epilepsy with myoclonic absences: A epileptic disorder which involves uncontrollable, rhythmic jerks of the limb.
  • Epilepsy with myoclonic-astatic crisis: A form of childhood epilepsy which is associated with a sudden loss of muscle tone which often results in the sufferer falling over and possibly injuring themselves.
  • Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal: A condition characterized by clusters of seizures usually during the first days of life. The seizures are harmless and tend to resolve spontaneously during the first year though many cases resolve by 6 weeks of age. The seizures are not necessary associated with fevers but they can be. There are various subtypes of the condition, each with a different origin of the genetic defect.
  • Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal, 1: A condition characterized by clusters of seizures usually during the first days of life. The seizures are harmless and tend to resolve spontaneously during the first year though many cases resolve by 6 weeks of age. The seizures are not necessary associated with fevers but they can be. There are various subtypes of the condition, each with a different origin of the genetic defect. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 20q13.3.
  • Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal, 2: A condition characterized by clusters of seizures usually during the first days of life. The seizures are harmless and tend to resolve spontaneously during the first year though many cases resolve by 6 weeks of age. The seizures are not necessary associated with fevers but they can be. There are various subtypes of the condition, each with a different origin of the genetic defect. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 8q24.
  • Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal, 3: A condition characterized by clusters of seizures usually during the first days of life. The seizures are harmless and tend to resolve spontaneously during the first year though many cases resolve by 6 weeks of age. The seizures are not necessary associated with fevers but they can be. There are various subtypes of the condition, each with a different origin of the genetic defect. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 5.
  • Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal, Autosomal Recessive: A condition characterized by clusters of seizures usually during the first days of life. The seizures are harmless and tend to resolve spontaneously during the first year though many cases resolve by 4 months of age. The seizures are not necessary associated with fevers but they can be. There are various subtypes of the condition, each with a different origin of the genetic defect. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 5.
  • Epilepsy, Childhood Absence, Susceptibility to, 1: A susceptibility to childhood absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 8q24.
  • Epilepsy, Childhood Absence, Susceptibility to, 2: A susceptibility to childhood absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 5q31.1.
  • Epilepsy, Childhood Absence, Susceptibility to, 3: A susceptibility to childhood absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 3q26.
  • Epilepsy, Childhood Absence, Susceptibility to, 4: A susceptibility to childhood absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 5q34.
  • Epilepsy, Childhood Absence, Susceptibility to, 5: A susceptibility to childhood absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 15q11-q12.
  • Epilepsy, Childhood Absence, Susceptibility to, 6: A susceptibility to childhood absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 16p13.
  • Epilepsy, Idiopathic Generalized, Susceptibility to, 10: A susceptibility to epilepsy linked to a particular gene - 1p36.3.
  • Epilepsy, Idiopathic Generalized, Susceptibility to, 11: A susceptibility to epilepsy linked to a particular gene - 3q26.
  • Epilepsy, Idiopathic Generalized, Susceptibility to, 7: An increased risk of generalized epilepsy associated with a defect in the CACNA1H gene on chromosome 15q14.
  • Epilepsy, Idiopathic Generalized, Susceptibility to, 8: A susceptibility to epilepsy linked to a particular gene - 3q13.3-q21.
  • Epilepsy, Idiopathic Generalized, Susceptibility to, 9: A susceptibility to epilepsy linked to a particular gene - 2q22-q23.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Absence, Susceptibility to, 1: A susceptibility to juvenile absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 6p12-p11.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Absence, Susceptibility to, 2: A susceptibility to juvenile absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 3q26.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 1: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 6p12-p11.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 2: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 15q14.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 3: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 6p21.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 4: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 5q12-q14.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 5: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 5q34-q35.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 6: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 2q22-q23.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 7: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 1p36.3.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 8: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 3q26.
  • Epilepsy, Pyridoxine-Dependent: A form of epilepsy which responds to pyridoxine hydrochloride administration and not to standard anticonvulsant medication.
  • Epilepsy, X-linked -- learning disabilities -- behavior disorders: An inherited syndrome characterized by epilepsy, behavioral disorders and learning disability. Patients may suffer various combinations of the disorder. The onset of seizures can vary from childhood to adulthood.
  • Epilepsy, benign familial neonatal: A rare inherited type of epilepsy that occurs in newborns. The seizures can occur during sleep or while awake and may be partial or generalized.
  • Epilepsy, benign occipital: A form of epilepsy that occurs in children and originates from the part of the brain called the occipital region (back of the head). Visual disturbances often precede the seizures.
  • Epilepsy, familial mesial temporal lobe: A dominantly inherited form of epilepsy.
  • Epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 4: A rare inherited epilepsy disorder which also involves migraines and visual aura.
  • Epilepsy, generalized -- paroxysmal dyskinesia: An epileptic disorder characterized by generalized epilepsy and sudden episodes of involuntary abnormal movements. The abnormal movements may be triggered by fatigue, stress or alcohol. Patients may suffer only the seizures or only the dyskinesia or both.
  • Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized: A group of epileptic disorders that have genetic links and thus there is usually a family history of epilepsy. There are generally no other anomalies or structural brain abnormalities associated. Symptoms usually start between early childhood and adolescence.
  • Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to: An increased risk of generalized epilepsy associated with a genetic defect. There are at least 5 different genetic defects on various chromosome that can cause an increased risk of generalized idiopathic epilepsy.
  • Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 1: A susceptibility to epilepsy linked to a particular gene - 8q24.
  • Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 2: A susceptibility to epilepsy linked to a particular gene - 14q23.
  • Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 3: A susceptibility to epilepsy linked to a particular gene - 9q32-q33.
  • Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 4: A susceptibility to epilepsy linked to a particular gene - 10q25-q26.
  • Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 5: A susceptibility to epilepsy linked to a particular gene - 10p11.22.
  • Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 6: A susceptibility to epilepsy linked to a particular gene - 16p13.3.
