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Diseases » Heart disease » Glossary
 

Glossary for Heart disease

  • Abdominal obesity metabolic syndrome: A syndrome characterized by a group of conditions that are considered major risk factors for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.
  • Acromegaly: A hormonal disorder involving excess growth hormone production by the pituitary gland.
  • Angina: A special type of chest pain.
  • Aortic stenosis: A condition which affects the aortic valve of the heart resulting in stenosis of the valve.
  • Arrhythmias: Irregularity in the heart's beating rhythm.
  • Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels. It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low density (especially small particle) lipoproteins (plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol from the macrophages by functional high density lipoproteins (HDL). It is commonly referred to as a hardening or furring of the arteries. It is caused by the formation of multiple plaques within the arteries.
  • Atrial flutter: Heart arrhythmia where atria beat more often than ventricles
  • Cardiovascular Disease: Diseases of the heart or blood vessels including cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke.
  • Cataract and cardiomyopathy: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of congenital cataracts, heart muscle disease, lactic acidosis and skeletal muscle disease. The disorder involves the abnormal storage of lipids and glycogen in the skeletal and heart muscles. The cataracts progress rapidly and require surgery. The severity of the disorder ranges from stillbirth to survival into the fourth decade.
  • Chagas disease: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by insect bites or blood transfusions. The disease primarily involves the heart and gastrointestinal system.
  • Chest conditions: Any condition affecting the chest
  • Chest discomfort: The sensation of discomfort that is located in the chest
  • Chest pain: Pain in the chest area.
  • Chronic Illness: Any form of continuing chronic illness.
  • Circulatory system conditions: Medical conditions affecting the heart and the circulatory system.
  • Cleft palate -- heart disease -- polydactyly -- absent tibia: A rare syndrome characterized by a cleft palate, heart disease, extra digits and an absent shin bone.
  • Colobomatous microphthalmia -- heart disease -- hearing loss: A very rare syndrome characterized by small eyes, heart disease and hearing loss.
  • Congenital heart disease -- radio ulnar synostosis -- mental retardation: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart disease at birth, fusion of forearm bones and mental retardation.
  • Congestive Heart Failure: Inadequate pumping and decline of heart function common in the elderly.
  • Conn's adenoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adrenal adenoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conn's syndrome: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adenoma, carcinoma or enlargement of the adrenal gland or glands. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conn-Louis Carcinoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition results from the presence of an adrenal carcinoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Constrictive pericarditis: Inflammation, swelling and thickening of the pericardium (fibrous sac surrounding the heart) which causes it to tighten around the heart and affect its function. The condition may be misdiagnosed as a heart attack and vice versa.
  • Coronary artery disease, autosomal dominant 1: An increased risk of coronary artery disease is associate with a dominantly inherited defect on the MEF2A gene on chromosome 15q26.
  • Coronary artery disease, autosomal dominant 2: An increased risk of coronary artery disease is associate with a dominantly inherited defect on the LPR6 gene on chromosome 12p113.3-p11.2.
  • Coronary heart disease: Disease affecting the heart's arteries (narrowed arteries)
  • Defective apolipoprotein B-100: A rare inherited condition where defective apolipoprotein B-100 impairs the metabolism of cholesterol and results in high blood cholesterol which in turn increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Depression: Various syndromes with excessive anxiety, phobias, or fear.
  • Dermatomyositis: A muscle disease characterized by chronic muscle inflammation resulting in progressive muscle weakness and a characteristic rash.
  • Diabetes: Failing or reduced ability of the body to handle sugars.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 1: Noninsulin-dependent diabetes (Type 2 diabetes) is a type of diabetes that doesn't respond to insulin but does tend to respond to dietary measures and diabetes medication. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q37.3.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 2: Noninsulin-dependent diabetes (Type 2 diabetes) is a type of diabetes that doesn't respond to insulin but does tend to respond to dietary measures and diabetes medication. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 12q24.2.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 3: Noninsulin-dependent diabetes (Type 2 diabetes) is a type of diabetes that doesn't respond to insulin but does tend to respond to dietary measures and diabetes medication. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 20q12-q13.1.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 4: Noninsulin-dependent diabetes (Type 2 diabetes) is a type of diabetes that doesn't respond to insulin but does tend to respond to dietary measures and diabetes medication. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 5q34-q35.2.
