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Diseases » HIV/AIDS » Summary
 

What is HIV/AIDS?

What is HIV/AIDS?

HIV is the acronym for the human immunodeficiency virus. HIV is virus that causes the incurable acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ...more »

  • HIV/AIDS: HIV is a sexually transmitted virus and AIDS is the progressive immune failure that HIV causes.
  • HIV/AIDS: A syndrome resulting from the acquired deficiency of cellular immunity caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is characterized by the reduction of the Helper T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the lymph nodes; opportunistic infections (usually pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, tuberculosis, candida infections, and cryptococcosis); and the development of malignant neoplasms (usually non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma). The human immunodeficiency virus is transmitted through sexual contact, sharing of contaminated needles, or transfusion of contaminated blood. Generalized lymphadenopathy, fever, weight loss, and chronic diarrhea are common symptoms of AIDS. The patients usually die either of opportunistic infections or malignant neoplasms. -- 2004
    Source - Diseases Database

HIV/AIDS: Introduction

Types of HIV/AIDS:

Broader types of HIV/AIDS:

How many people get HIV/AIDS?

Prevalance of HIV/AIDS: 900,000 Americans (NIAID, quarter are unaware)
Prevalance Rate of HIV/AIDS: approx 1 in 302 or 0.33% or 900,000 people in USA [about data]
Incidence (annual) of HIV/AIDS: approximately 40,000 annual cases in USA (NIAID)
Incidence Rate of HIV/AIDS: approx 1 in 6,800 or 0.01% or 40,000 people in USA [about data]
Undiagnosed prevalence of HIV/AIDS: estimated 225,000 Americans (based on NIAID 900,000 prevalence with quarter undiagnosed).
Undiagnosed prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS: approx 1 in 1,208 or 0.08% or 225,000 people in USA [about data]
Worldwide prevalence: 40 million worldwide with HIV/AIDS 2003 (Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic, UNAIDS, 2002); 36.1 million cases worldwide (CBCF Health Organisation, 2004)
Prevalance of HIV/AIDS: From the beginning of the epidemic through the end of 1998, 5,237 American children under age 13 had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as living with HIV/AIDS. (Source: excerpt from Backgrounder -- HIV Infection in Infants and Children: NIAID) ... More than 700,000 cases of AIDS have been reported in the United States since 1981, and as many as 900,000 Americans may be infected with HIV. (Source: excerpt from HIV Infection and AIDS, An Overview, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID) ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that 850,000 to 950,000 U.S. residents are living with HIV infection, one-quarter of whom are unaware of their infection. (Source: excerpt from HIV-AIDS Statistics, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID)
Incidence of HIV/AIDS: Approximately 40,000 new HIV infections occur each year in the United States, about 70 percent among men and 30 percent among women. Of these newly infected people, half are younger than 25 years of age. (Source: excerpt from HIV-AIDS Statistics, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID)

Who gets HIV/AIDS?

Patient Profile for HIV/AIDS: Typically young adults, half younger than 25.

Gender Profile for HIV/AIDS: 70% men, 30% women.

Gender Profile for HIV/AIDS: As of June 2000, 124,911 adolescent and adult women in the United States were reported as having AIDS. The proportion of reported U.S. AIDS cases occurring among women increased from 7 percent to 23 percent from 1985 to 1998. This proportion remained at 23 percent in 1999, possibly reflecting the success of antiretroviral therapies in preventing the development of AIDS. (Source: excerpt from HIV Infection in Women, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID)

Gender Profile for HIV/AIDS: Women are one of the fastest growing groups infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the disease is becoming increasingly common among younger women--especially women of color. For example, in New York City new cases of AIDS in women--reflecting HIV infection several years ago--now exceed new cases of AIDS in gay men. From 1994 through December 1997, of the 92,107 persons initially diagnosed with HIV infection, 26 percent were women. In 1996, AIDS became the third leading cause of death among women of reproductive age and the number one cause of death for African American women of that age. (Source: excerpt from Fact Sheet Women and HIV-AIDS: NWHIC)

Race Profile for HIV/AIDS: The epidemic is growing most rapidly among minority populations and is a leading killer of African-American males. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), AIDS affects nearly seven times more African Americans than whites and three times more Hispanics than whites (CDC HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, Vol. 12, 2000). (Source: excerpt from HIV Infection and AIDS, An Overview, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID)

Racial Information for HIV/AIDS: HIV infection disproportionately affects African-American and Hispanic women. Together they represent less than 25 percent of all U.S. women, yet they account for more than 77 percent of AIDS cases in women. HIV/AIDS is now the third leading cause of death among women ages 25 to 44 and the leading cause of death among African-American women in this age group. (Source: excerpt from HIV Infection in Women, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID)

How serious is HIV/AIDS?