  • Epilepsy, myoclonic progressive familial: A progressive central nervous system disorder characterized by involuntary muscle jerking that can involve just the limbs or the whole body.
  • Epilepsy, nocturnal, frontal lobe type: An inherited form of epilepsy which originates from the frontal lobe and occurs predominantly at night. The seizures tend to occur in groups with as many as 8 occurring during a night. Often the condition is dismissed as nightmares or a psychiatric disorder. There are a number of genetic defects linked to the disorder resulting in a number of subtypes of the condition.
  • Epilepsy, nocturnal, frontal lobe type 1: An inherited form of epilepsy which originates from the frontal lobe and occurs predominantly at night. The seizures tend to occur in groups with as many as 8 occurring during a night. Often the condition is dismissed as nightmares or a psychiatric disorder. Type 1 results from a defect on chromosome 10q13.2-13.3.
  • Epilepsy, nocturnal, frontal lobe type 2: An inherited form of epilepsy which originates from the frontal lobe and occurs predominantly at night. Often the condition is dismissed as nightmares or a psychiatric disorder. Type 2 results from a defect on chromosome 15q24.
  • Epilepsy, nocturnal, frontal lobe type 3: An inherited form of epilepsy which originates from the frontal lobe and occurs predominantly at night. Often the condition is dismissed as nightmares or a psychiatric disorder. Type 3 results from a defect on chromosome 1q21.
  • Epilepsy, nocturnal, frontal lobe type 4: An inherited form of epilepsy which originates from the frontal lobe and occurs predominantly at night. Symptoms tend to improve with age. Often the condition is dismissed as nightmares or a psychiatric disorder. Type 4 results from a defect on chromosome 8p21.
  • Epilepsy, partial, familial: A form of epilepsy that tends to run in families and is linked to damage or abnormalities in a specific part of the brain. Often sensory disturbances accompany or precede the seizures.
  • Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 3: A genetic disorder involving the early onset of progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The infant develops normally for the first year or so of life and the seizures start usually before the age of two. Once the seizures start, neurological degeneration begins.
  • Epilepsy, pyridoxin-dependent: A form of epilepsy which responds to pyridoxine hydrochloride administration and not to standard anticonvulsant medication.
  • Epilepsy, rolandic with paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia and writer's cramp: A rare disorder characterized by epilepsy, writer's cramp seizures and sudden exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia could occur in the neck, face, trunk or limbs. The writer's cramp tended to start during childhood and continue into adolescence.
  • Epilepsy-like myoclonic jerks: The myoclonic twitches or jerks are usually caused by sudden muscle contractions; they also can result from brief lapses of contraction.
  • Epileptic encephalopathy, Lennox-Gastaut type: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation and physical anomalies. The brain condition is progressive and results in loss of previously acquired skills.
  • Ethosuximide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ethosuximide (antiseizure medication) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Facial asymetry -- temporal seizures: A rare condition characterized mainly by seizures that originate from the temporal lobe of the brain.
  • Facial asymmetry -- temporal seizures: A rare condition characterized mainly by seizures that originate from the temporal lobe of the brain as well as facial asymmetry.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 1: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 8q13-q21
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 10: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 10 is linked to a defect on chromosome 3q26.2-q26.33.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 2: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 19p13.3.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 3: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q24.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 3A: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 3A is linked to a defect on the SCN1A gene on chromosome 2q24.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 3B: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 3B is linked to a defect in the SCN9B gene on chromosome 2q24.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 4: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 5q14.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 5: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q22-q24.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 6: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 6 is linked to a defect on chromosome 18p11.2.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 7: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 7 is linked to a defect on chromosome 21q22.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 8: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 8 is linked to a defect on chromosome 5q31.1-q33.1.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 9: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 9 is linked to a defect on chromosome 3p24.2-p23.
  • Familial partial epilepsy with variable focus: A familial form of epilepsy where the seizures occur mostly at night. The seizures can arise from different parts of the brain in different family members. There is no damage to the structure of the brain nor permanent neurological damage.
  • Familial porencephaly: A very rare developmental abnormality that tends to run in families and is characterized by a localized accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. The severity of symptoms is determined by the size and location of the brain abnormality.
  • Febrile Seizures: Fever-caused seizures in infants or children.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 1: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 1 is caused by a defect on chromosome 8q13-q21.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 2: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 2 is caused by a defect on chromosome 19p.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 3: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 3 is caused by a defect in the SCN1A gene on chromosome 2q24.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 4: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 4 is caused by a defect in the GPR98 gene on chromosome 5q14.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 5: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 5 is caused by a defect on chromosome 6q.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 6: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 18p.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 7: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 7 is caused by a defect on chromosome 21q22.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 8: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 8 is caused by a defect in the GABRG2 gene on chromosome 5q31.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 9: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 9 is caused by a defect on chromosome 3p24.2-p23.
  • Feigenbaum-Bergeron-Richardson syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, diabetes, epilepsy, kidney disease and premature hardening of the arteries.
  • Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome: A rare disorder caused by fetal exposure to phenytoin (anticonvulsant drug) and resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Flynn-Aird syndrome: A rare inherited disorder where neurological degeneration causes symptoms such as dementia, ataxia, eye problems, skin disorders and muscle wasting.
  • Focal cortical dysplasia: Abnormal development of the brain cortex which results in focal epilepsy and progressive neurological deterioration once the epilepsy starts in early childhood.
  • Focal cortical dysplasia type II: Abnormal development of the brain cortex which results in severe, untreatable seizures which occur several times a day.
  • Focal cortical dysplasia type IIA: Abnormal development of the brain cortex which results in severe, untreatable seizures which occur several times a day. Type IIA is distinguished by the lack of balloon cells wheras type IIB has balloon cells present. Balloon cells are abnormal cells in the brain tissue.
  • Focal cortical dysplasia type IIB: Abnormal development of the brain cortex which results in severe, untreatable seizures which occur several times a day. Type IIB is distinguished by the presence of balloon cells wheras type IIA has no balloon cells present. Balloon cells are abnormal cells in the brain tissue.