  • Diffuse systemic sclerosi: A rare condition that characterized by skin tightness affecting the trunk and extremities as well as organ involvement. It involves an early period of internal inflammation which distinguishes it from other forms of scleroderma and the organ involvement can be severe and even life-threatening.
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy: A rare chronic heart muscle condition where one or both heart ventricles are dilated or have impaired contractility.
  • Diseases associated with senile cataract: It is a vision impairing disease characterised by gradual , progressive thickening of the lens.
  • Ectrodactyly -- cardiopathy -- dysmorphism: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by split hand, heart disease and an abnormal appearance.
  • Eye defects -- arachnodactyly -- cardiopathy: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by eye defects, long, thin fingers and heart disease.
  • Fabry's Disease: Genetic fat storage disorder
  • Familial Apolipoprotein A-I and C-III Deficiency: Familial Apolipoprotein A-I and C-III Deficiency is a lipid metabolism disorder characterized by low HDL cholesterol and a lack of apolipoproteins A-I and C-III in the blood.
  • Familial Apolipoprotein A-I, C-III, A-IV Deficiency: Familial Apolipoprotein A-I, C-III and A-IV Deficiency is a lipid metabolism disorder characterized by low HDL cholesterol and a lack of apolipoproteins A-I and C-III in the blood.
  • Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A genetic abnormality which causes patients to have abnormally high cholesterol levels (low-density lipoproteins). The condition usually leads to early cardiovascular disease.
  • Fetal indomethacin syndrome: Fetal exposure to indomethacin which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The drug can pass through the placenta from the mother to the baby and cause various problems depending on what stage of development the fetus is at.
  • Friedreich's ataxia: Progressive muscle weakness from nerve damage.
  • Frozen Shoulder: Frozen shoulder, or adhesive capsulitis, is a condition that causes restriction of motion in the shoulder joint.
  • Genital anomaly -- cardiomyopathy: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of heart disease with genital abnormalities.
  • HEC syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by excess fluid inside the skull, cataracts and thickening of the heart.
  • Heart Murmur: Unusual heart sound heard by stethoscope
  • Heart attack: Serious and often fatal acute heart condition
  • Heart block: Failure of the heart's normal rhythm controls leading to arrhythmia
  • Heart conditions: Any condition that affects the heart
  • Hemochromatosis: Excess of iron leading to problems with joints, liver, heart and pancreas.
  • Hereditary hypothyroidism: Hereditary hypothyroidism is a condition in which there is a defect in the thyroid gland which leads to increased production of TSH reduced production of thyroid hormone.
  • Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia is an inherited condition involving abnormal lipid metabolism. Cholesterol levels tend to be with coronary artery disease usually developing before the age of 50. The heterozygous form of the condition is not as severe as the homozygous form of the disease.
  • High Blood Pressure/Hypertension:
  • High Cholesterol: High levels of blood cholesterol, triglycerides, or other lipids.
  • His bundle tachycardia: A rare severe type of abnormal heart rhythm that occurs in infants less than 6 months old. Untreated, the condition can lead to heart disease and even death.
  • Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia is a severe inherited condition involving abnormal lipid metabolism. Cholesterol levels tend to be very high with problems occurring early in life. Death from a heart attack can occur within the first few years of life in severe cases.
  • Hypercholesterolemia due to LDL receptor deficiency: A disorder involving a defect in the protein (LDL receptor) that allows cholesterol to be transported to where it can be used means that it builds up in the blood and blood vessels where it can cause problems.
  • Hypercholesterolemia due to arg3500 mutation of Apo B-100: A rare disorder where a defect in the protein that transports cholesterol (apolipoprotein B-100) means that it builds up in the blood and blood vessels where it can cause problems.
  • Hypercholesterolemia, autosomal dominant: A dominantly inherited disorder of cholesterol metabolism which causes premature coronary artery disease.
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia: Hyperlipoproteinemia is a medical term for high levels of lipids in the blood which in turn causes high cholesterol levels. Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Hypersecretion of growth hormone: increased production of growth hormone from the pituitary gland
  • Hypertension: High blood pressure
  • Hypertensive heart disease: Heart disease that is caused by hypertension
  • Infantile spasms -- broad thumbs: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by spasms during infancy and broad thumbs.
  • Ischemic heart disease: Heart disease from reduced blood flow to the heart
  • Kawasaki disease: A childhood illness that generally affects the skin, mouth and lymph nodes.