Complications of HIV/AIDS: see complications of HIV/AIDS
Average life years lost for HIV/AIDS: 35.7 years (SEER); 37.9 for HIV in North Carolina1.
Deaths for HIV/AIDS: 15,245 deaths in 2000 (NIAID); 14,802 deaths reported in USA 1999 (NVSR Sep 2001)

What causes HIV/AIDS?

Causes of HIV/AIDS: see causes of HIV/AIDS
Causes of HIV/AIDS: AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By killing or damaging cells of the body's immune system, HIV progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers. People diagnosed with AIDS may get life-threatening diseases called opportunistic infections, which are caused by microbes such as viruses or bacteria that usually do not make healthy people sick. (Source: excerpt from HIV Infection and AIDS, An Overview, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID)
Risk factors for HIV/AIDS: see risk factors for HIV/AIDS

What are the symptoms of HIV/AIDS?

Symptoms of HIV/AIDS: see symptoms of HIV/AIDS

Complications of HIV/AIDS: see complications of HIV/AIDS

Incubation period for HIV/AIDS: 1-2 months (for the early flu-like HIV illness); typically years or decades for progression to AIDS (2 years for children)

Can anyone else get HIV/AIDS?

Contagion of HIV/AIDS: Spread by unprotected sex, oral sex, anal sex, heterosexual sex, blood exposure, transplacental contagion, childbirth transmission, breastfeeding. Not by saliva or kissing. Not by casual contact or touching. Not by clothing, food, or utensils. Not from public toilets or swimming pools. Not by insect bites.
More information: see contagiousness of HIV/AIDS
Inheritance: see inheritance of HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS: Testing

Diagnostic testing: see tests for HIV/AIDS.

Misdiagnosis: see misdiagnosis and HIV/AIDS.

How is it treated?

Doctors and Medical Specialists for HIV/AIDS: Infectious Disease Specialist, Internist ; see also doctors and medical specialists for HIV/AIDS.
Treatments for HIV/AIDS: see treatments for HIV/AIDS
Prevention of HIV/AIDS: see prevention of HIV/AIDS
Research for HIV/AIDS: see research for HIV/AIDS

Society issues for HIV/AIDS

Costs of HIV/AIDS: approximately $6.7 billion in 1994 (NIAID)

Cost statistics for HIV/AIDS: The following are statistics from various sources about costs and HIV/AIDS:

  • 2% of GDP in Africa (CBCF Health Organisation, 2004)
  • $165 million in Africa (CBCF Health Organisation, 2004)
  • more statistics...»


Hospitalization statistics for HIV/AIDS: The following are statistics from various sources about hospitalizations and HIV/AIDS:
  • 185,000 patients were discharged with HIV in the US 2001 (Health, United States, 2003, NCHS, CDC)
  • HIV patients had an average length of stay in hospitals of 7.8 days in the US 2001 (Health, United States, 2003, NCHS, CDC)
  • 0.04% (4,589) of hospital episodes were for HIV in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 79% of hospital consultations for HIV required hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 69% of hospital episodes for HIV were for men in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • more statistics...»

Name and Aliases of HIV/AIDS

Main name of condition: HIV/AIDS

Class of Condition for HIV/AIDS: viral

Other names or spellings for HIV/AIDS:

AIDS, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, acquired immune deficiency syndrome

Human immunodeficiency virus 1, HIV-1 disease, AIDS Source - Diseases Database

HIV/AIDS: Related Conditions

Research the causes of these diseases that are similar to, or related to, HIV/AIDS:



Footnotes:
1. Years of Potential Life Lost in North Carolina, NCMJ March/April 2002, Volume 63, Number 2
 

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