  • Focal emotional seizure: A focal emotional seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in a part of the brain involved with emotions. The resulting symptoms such as sudden inexplicable fear, anger or happiness.
  • Focal motor seizure: A focal motor seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in a part of the brain involved with movement and results in corresponding movement symptoms. The muscles in any part of the body may be affected depending on the exact location of the portion of brain affected.
  • Focal seizure: A focal seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in only one part of the brain and resulting in symptoms related to the body functions or parts that are controlled by that part of the brain. During a focal seizure, movement, sensations, feelings or emotions may be affected. Focal seizures may spread to other parts of the brain and are then called generalized focal seizures. Focal seizures where the patient stays conscious are called simple focal seizures. If the patient loses consciousness then the seizure is called a complex focal seizure. Epilepsy is usually a focal seizure.
  • Focal seizures: A deficiency of folate in the body
  • Focal sensory seizure: A focal sensory seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in a part of the brain involved with the senses. The resulting symptoms involve unusual sensations that affect andy of the senses - touch, taste, hearing, vision and smell.
  • Focal somatosensory seizure: A focal somatosensory seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in a part of the brain involved with the senses. The resulting symptoms involve unusual sensations that affects sensations such as pain, temperature and pressure.
  • Folinic acid-responsive seizures: A form of seizures that respond to treatment with folinic acid. The seizures usually start within a week of birth.
  • Fryns-Aftimos syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by abnormal brain development, epilepsy, mental retardation and unusual facial appearance.
  • Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy: A rare inherited muscle wasting disease occurring predominantly in Japan and characterized by mental retardation and muscle weakness from infancy.
  • Gelastic seizure: A type of seizure where abnormal electrical activity in a particular part of the brain results a sudden brief outburst of emotion such as crying or laughing. The seizure can last from a few seconds to a minute or so and the person may or may not have memory of the episode.
  • Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus: An inherited seizure disorder characterized by febrile seizures during early childhood and persisting seizures after early childhood which may or may not involve fever. The range and severity of symptoms is variable and may include febrile seizures, partial seizures and generalized seizures. The seizure disorder persists after the age of six which differentiates it from the similarly names seizure disorder called generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures. There are five (perhaps more) subtypes of the condition, each originating from a different genetic defect.
  • Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus, type 1: Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus is an inherited seizure disorder characterized by febrile seizures during early childhood and persisting seizures after early childhood which may or may not involve fever. The range and severity of symptoms is variable and may include febrile seizures, partial seizures and generalized seizures. The seizure disorder persists after the age of six which differentiates it from the similarly names seizure disorder called generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures. There are five (perhaps more) subtypes of the condition, each originating from a different genetic defect. Type 1 is caused by a defect on chromosome 19q13.
  • Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus, type 2: Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus is an inherited seizure disorder characterized by febrile seizures during early childhood and persisting seizures after early childhood which may or may not involve fever. The range and severity of symptoms is variable and may include febrile seizures, partial seizures and generalized seizures. The seizure disorder persists after the age of six which differentiates it from the similarly names seizure disorder called generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures. There are five (perhaps more) subtypes of the condition, each originating from a different genetic defect. Type 2 is caused by a defect on chromosome 2q24.
  • Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus, type 3: Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus is an inherited seizure disorder characterized by febrile seizures during early childhood and persisting seizures after early childhood which may or may not involve fever. The range and severity of symptoms is variable and may include febrile seizures, partial seizures and generalized seizures. The seizure disorder persists after the age of six which differentiates it from the similarly names seizure disorder called generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures. There are five (perhaps more) subtypes of the condition, each originating from a different genetic defect. Type 3 is caused by a defect on chromosome 15q31.1-q33.1.
  • Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus, type 4: Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus is an inherited seizure disorder characterized by febrile seizures during early childhood and persisting seizures after early childhood which may or may not involve fever. The range and severity of symptoms is variable and may include febrile seizures, partial seizures and generalized seizures. The seizure disorder persists after the age of six which differentiates it from the similarly names seizure disorder called generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures. There are five (perhaps more) subtypes of the condition, each originating from a different genetic defect. Type 4 is caused by a defect on chromosome 2p24.
  • Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus, type 5: Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus is an inherited seizure disorder characterized by febrile seizures during early childhood and persisting seizures after early childhood which may or may not involve fever. The range and severity of symptoms is variable and may include febrile seizures, partial seizures and generalized seizures. The seizure disorder persists after the age of six which differentiates it from the similarly names seizure disorder called generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures. There are five (perhaps more) subtypes of the condition, each originating from a different genetic defect. Type 5 is caused by a defect on the GABRD gene.
  • Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus, type 6: Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus is an inherited seizure disorder characterized by febrile seizures during early childhood and persisting seizures after early childhood which may or may not involve fever. The range and severity of symptoms is variable and may include febrile seizures, partial seizures and generalized seizures. The seizure disorder persists after the age of six which differentiates it from the similarly names seizure disorder called generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures. There are five (perhaps more) subtypes of the condition, each originating from a different genetic defect. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 8p23-p21.
  • Generalized epilepsy and paroxysmal dyskinesia: A rare disorder characterized mainly by generalized epilepsy and a movement disorder where abnormal involuntary movements occur suddenly and disappear quite rapidly also.
  • Generalized seizures: Abnormal electrical activity that starts in larger areas of the brain and involves both sides of the brain. Various symptoms occur depending on the part of the brain involved. Symptoms generally last for a matter of minutes but full recovery may take hours. Often patients are confused and tired after a seizure episode.
  • Genetic reflex epilepsy: A genetic condition where certain lights (e.g. tv), sounds, music, movements and reading can trigger a seizure.
  • Gitelman syndrome: A rare, relatively mild, genetic kidney disorder that causes hypokalemia. The defective gene (NCCT) impairs the function of the Na-Cl cotransporter.