  • Kearns-Sayre Syndrome: A rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by pigmented deposits on the retina, heart disease and progressive paralysis of some eye muscles.
  • Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1E: An autosomal dominant form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy where muscle weakness and atrophy is caused by mutations of chromosome 7. The heart is also affected in this condition.
  • Long QT syndrome: A condition which is characterized by prolongation of the QT interval of the heart rhythme
  • Lyme disease: Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia.
  • Malouf syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart disease as well as abnormal ovaries.
  • Medication related hypothyroidism: Drug-induced hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland due to a reaction from medication.
  • Menopause: The end of female menstruation and fertility.
  • Metabolic disorders: Disorders that affect the metabolic system in human
  • Mitral regurgitation: A condition which is characterized by a regurgitation of blood from the left ventricle into the atrium due to a problem with the mitral valve
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses: A lysosomal storage disorder that is caused by a deficiency of the ability to metabolise glycosaminoglycans
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis IV: Disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism in infants.
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type I Hurler syndrome: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans) in various body tissues due to insufficient amounts of the enzyme (?-L-diuronidase) needed to break it down. There are three main sub-types of the disorder: Hurler - severe form, Scheie - mild form and Hurler/Scheie form which is intermediate.
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type I Hurler-Scheie syndrome: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans) in various body tissues due to insufficient amounts of the enzyme (?-L-diuronidase) needed to break it down.
  • Naxos disease: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart disease and woolly hair.
  • Nicotine addiction: Nicotine addiction is the uncontrollable desire to continue smoking. Smoking products contain nicotine which is a chemical that can lead to addiction if used over a period of time. Cessation causes withdrawal symptoms which can vary in nature and severity.
  • Niemann-Pick disease: A rare inherited biochemical disorder involving the deficiency of an enzyme (acid sphingomyelinase) needed to break down certain lipids which results in an accumulation of these lipids in the body.
  • Noonan-like syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart problems, facial anomalies and a sunken chest.
  • Paget's disease of bone: A chronic, slowly progressing bone disorder where the bone is destroyed rapidly and replaced by abnormal bone which is dense and fragile.
  • Pain: A feeling of suffering, agony, distress caused by the stimulation of pain fibres in the nervous system
  • Penoscrotal transposition: A very rare malformation where the penis and scrotum completely or partially swap positions. Other abnormalities are also usually associated.
  • Phenobarbital antenatal infection: Fetal exposure to a drug called Phenobarbital which can be used as an anticonvulsant, sedative or hypnotic drug. The range of symptoms depends on the dosage and duration of the drug taking during pregnancy.
  • Physical inactivity: When an individual is physically inactive
  • Polygenic diseases: Any diseases that are caused by conditions that affect several different genes
  • Presbycusis: Progressive deterioration of hearing ability that affects both ears and occurs with aging. The hearing loss is sensorineural in nature and is most noticeable at high frequencies. There are a number of risk factors associated with age-related hearing impairment: smoking, ototoxic medication, cardiovascular disease and exposure to loud noise. It is estimated that a third of people over the age of 60 have some hearing loss and more than half of people over the age of 75 years have hearing loss.
  • Primary hypothyroidism: Primary hypothyroidism is a condition in which a defect in the thyroid gland leads to reduced production of thyroid hormone.
  • Pulmonary heart disease: Heart disease that is caused by pulmonary conditions
  • Pulmonary hypertension: Pulmonary hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs. Blood pressure in other parts of the body is normal or sometimes even low. The condition may be caused by such things as lung conditions (e.g. emphysema, chronic bronchitis), heart conditions (e.g. congestive heart failure, birth defects involving heart), AIDS or medications such as fenfluramine (a diet drug). Sometimes it occurs for no apparent reason and is called primary pulmonary hypertension.
  • Rheumatic heart disease: Chronic heart condition due to heart damage from rheumatic fever
  • Senior health conditions: Medical conditions affecting seniors, male or female.
  • Shortness of breath: The feeling of being short of breath
  • Sideroblastic anaemia (generic term): A rare blood disorder where the bone marrow produces abnormal red blood cells. The anomaly may be caused by a genetic anomaly or may occur secondary to such things as blood cancer or use of certain drugs.
  • Smoking: The smoking of cigarettes
  • Smoking Cessation:
  • Sneddon Syndrome: A rare progressive inherited disorder involving the blood vessel disease and neurological symptoms.
