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Diseases » Gallstones » Glossary
 

Glossary for Gallstones

  • Abdominal Pain: A condition which is characterized by the sensation of pain that is located in the abdomen
  • Abdominal conditions: Medical conditions affecting the abdominal region.
  • Abdominal mass: Abdominal swelling with hard mass felt
  • Abdominal pain: A condition which is characterized by the sensation of pain that is located in the abdomen
  • Acute Appendicitis: Infection of the appendix
  • Acute Cholecystitis: Acute inflammation of the gall bladder, usually due to obstruction by a gall stone
  • Acute Pancreatitis: Sudden severe inflammation of the pancreas causing digestive complaints.
  • Alpha thalassemia: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal synthesis of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin consists of two main protein chains called alpha and beta. Alpha thalassemia involves defects in one or more of the four genes required to make each ? protein chain. The main symptom is anemia, the severity of which can vary amongst patients depending on how many defective genes are involved.
  • Alpha thalassemia -- Hemoglobin H disease: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal synthesis of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin consists of two main protein chains called alpha and beta. Hemoglobin H disease involves defects in three of the four genes required to make each ? protein chain. The main symptom is moderate to severe anemia.
  • Alpha thalassemia major: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal synthesis of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin consists of two main protein chains called alpha and beta. Alpha thalassemia major is very rare involves defects in all of the four genes required to make each ? protein chain. The condition leads to infant death before or soon after birth.
  • Beta Thalassemia intermedia: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal synthesis of hemoglobin. There are two subtypes of the disorder (alpha and beta) depending on what portion of the hemoglobin is abnormally synthesized. Beta Thalassemia intermedia involves defects in both of the two genes required to make each ? protein chain. The condition causes varying degrees of moderate anemia.
  • Beta thalassemia: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal synthesis of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin consists of two main protein chains called alpha and beta. Beta thalassemia involves defects in one or more of the two genes required to make each ? protein chain. The main symptom is anemia, the severity of which can vary amongst patients depending on how many defective genes are involved.
  • Bile Duct Conditions: An inflammatory bacterial infection that affects the meninges
  • Biliary cirrhosis: Biliary cirrhosis is a condition where the bile ducts are unable to transport bile effectively due to blockage, inflammation, scarring or some other damage to the bile ducts. The condition may result from such things as congenital defect of the bile ducts (e.g. biliary atresia), cystic fibrosis, gallstones or a variety of other secondary conditions. The cause of primary biliary cirrhosis is not fully understood.
  • Biliary colic: Colicky pain as a result of gallstones blocking the gallbladder.
  • Biliary conditions: Medical conditions affecting the biliary system (liver, bile ducts, gallbladder, etc.) in digestion.
  • Biliary disorder: Any condition affecting the bile ducts
  • Blood conditions: Conditions that affect the blood
  • Caroli Disease: A rare disorder where the bile ducts inside the liver become enlarged resulting in infection, irritation and gallstone formation.
  • Cholangitis: bile duct inflammation (cholangitis)
  • Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder which concentrates and stores bile. The condition may occur suddenly (acute) or persist over a longer period of time (chronic).
  • Cholelithiasis: Is the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
  • Chronic digestive diseases: Any disorder causing ongoing chronic digestive complaints.
  • Chronic liver disease: Any form of chronic liver disease
  • Cirrhosis of liver: Chronic liver disease wherein normal liver parenchyma is replaced by fibrous tissue.
  • Cirrhosis of the liver: Scarring of the liver from alcohol or other causes.
  • Crohn's disease: Crohn's disease causes inflammation of the digestive system. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease. The disease can affect any area from the mouth to the anus. It often affects the lower part of the small intestine called the ileum.
  • Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease affecting the exocrine (mucus) glands of the lungs, liver, pancreas, and intestines, causing progressive disability due to multisystem failure.
  • Digestive Diseases: Diseases that affect the digestive system
  • Erythropoietic Protoporphyria: A condition where there is excessive formation of porphyrin or its precursor
  • Familial hyperlipoproteinemia: A group of genetic disorder characterized by abnormal breakdown of lipoproteins which causes abnormal lipoprotein and lipid levels in the blood. There are various types of this condition: hyperlipoproteinemia type I, II, III, IV and V. The type and severity of symptoms vary between types. The disorder tends to run in families (familial).
  • Food symptoms: Symptoms related to food.
  • Gall bladder conditions: Any condition that affects the gallbladder
  • Gall bladder symptoms: Symptoms affecting the gall bladder
  • Gallbladder inflammation: Inflammation the gallbladder which is a small sac-like organ located in the upper right side of the abdomen, just below the liver.
  • Gastric Ulcer: A gastric ulcer is a break in the normal tissue that lines the stomach.
  • Haemolytic anaemia:
  • Heart attack: Serious and often fatal acute heart condition
  • Hepatitis: Any type of liver inflammation or infection.
  • Hereditary elliptocytosis: An inherited blood disorder where a significant number of red blood cells (erythrocytes) are elliptical or oval shaped rather than doughnut shaped. The condition is often asymptomatic but anemia can result when the abnormal red blood cells are destroyed.
  • Hereditary spherocytosis: A rare genetic condition characterized by a defect of the red blood cell membrane. It is characterized by abnormally-shaped red blood cells which are spherical rather than doughnut-shaped. The abnormal red blood cells are broken down by the spleen sooner than normal which leads to problems such as anemia. There are various subtypes of the disorder which are distinguished by the origin of the underlying genetic defect.