  • Grand mal epilepsy: A condition characterize by sudden loss of consciousness with tonic-clonic seizures
  • Grand mal seizures: Whole body seizures (convulsions/fits)
  • Gurrieri-Sammito-Bellussi syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by epilepsy, short stature and skeletal abnormalities.
  • Gustavson syndrome: A very rare condition characterized by features such as mental retardation, spasticity, seizures and eye and ear problems.
  • Hemiconvulsion-Hemiplegia-Epilepsy syndrome: An uncommon condition characterized by prolonged clonic seizures (usually involving one side of the body) followed by paralysis on the same side of the body affected by the seizure. Within a few years of this episode, partial epilepsy develops. The convulsions are usually preceded by an episode of fever and they may last for hours if left untreated.
  • Heterotopia, Periventricular, Associated with Chromosome 5q Deletion: A brain anomaly linked to a defect on chromosome 5q and characterized mainly by severe mental retardation and epilepsy.
  • Heterotopia, periventricular, associated with chromosome 5p anomalies: A rare developmental brain abnormality. Type 3 is caused by a defect on chromosome 5p.
  • Hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase, type 2, deficiency: A rare genetic disorder involving the deficiency of an enzyme (hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase). The severity of the symptoms is highly variable with some cases resulting in death during the first decade while others suffer psychomotor and regression. Some cases simply involve developmental delay.
  • Hypercoagulability syndrome, due to glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiency: A genetic disorder where the deficiency of a glycolipid called glycosylphosphatidylinositol causes seizures and blood coagulation problems.
  • Hyperekplexia and epilepsy: A rare genetic disorder characterized by progressively severe epilepsy and hyperekplexia. The condition is caused by a defect on chromosome Xq22.1.
  • Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar level
  • Hypoparathyroidism X-linked: Low parathyroid levels inherited in a X-linked manner and hence only males are symptomatic and females are asymptomatic carriers.
  • Hypotonia, Seizures and Precocious Puberty: A rare syndrome observed in three siblings and characterized mainly by seizures and reduced muscle tone. Early puberty was also observed in two of the children.
  • Ichthyosis male hypogonadism: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by scaly skin and insufficient hormone production by the male gonads.
  • Infant Cytomegalic virus: A serious CMV viral infection in newborns.
  • Infant epilepsy with migrant focal crisis: A rare disorder characterized by infant epilepsy and progressive brain disease.
  • Infantile Spasms: Seizure condition in infants.
  • Infantile convulsions and paroxysmal choreoathetosis, familial: A very rare inherited syndrome characterized mainly by convulsions during infancy and choreoathetosis which can occur randomly or be triggered by certain stimuli such as exercise.
  • Infantile epileptic-dyskinetic encephalopathy: A genetic disorder characterized by severe epilepsy and dyskinesia that starts during infancy. This form of the condition is caused by a defect on the ARX gene.
  • Infection: Infections as a symptom.
  • Injury: Any damage inflicted in the body
  • Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: A form of epilepsy that occurs in teenagers and involves sudden muscle jerking and seizures which is especially common on awakening.
  • Kifafa seizure disorder: A rare form of seizure involving head nodding prior to the seizure and often associated with neurological symptoms and Parkinson-like symptoms.
  • Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome: A rare syndrome involving degeneration of the central nervous system, seizures and abnormal tooth development.
  • Lafora body disease: A condition characterized by attacks of intermittent or continuous clonus of muscle groups
  • Lafora disease: A rare genetic disorder caused by the inclusion of a substance called Lafora bodies in cells throughout the body. The condition is progressive and causes progressive seizures and dementia.
  • Lamotrigine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lamotrigine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Landau-Kleffner Syndrome: A neurological disorder which results in aphasia, epileptic seizures and inability to recognize sounds.
  • Latham-Munro syndrome: A rare inherited syndrome characterized by deafness and mutism at birth, epilepsy and myoclonus (muscle twitching).
  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: A form of epilepsy that occurs mostly in preschool-aged children and is characterized mainly by absences.
  • Lindstrom syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by mental retardation, facial anomalies, short stature and seizures.
  • Lipoid proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe: A rare congenital lipoid storage disease where lipids, carbohydrates and proteins are deposited onto blood vessel walls and other tissues.
  • Lissauer paralysis: Diffuse degeneration of one side of the cerebral cortex which causes dementia, weakness and seizures.
  • Lissencephaly, X-linked 2: A rare brain malformation where the surface of the brain is smoother than normal. Genital anomalies are also associated. The severity of the disorder is variable.
  • Liver disease -- retinitis pigmentosa -- polyneuropathy -- epilepsy: An inherited disorder characterized by an enzyme (Alpha-methyl-acyl-CoA racemase) deficiency, liver disease, epilepsy, polyneuropathy and eye problems. The neuropathy tends to start during adulthood.
  • Lorazepam -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lorazepam during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Lymphangiectasies and lymphedema Hennekam type: A rare disorder characterized by buildup of lymphatic fluid in the limbs, face and genitals, seizures and mental and growth retardation.
  • MRXS-Christianson: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, mutism, facial anomalies, epilepsy and weak eye muscles. Males tended to have severe mental retardation whereas female carriers had mild or no mental retardation. Patients do eventually walk but then often lose this ability by the age of 10 years. Female carriers tend to have mild symptoms and males have severe symptoms - symptoms are variable to some degree.
  • MacDermot-Winter syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a small head, underdeveloped genitalia and a protrusion of the area between the eyes (glabella).
  • McDowall syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation and excessive skin folds and furrows on the scalp.
  • Mediterranean myoclonic epilepsy: A rare inherited type of progressive myoclonus epilepsy which tends to cause symptoms during childhood. The involuntary muscle movements tend to occur more frequently and become more severe with increasing age. Symptoms may occur following various stimuli such as light, stress or exercise.
  • Meningitis: Dangerous infection of the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Mental retardation -- dysmorphism -- hypogonadism -- diabetes: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, hypogonadism, diabetes and facial and skull abnormalities.