  • Stroke: Serious brain event from bleeding or blood clots.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia: A rapid heart rate, the cause of which originates above the ventricles.
  • Syphilis: A sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacteria (Treponema pallidum). The condition is often asymptomatic in the early stages but one or more sores may be present in the early stages. Untreated syphilis usually results in remission of visible symptoms but further severe damage may occur to internal organs and other body tissues which can result in death.
  • Tachycardia: Excessively rapid heart beat.
  • Transient Ischemic Attack: Temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that persists, by definition, for less than 24 hours.
  • Triose phosphate-isomerase deficiency: A very rare inherited condition involving a deficiency of triose phosphate-isomerase.
  • Trisomy 10 mosaicism: A very rare chromosomal disorder where there is an extra copy of chromosome 10 in some of the body's cells. Some cases with this chromosomal abnormality have no clinical symptoms. The presence of abnormalities in some cases is dependent on which body cells contain the chromosomal defect.
  • Tsao-Ellingson syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by spasms during infancy and broad thumbs.
  • Type 1 diabetes: Severe insulin-treated diabetes typically occurring in young people.
  • Type 2 diabetes: Most common diabetes in adults, usually progressing slowly, mostly treated without insulin at diagnosis.
  • Type I Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type I Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare inherited condition characterized by high levels of chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein) in the blood. This condition is the result of low levels of lipoprotein lipase which is responsible for lowering lipoprotein levels. Cholesterol levels are usually normal and the risk of heart disease is low.
  • Type II Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type II Hyperlipoproteinemia is a condition characterized by high levels of beta-lipoproteins in the blood. The high cholesterol results from abnormally high levels of low density lipoproteins in the blood due to a deficiency of LDL receptors. There are two subtypes of this condition: type IIa and type IIb. Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type III hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare genetic condition characterized by increased blood levels of intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) which in turn causes high cholesterol levels. The high IDL levels are caused by an abnormality in apolipoprotein E. Apolipoprotein E is a protein found on IDLs which allows the IDLs to bind to liver cells. Without this binding process, the level of IDLs in the blood increase. Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Type IIa Hyperlipoproteinemia: Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare genetic condition characterized by high levels of low density lipoproteins in the blood. A deficiency of LDL receptors leads to an increased level of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) which in turn causes high cholesterol levels. Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Type IIb Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type IIb Hyperlipoproteinemia is a condition characterized by increased blood levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and apoprotein B (ApoB). This in turn causes high cholesterol levels. Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Type IV Glycogen Storage Disease: A condition which is characterized by a disease affecting glycogen storage
  • Type IV Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type IV Hyperlipoproteinemia is an inherited condition characterized by high levels of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in the blood which in turn causes high cholesterol levels. Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream. The high VLDL levels are a result of increased production and reduced elimination of the VLDLs. Environmental factors are the driving force behind this condition.
  • Type Ia Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type Ia Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare inherited condition characterized by high levels of chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein) in the blood. This condition is the result of low levels of lipoprotein lipase which is responsible for lowering lipoprotein levels. Cholesterol levels are usually normal and the risk of heart disease is low.
  • Type Ib Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type Ib Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare inherited condition characterized by high levels of chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein) in the blood. This condition is the result of low levels of apolipoprotein C-II which is responsible for lowering lipoprotein levels. Cholesterol levels are usually normal and the risk of heart disease is low.
  • Type Ic Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type Ic Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare inherited condition characterized by high levels of chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein) in the blood. This condition is the result of inhibited lipoprotein lipase activity. Lipoprotein lipase is responsible for lowering lipoprotein levels. Cholesterol levels are usually normal and the risk of heart disease is low.
  • Type V Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type V Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare condition characterized by increased synthesis of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and reduced levels of lipoprotein lipase (an enzyme). Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Underweight: Body weight below normal (BMI<20)>
  • Williams Syndrome: A syndrome characterised by mental retardation, facial abnormalities and emotional instability
  • X-linked sideroblastic anaemia:
  • X-linked sideroblastic anemia: X-linked sideroblastic anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of iron in the red blood cells which makes them unable to function properly. The body continues to absorb more iron from digesting food in order to try and correct the problem but this simply leads to excessive iron being deposited in body tissues as the it can't use the iron properly. The severity of the condition is variable.

 

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