  • Hiatal hernia: Hernia of the stomach through the diaphragm muscle.
  • Hypercalcaemia: Increased concentration of calcium in the blood
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia type 3: A rare genetic disorder characterized by the body's impaired ability to break down certain lipids (triglycerides) which results in their buildup in the blood.
  • Indigestion: Various eating symptoms of indigestion (dyspepsia)
  • Irritable bowel syndrome: Spasms in the colon wall
  • Liver inflammation: The occurrence of inflammation located in the liver
  • Nausea: The queasy feeling of nausea and often also vomiting.
  • No symptoms: The absence of noticable symptoms.
  • Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas causing digestive complaints.
  • Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer on the lining of the stomach or duodenum
  • Peptic ulcer / duodenal ulcer:
  • Peritonitis: Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity
  • Protoporphyria erythropoietic: An inherited metabolic disorder where a deficiency of ferrochelatase leads to a buildup of protoporphyrin in the bone marrow, red blood cells and occasionally the liver.
  • Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency: A rare inherited blood disorder involving a deficiency of the enzyme pyruvate kinase.
  • Pyruvate kinase deficiency, hemolytic anemia: A rare inherited blood disorder where the deficiency of an enzyme (pyruvate kinase) needed by red blood cells causes them to be destroyed prematurely and hence anemia occurs.
  • Secondary Biliary Cirrhosis: Secondary biliary cirrhosis is a condition where the bile ducts are unable to transport bile effectively due to a secondary cause which results in blockage, inflammation, scarring or some other damage to the bile ducts. The condition may result from such things as congenital defect of the bile ducts (e.g. biliary atresia), cystic fibrosis, gallstones or a variety of other secondary conditions.
  • Shoulder Pain: A pain that occurs in the shoulder. There is often other associated symptoms depending on the cause of the shoulder pain. For example, swelling may indicate a broken bone.
  • Sickle Cell Anemia: Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by red blood cells which are crescent-shaped rather than the normal doughnut shape. These abnormally shaped red blood cells are unable to function normally and tend to undergo premature destruction which leads to anemia. If the genetic defect which causes the condition is inherited from both parents the condition can be quite severe whereas if it is inherited from only one parent, often there are no symptoms. The abnormally shaped red blood cells can cause problems when they clump together and block blood vessels.
  • Somatostatinoma: A very rare disorder where tumors in glands that produce somatostatin affect the secretion of the hormone. The tumor mainly occurs in the pancreas but can also occur in the intestinal tract.
  • Spherocytosis: A rare blood disorder characterized by a defect of the red blood cell membrane which gives it a spherical shape rather than the normal doughnut shape.
  • Spherocytosis, type 1: A rare genetic condition characterized by a defect of the red blood cell membrane. It is characterized by abnormally-shaped red blood cells which are spherical rather than doughnut-shaped. The abnormal red blood cells are broken down by the spleen sooner than normal which leads to problems such as anemia. There are various subtypes of the disorder which are distinguished by the origin of the underlying genetic defect. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 8p11.2.
  • Spherocytosis, type 2: A rare genetic condition characterized by a defect of the red blood cell membrane. It is characterized by abnormally-shaped red blood cells which are spherical rather than doughnut-shaped. The abnormal red blood cells are broken down by the spleen sooner than normal which leads to problems such as anemia. There are various subtypes of the disorder which are distinguished by the origin of the underlying genetic defect. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 14q22-q23.
  • Spherocytosis, type 3: A rare genetic condition characterized by a defect of the red blood cell membrane. It is characterized by abnormally-shaped red blood cells which are spherical rather than doughnut-shaped. The abnormal red blood cells are broken down by the spleen sooner than normal which leads to problems such as anemia. There are various subtypes of the disorder which are distinguished by the origin of the underlying genetic defect. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q21. The anemia in type 3 tends to be severe.
  • Spherocytosis, type 4: A rare genetic condition characterized by a defect of the red blood cell membrane. It is characterized by abnormally-shaped red blood cells which are spherical rather than doughnut-shaped. The abnormal red blood cells are broken down by the spleen sooner than normal which leads to problems such as anemia. There are various subtypes of the disorder which are distinguished by the origin of the underlying genetic defect. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 174q21-q22.
  • Spherocytosis, type 5: A rare genetic condition characterized by a defect of the red blood cell membrane. It is characterized by abnormally-shaped red blood cells which are spherical rather than doughnut-shaped. The abnormal red blood cells are broken down by the spleen sooner than normal which leads to problems such as anemia. There are various subtypes of the disorder which are distinguished by the origin of the underlying genetic defect. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 15q15.
  • Stones: The formation of consolidations that are stone like in nature
  • Swollen belly: abdominal distension may be primary or secondary to an underlying pathology of the abdomen or any other system
  • Triosephosphate isomerase 1: A rare inherited blood disorder involving a deficiency of red cell triosephosphate isomerase which is involved in the glycolysis (glucose metabolism) process to produce energy. The disorder is characterized by anemia, recurring infection and often progressive neurological degeneration. The severity of the disorder is variable with some patients having central nervous system involvement while others don't.
  • Ursodeoxycholic Acid -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ursodeoxycholic Acid during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Vomiting: Vomiting or retching symptoms.

 

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