  • Mental retardation -- epilepsy: A very rare syndrome characterized by the association of mental retardation with epilepsy.
  • Mental retardation -- epilepsy -- bulbous nose: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, epilepsy and a bulbous nose. The condition has been reported in only two families.
  • Mental retardation -- epilepsy, X-linked: A rare inherited disorder characterized by the association of mental retardation with epilepsy. The disorders are inherited in a X-linked manner which means that only males display the full range of symptoms whereas female carriers may have mild or no symptoms.
  • Mental retardation syndrome, Belgian type: A rare form of mental retardation reported in a Belgian family.
  • Mental retardation, Microcephaly, Epilepsy and Ataxia Syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, mutism, facial anomalies, epilepsy and weak eye muscles. Males tended to have severe mental retardation whereas female carriers had mild or no mental retardation. Patients do eventually walk but then often lose this ability by the age of 10 years. Female carriers tend to have mild symptoms and males have severe symptoms - symptoms are variable to some degree.
  • Mental retardation, X-linked -- craniofacial dysmorphology -- epilepsy -- ophthalmoplegia -- cerebellar atrophy: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, mutism, facial anomalies, epilepsy and weak eye muscles. Males tended to have severe mental retardation whereas female carriers had mild or no mental retardation. Patients do eventually walk but then often lose this ability by the age of 10 years. Female carriers tend to have mild symptoms and males have severe symptoms - symptoms are variable to some degree.
  • Mental retardation, X-linked -- epilepsy -- progressive joint contractures -- typical face: A rare disorder characterized by mental retardation, epilepsy, unusual facial appearance and slowly-progressive joint contractures. The disorder is inherited in a X-linked manner which means that only males display the full range of symptoms whereas female carriers may have mild or no symptoms.
  • Mental retardation, X-linked, Wittwer type: A rare disorder characterized by severe mental retardation, retarded growth, seizures and vision and hearing problems. The disorder is inherited in a X-linked manner which means that only males display the full range of symptoms whereas female carriers may have mild or no symptoms.
  • Mental retardation, X-linked, syndromic, due to JARID1C mutation: A rare disorder characterized by mental retardation, spasticity and other variable features. The disorder is inherited in a X-linked manner which means that only males display the full range of symptoms whereas female carriers may have mild or no symptoms. The disorder is caused by a defect on the JARID1C gene on chromosome Xp11.22-p11.21.
  • Mental retardation, epileptic seizures, hypogonadism and hypogenitalism, microcephaly, and obesity: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental deficiency, epilepsy, small head, small genitals and obesity. Death occurs within the first two years of life.
  • Mental retardation, keratoconus, febrile seizures, and sinoatrial block: A rare disorder characterized by mental retardation, seizures with fever, an eye disorder and a heart anomaly. The heart condition requires a pacemaker in some cases.
  • Microcephaly -- mental retardation -- spasticity -- epilepsy: A very rare disorder characterized by an abnormally small head, mental retardation, spasticity and epilepsy.
  • Microcephaly -- pontocerebellar hypoplasia -- dyskinesia: A rare, recessively inherited disorder characterized by an abnormally small brain and brainstem which manifests as a small head and mental retardation. The brain progressively degenerates.
  • Microcephaly -- seizures -- mental retardation -- heart disorders: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a small head, seizures, mental retardation and heart disorders.
  • Microcephaly -- sparse hair -- mental retardation -- seizures: A very rare disorder characterized by an abnormally small head, sparse hair, mental retardation and seizures.
  • Microcephaly micropenis convulsions: A syndrome which is characterized by the association of symptoms such as abnormal facial appearance, short stature and psychomotor retardation.
  • Microencephaly: Small brain. The condition is often characterized by a small head and neurological problems. The type and severity of symptoms are variable.
  • Migraine: Chronic recurring headaches with or without a preceding aura.
  • Moodiness: Inappropriate moods or excessive mood changes
  • Mowat-Wilson syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, a small head, characteristic facial appearance and various other abnormalities.
  • Muller-Barth-Menger syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by brain malformations, seizures, excessive hairiness and overlapping fingers.
  • Muscle spasms: Involuntary movement or contraction of muscles without full control
  • Myoclonic epilepsy benign, adult, familial: A rare familial disorder characterized by muscle jerking and seizures in adults. The disorder is not progressive and is fairly harmless with only minor fine motor control problems.
  • Myoclonic progressive familial epilepsy: A progressive familial disorder involving the central nervous system and manifesting as epilepsy and myoclonus (muscle contractions) that worsen over time.
  • Myoclonic seizures: Abnormal electrical activity in the brain which results in brief sporadic muscle jerking involving part or all of the body. The jerks may be minor or severe enough to result in collapse or involuntary throwing of objects. The episodes may occur as a single even or in a series of events. Consciousness is not affected during the seizure.
  • Myoclonus: Sudden involuntary muscle twitching or movement.
  • Myoclonus epilepsy: A form of epilepsy (brain function disturbance) associated with involuntary muscle twitching (myoclonus)
  • Myoclonus epilepsy partial seizure:
  • Myoclonus progressive epilepsy of Unverricht and Lundborg: A rare genetic brain disease characterized by convulsions which become progressively worse. Modern treatment can have a big effect on the prognosis.
  • Myoclonus with epilepsy with ragged red fibers: A rare disorder of mitochondrial metabolism characterized by myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red muscle fibers. Mitochondria are the part of the body cells that produce energy.
  • Myokymia with neonatal epilepsy: A rare disorder characterized by the neonatal onset of epilepsy followed later in life by involuntary skeletal muscle contractions (myokymia).
  • Narcolepsy: Narcolepsy is characterized by the classic tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis.
  • Nervous system conditions: Diseases affecting the nerves and the nervous system.
  • Neurocysticercosis: Brain/CNS infection with the tapeworm Cysticercosis
  • Neurodegenerative syndrome, X-linked, Hamel type: A very rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized mainly by mental retardation, blindness, convulsions, spasticity and early death. The disorder is X-linked and thus only males suffer the full extent of the symptoms whereas female carriers may be asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms.
  • Neurofaciodigitorenal syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by brain problems, mental retardations, kidney and limb defects as well as a range of other physical abnormalities.
  • Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1): Neurofibromatosis Type 1 is a genetic disorder often leading to the development of nerve tumors. The condition is also characterized by skin pigmentation abnormalities.
  • Neurofibromatosis-1: Genetic disorder often leading to tumors on nerves.
  • Neuronal intranuclear hyaline inclusion disease: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by muscle problems and seizures. The disorder results from the presence of hyaline compounds inside nerve cells.
  • Nevus comedonicus syndrome: A rare condition characterized by the development of large comedones which can occur in groups or linear arrangements. The skin lesions tend to occur mainly on the face, neck, arms and trunk. If it is associated with other congenital malformations, it is called a syndrome. There are a variety of possible malformations that can occur in the syndromic form e.g. skeletal defects, brain anomalies and eye problems such as cataracts.
  • Nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn: A rare genetic neurocutaneous disorder characterized by epidermal nevi associated with central nervous and skeletal system abnormalities.
  • Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by short stature, reduced hair, short fingers, epilepsy and abnormal bone development.
  • Niemann-Pick disease, type D: Niemann-Pick disease is an inherited metabolic disorder where lipids are not able to be metabolized adequately and hence build up and cause damage in various parts of the body such as the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow and brain. Type D is no longer a relevant term as research has shown that it has the same genetic mutation as Type C and is therefore the same condition.
  • Non-lissencephalic cortical dysplasia: A brain development abnormality characterized by the development of small brain convolutions that generally cause mental retardation. Symptoms depend on the location and extent of the abnormality.
  • OFD syndrome type IX: A rare genetic disorder characterized by oral frenula, oral clefts, underdeveloped nose flaps and finger and retinal abnormalities.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Ohtahara Syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by epilepsy that starts within a month of birth.
  • Olefactory seizure: A type of seizure where abnormal electrical activity in a part of the brain that control the sense of smell results in episodes of abnormal olfactory symptoms.
  • Onychodystrophy -- deafness: A very rare inherited disorder involving deafness (D), onychodystrophy (O - nail malformation), osteodystrophy (O - bone malformation) and mental retardation (R).
  • Osler's disease: Genetic disease causing multiple teleangiectasias
  • PEHO-like syndrome: A rare birth disorder characterized by brain anomalies due to prenatal ischemia. Clinically it is the same as true PEHO syndrome but differs in the type of brain abnormality involved. True PEHO syndrome is inherited and tends to involve an underdeveloped cerebellum which is absent in PEHO-like syndrome.
  • Pachygyria -- mental retardation -- seizures: A very rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation and seizures caused by abnormal structural brain development called pachygyria.
  • Pallister Killian Mosaic Syndrome: Pallister Killian Mosaic Syndrome is a very rare disorder genetic disorder involving abnormalities in chromosome 12. The severity of symptoms is variable and tends to include a wide range of defects and abnormalities.
  • Pallister Mosaic Syndrome Tetrasomy 12p: A very rare disorder genetic disorder involving abnormalities in chromosome 12. The severity of symptoms is variable and tends to include a wide range of defects and abnormalities.
  • Pallister-Killian Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder due to tetrasomy of the 12th chromosome
  • Panic attack: Sudden attack of unreasonable panic or fear without any real danger
  • Partial emotional seizure: A partial emotional seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in a part of the brain involved with emotions. The resulting symptoms such as sudden inexplicable fear, anger or happiness.
  • Partial motor seizure: A partial motor seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in a part of the brain involved with movement and results in corresponding movement symptoms. The muscles in any part of the body may be affected depending on the exact location of the portion of brain affected.
  • Partial seizure: A partial seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in only one part of the brain and resulting in symptoms related to the body functions or parts that are controlled by that part of the brain. During a partial seizure movement, sensations, feelings or emotions may be affected. Partial seizures may spread to other parts of the brain and are then called generalized seizures. Partial seizures where the patient stays conscious are called simple partial seizures. If the patient loses consciousness then the seizure is called a complex partial seizure. Epilepsy is usually a partial seizure.
  • Partial sensory seizure: A partial sensory seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in a part of the brain involved with the senses. The resulting symptoms involve unusual sensations that affect andy of the senses - touch, taste, hearing, vision and smell.
  • Partial somatosensory seizure: A partial somatosensory seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in a part of the brain involved with the senses. The resulting symptoms involve unusual sensations that affects sensations such as pain, temperature and pressure.
  • Penfield syndrome: A rare disorder where a tumor pushes against the hypothalamus and causes seizures as well as a variety of other symptoms.
  • Peripheral type neurofibromatosis:
  • Perisylvian syndrome: A very rare nerve disorder characterized by weakness or paralysis of face, jaw tongue and throat muscles. Other symptoms include seizures, delayed development and mental retardation.
  • Petit mal epilepsy: A condition which is characterized by absence seizures
  • Petit mal seizures: Brief seizures or changes of awareness
  • Phenylketonuria type 2: A genetic condition where phenylalanine (component of protein) is unable to be broken down due to an enzyme (phenylalanine hydroxylase) deficiency which leads to a harmful build up of the compound. The condition is characterized by neurological symptoms as well as the presence of increased levels of phenylalanine in the blood.
  • Photosensitive epilepsy: Epilepsy or seizures triggered by visual stimuli such as flashing light, moving patterns and bold, regular patterns.
  • Photosensitive seizures: Seizures that are triggered by lights. The triggering type or pattern of light is variable amongst patients. Some examples including flickering television screen, strobe lights or sunlight between spaced trees. The exact symptoms are variable and may have tonic and or clonic components. The condition is more common in patients with a history of certain juvenile seizures (absence and myoclonic) and tends to resolve during adulthood.
  • Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation with periods of overbreathing and apnea.
  • Poisoning: The condition produced by poison
  • Polymicrogyria, Bilateral Frontal: Polymicrogyria refers to abnormal brain development where the brain has abnormally smooth gyri (convolutions) on the surface of the brain. The anomaly is often occurs as part of another syndrome. Patients can present with a wide range and severity of symptoms which can make the prognosis difficult to determine.
  • Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Type 2B: A rare inherited condition where the brainstem and part of the brain (cerebellum) is abnormally small. Type 2B differs from other types with respect to the location of the genetic defect.
  • Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Type 2C: A rare inherited condition where the brainstem and part of the brain (cerebellum) is abnormally small. Type 2C differs from other types with respect to the location of the genetic defect.
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia with infantile spinal muscular atrophy: A rare, recessively inherited disorder characterized by an abnormally small brain and brainstem which manifests as a small head and mental retardation. The disorder is lethal with death usually occurring within the first year. The brain progressively degenerates.
  • Porencephaly: A central nervous system disorder involving cysts in the brain cortex caused by stroke, infection or genetic anomaly.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Phenytoin: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Phenytoin (an anticonvulsant medication) has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Post-traumatic epilepsy: Recurring seizures that after some sort of trauma that results in injury to the brain. The seizures may be partial or generalized. The severity of the disorder is determined by the degree of damage to the brain.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder: Stress following a traumatic event.
  • Primidone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Primidone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Psychic simple partial seizure: Abnormal electrical signals in a particular part of the brain that results in a seizure consisting of episodes of symptoms involving emotions, cognition and déjà vu.
  • Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: An episode that resembles and epileptic seizure but is a psychological manifestation. True epileptic seizures result from abnormal electrical activity in the brain. The condition often stems from some sort of severe emotional trauma such as childhood sex abuse.
  • Ramon Syndrome: A rare genetic condition characterized by cherubism, enlarged gums, epilepsy, mental deficiency and excessive body hair (hypertrichosis).
  • Ramsay Hunt syndrome Type II: A condition caused by a reactivation of the herpes simplex virus and resulting in facial paralysis, ear pain and skin blistering.
  • Renier-Gabreels-Jasper syndrome: A very rare inherited syndrome characterized by a small head, severe mental retardation, spasticity, deafness and epilepsy.
  • Rhabdomyolysis: Skeletal muscle injury or death, which releases muscle fibres into the blood.
  • Richieri Costa Guion Almeida Cohen syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by premature fusion of skull bones, facial anomalies and various other abnormalities.
  • Rimbaud-Passouant-Vallat syndrome: A type of brain inflammation.
  • Rolandic Epilepsy: A type of seizure where abnormal electrical activity occurs in a part of the brain called the rolandic strip. Symptoms usually only affect the lower half of one side of the face. These seizures tend to occur in children in an infrequent, usually nocturnal, pattern. The seizures are usually mild but can occasionally progress to a more generalized form which affects larger parts of the body. The condition is considered benign and patients usually outgrow the condition by adolescence.
  • Rud Syndrome: A condition characterized by ichthyosis, epilepsy, short stature, hypogonadism and severe mental retardation.
  • SCHAD deficiency: A rare genetic disorder involving the deficiency of an enzyme (hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase). The severity of the symptoms is highly variable with some cases resulting in death during the first decade while others suffer psychomotor and regression. Symptoms tend to be more severe in males who suffer progressive neurodegeneration whereas females tend to suffer mainly from developmental delay.
  • Schaefer-Stein-Oshman syndrome: A rare disorder where excessive growth and abnormal hardening affects the head and facial bones.
  • Schimmelpenning-Feurstein-Mims Syndrome:
  • Secondarily generalized seizure: A partial seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in only one part of the brain and resulting in symptoms related to the body functions or parts that are controlled by that part of the brain. During a partial seizure movement, sensations, feelings or emotions may be affected. When the partial spreads to both sides of the brain it is then called generalized seizures. These seizures usually only last a few minutes.
  • Seemanova-Lesny syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by spasticity, seizures, absent abdominal reflexes, small head and mental retardation.
  • Seizures: A rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, seizures and high levels of hydroxylysine in the urine.
  • Seizures -- intellectual deficit due to hydroxylysinuria: A rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, seizures and high levels of hydroxylysine in the urine.
  • Seizures mental retardation hair dysplasia: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by seizures, mental retardation and hair abnormalities.
  • Seizures, Sensorineural Deafness, Ataxia, Mental Retardation, and Electrolyte Imbalance: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, deafness, ataxia and electrolyte imbalance.
  • Seizures, benign familial neonatal, recessive form: A rare inherited type of epilepsy that occurs in newborns. The seizures can occur during sleep or while awake and may be partial or generalized.
  • Seizures, benign familial neonatal-infantile: A harmless form of epilepsy that occurs during infancy. Episodes of multiple seizures tend to occur over a day or few days. There is no permanent neurological damage and no further seizure disorders tend to develop once the seizures stop.
  • Sensations: Changes to sensations or the senses
  • Sensory seizure: A sensory seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in a part of the brain involved with the senses. The resulting symptoms involve unusual sensations that affect any of the senses - touch, taste, hearing, vision and smell.
  • Short stature -- microcephaly -- seizures -- deafness: A very rare syndrome characterized by the association of short stature, small head, seizures and deafness.
  • Simple partial seizure: A partial seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in only one part of the brain and resulting in symptoms related to the body functions or parts that are controlled by that part of the brain. Partial seizures where the patient stays conscious are called simple partial seizures. During a simple partial seizure movement, sensations, feelings or emotions may be affected. Partial seizures may spread to other parts of the brain and are then called generalized seizures. These seizures usually only last a couple of minutes.
  • Single upper central incisor: A very rare syndrome characterized by various defects in the middle of the face.
  • Somatosensory seizure: A somatosensory seizure is an electrical disturbance that originates in a part of the brain involved with the senses. The resulting symptoms involve unusual sensations that affects sensations such as pain, temperature and pressure.
  • Spastic paraplegia epilepsy mental retardation: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by epilepsy, mental retardation and progressive leg weakness and spasticity.
  • Spastic tetraplegic -- cerebral palsy: A rare disorder characterized by the association of spasticity (muscle tightness of the arms and legs as well as cerebral palsy.
  • Spasticity -- mental retardation -- epilepsy, X-linked: A rare syndrome characterized by epilepsy, spasticity and mental retardation. The disorder is inherited in a X-linked manner and thus only males present with symptoms though female carriers may have some mild symptoms such as hyperreflexia.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 13: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 19 defect) characterized by progressive mental retardation. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Startle epilepsy: A form of epilepsy which is triggered by hearing a sudden unexpected stimulus such as a sudden sound. The seizures usually last less than 30 seconds and can occur numerous times during the day. The seizure involves a startle response followed by stiffening of the muscles for a short period of time. Muscle jerking may also be involved and falls are common. These types of seizures are extremely difficult to treat and tend to occur in patients with damage to the brain and intellectual handicap. These seizures often occur in Downs syndrome patients.
  • Status epilepticus: A condition which is characterized by a continuous series of generalized tonic clonic seizures
  • Stroke: Serious brain event from bleeding or blood clots.
  • Subependymal nodular heterotopia: A rare inherited disorder where a part of the brain tissue is misplaced during development. More specifically, nodules of the abnormal tissue is found in the subependymal part of the brain.
  • Syncope: Temporary loss of conciousness or fainting.
  • Tachycardia: Excessively rapid heart beat.
  • Temporal epilepsy, familial: A form of epilepsy that arises from a defect in the front part of the brain and tends to run in families.
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy: A condition which is characterized by complex partial seizures
  • Thalamic degeneration symmetrical infantile: A very rare brain disorder characterized by abnormal brain development, seizures, respiratory distress and movement disorders.
  • Todd paralysis: Paralysis of an arm or leg on one side of the body that occurs after an epileptic attack. The paralysis can last from minutes to days.
  • Todd's Paralysis: Recurrent episodes of seizure and paralysis.
  • Tonic seizure: Abnormal electrical activity in a part of the brain which results mainly in muscle stiffness and rigidity. Tonic seizures are considered relatively uncommon. They can occur at any age but are more common in childhood. Patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or multiple sclerosis are particularly susceptible to this type of seizure. Episodes usually only last for a matter of minutes and recovery can vary from minutes to hours.
  • Tonic-Clonic seizure: Abnormal electrical activity in the brain which results in stiffening and rigidity of muscles (tonic phase) followed by rhythmic jerking motions (clonic phase). The tonic phase tends to last less than half a minute and the clonic phase usually lasts a couple of minutes. This type of seizure affects the whole brain. Full recovery from symptoms such as fatigue following an episode may take from minutes to days. Consciousness tends to return slowly.
  • Tranebjaerg-Svejgaard syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, seizures and a skin disorder.
  • Transient ischaemic attack:
  • Traumatic Brain Injury: Brain injury from trauma or accident.
  • Tuberous sclerosis, type 1: A rare genetic disorder with a variety of abnormalities such as seizures, mental retardation, skin lesions and nodules in various body tissues and organs.
  • Tuberous sclerosis, type 2: A rare genetic condition characterized by mental and physical retardation, seizures and numerous benign tumors that can occur on the skin or in organs. The severity of symptoms can vary greatly depending on where the tumors occur.
  • Type 10 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency: A rare genetic disorder involving the deficiency of an enzyme (hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase). The severity of the symptoms is highly variable with some cases resulting in death during the first decade while others suffer psychomotor and regression. Symptoms tend to be more severe in males who suffer progressive neurodegeneration whereas females tend to suffer mainly from developmental delay.
  • Unusual facies, macrocephaly, aplasia of corpus callosum, seizures, hypertrichosis, claw hands and overlapping fingers: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by a large head, unusual facial appearance, seizures, excessive hair growth, claw hands, overlapping fingers and abnormal brain structure.
  • Unverricht-Lundborg disease: A rare inherited type of progressive myoclonus epilepsy which tends to cause symptoms during childhood. The involuntary muscle movements tend to occur more frequently and become more severe with increasing age. Symptoms may occur following various stimuli such as light, stress or exercise.
  • Unverricht-Lundborg syndrome: A rare inherited type of progressive myoclonus epilepsy which tends to cause symptoms during childhood. The involuntary muscle movements tend to occur more frequently and become more severe with increasing age. Symptoms may occur following various stimuli such as light, stress or exercise.
  • Vestibular seizure: Abnormal electrical signals in a particular part of the brain that results in a seizure consisting of episodes of symptoms such as vertigo, dizziness and a tilting sensation.
  • Visual seizure: A type of seizure where abnormal electrical activity in a part of the brain that control vision results in episodes of abnormal visual symptoms.
  • WAGR Syndrome: A syndrome that is due to the deletion of chromosome 11.
  • Wilms tumor -- aniridia -- genitourinary anomalies -- mental retardation: A syndrome resulting from deletion of genetic material from chromosome the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p13). The characteristic symptoms are partial or complete absence of iris, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation and Wilms' tumor. The specific range and severity of symptoms is variable depending on the size and exact location of the genetic material that is missing.
  • Wittwer sydnrome: A syndrome that is characterised by the occurrence of growth retardation, blindness, hearing loss, dysmorphic features, epilepsy, mental retardation and the absence of speech
  • Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome: A syndrome which is caused by a partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4.
  • Wolf-Hirschorn syndrome: A syndrome characterised by the partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4
  • XLAG syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by genital anomalies and abnormal brain development which results in severe neurological symptoms. Epilepsy usually starts during infancy. The disorder is inherited in a X-linked manner so only males manifest the full severity of symptoms whereas female carriers are asymptomatic or suffer only mild symptoms.

 

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