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Diseases » Hypertension » Glossary
 

Glossary for Hypertension

  • Abdominal obesity metabolic syndrome: A syndrome characterized by a group of conditions that are considered major risk factors for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.
  • Absence of pulmonary artery: The absence of a pulmonary artery at birth.
  • Acid-Base Imbalance: A disruption to the normal acid-base equilibrium in the body. There are four main groups of disorder involving an acid-base imbalance: respiratory acidosis or alkalosis and metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. Obviously the severity of symptoms is determined by the degree of imbalance.
  • Acquired total lipodystrophy: A rare acquired disorder that involves adipose tissue abnormalities and is characterized by loss of adipose tissue through the body. The disorder is very similar to the congenital form but the liver involvement is more severe.
  • Acrodynia: Symptoms caused by chronic mercury poisoning in infants in children.
  • Acromegaly: A hormonal disorder involving excess growth hormone production by the pituitary gland.
  • Acute Renal Failure: Syndrome characterised by rapid decline in kidney function with accumulation of waste products in the blood, occurring over a period of days to weeks
  • Acute intermittent porphyria: A rare metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency in the porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme which results in a build-up of porphyrins or its precursors in the body. Using certain drugs or eating certain foods can trigger the symptoms of the condition.
  • Adams Nance syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, small eyes and the presence of excess glycine in the urine.
  • Adrenal Cancer: A malignant cancer that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids. Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Diseases of the adrenal cortex. Examples includes Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome and adrenal fatigue.
  • Adrenal adenoma, familial: A benign tumor that develops in the adrenal gland and tends to run in families. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids . Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal gland hyperfunction: Excessive activity of the adrenal gland which causes excessive production of one or more adrenal hormones (aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine). The increased adrenal gland activity may be caused by an adrenal gland tumor or by excessive stimulation of the gland. Pituitary hormones stimulate adrenal gland activity.
  • Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 11-Beta-hydroxylase deficiency: A rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia characterized by a deficiency of 11-Beta-hydroxylase which results in excess androgen production and hypertension. The disorder can occur in virilizing, hypertensive and salt-wasting forms and symptoms may range from mild to severe.
  • Adrenal hypertension: Adrenal hypertension is high blood pressure caused by adrenal gland problems. For example, an adrenal tumor can cause excessive production of aldosterone which in turn causes salt-retention and high blood pressure. Severity of symptoms varies depending on the underlying cause.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma: A tumor of the adrenal gland that is discovered incidentally while performing an imaging examination for reasons other than an adrenal tumor. The tumor may be asymptomatic or can causes excessive secretion of adrenal hormones and resulting symptoms. The tumor may also be malignant or benign.
  • Adrenal medulla neoplasm: A tumor that develops in the part of the adrenal gland called the medulla which produces adrenalin and noradrenaline. The tumor is usually benign but can be malignant.
  • Aging: The medical conditions from getting older.
  • Albuminuria: The presence of albumin (a blood protein) in the urine.
  • Albuterol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Albuterol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Alcohol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Alcohol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Alcohol-induced hypertension: Alcohol-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by excessive drinking of alcohol.
  • Alcohol-induced pseudo-Cushing syndrome: The excessive consumption of alcohol can result in symptoms similar to a condition called Cushing's syndrome. When alcohol consumption is stopped, symptoms regress.
  • Allain Babin Demarquez syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by premature fusion of skullbones, abnormal development of skeletal bones and hypertension.
  • Alveolar capillary dysplasia: The abnormal development of the lung blood vessels. The normal barrier across which air and blood can diffuse fails to develop properly. Death usually results within weeks of birth but rare cases can survive for months.
  • Amiloride -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Amiloride during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Amlodipine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Amlodipine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Amphetamine abuse: Use of the stimulant drugs known as amphetamines or "speed"
  • Amphetamine poisoning: Excessive ingestion of amphetamine drugs.
  • Amphetamine-induced hypertension: Amphetamine-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by use of amphetamines. Patients with an existing history of hypertension may suffer further blood pressure increases while taking amphetamines and this can be serious. Severity of symptoms varies amongst patients depending on their susceptibility, underlying health and duration of amphetamine use.
  • Amyloidosis: A rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage and is potentially fatal. Symptoms depend on the organs involved. There are numerous forms of the condition: primary amyloidosis, secondary amyloidosis, hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis and familial amyloidosis.
  • Amyloidosis, familial visceral: A rare genetic disorder involving widespread amyloidosis (abnormal buildup of amyloid protein in tissues) which tends the affect the kidneys severely.
  • Analgesic nephropathy syndrome: Kidney damage caused by excessive use of pain-killing drugs. Aspirin and phenacetin mixtures are the most common causes.
  • Analgesic syndrome: The use of large quantities of pain-killer drugs can sometimes cause serious kidney damage as well as various other problems.
  • Aneurysm: Dangerous ballooning of a weakened area of an artery
  • Angina: A special type of chest pain.
  • Angiotensin renin aldosterone hypertension: The RAAS (rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) is involved in regulating blood volume and vascular resistance and an imbalance of any of these components can cause high blood pressure.
  • Angiotensin/rennin/aldosterone hypertension: A group of disorder characterized by high blood pressure due to abnormalities in angiotensin, rennin and aldosterone levels. Adequate levels of these chemicals help to control blood volume and blood vessel resistance which in turn influences blood pressure.
  • Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension, and fear without apparent stimulus that is associated sometime with somatic responses
  • Aortic coarctation: A rare inherited birth defect where the heart blood vessel called the aorta has a narrowed area which affects blood flow. The degree of constriction is variable which mild cases asymptomatic until adulthood. The poor blood flow to the lower body gives results in it appearing less developed than that upper body.
  • Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess, type 2: A form of inherited high blood pressure that starts during early childhood. The condition is caused by a genetic defect which results in an inborn error of metabolism of peripheral cortisol. Type 2 causes similar symptoms to type 1 but the urinary steroid levels are different.
  • Apparent mineralocorticoid excess: A form of inherited high blood pressure that starts during early childhood. The condition results from a genetic defect which causes impaired metabolism of cortisol.
  • Aristolochic Acid poisoning: Aristolochic acid is derived from a forest herb from the Aristocholochia family. It is often used in herbal preparations such as Aristolochia Fang Ch, Bragantia and Asarum. It is usually used in herbal preparations to promote weight loss. The substance is believed to cause kidney failure and urinary tract cancer.
  • Arizona Bark Scorpion poisoning: A bite from the Arizona Bark scorpion contains chemicals toxic to the nerve system and can cause serious, life-threatening symptoms.
  • Arterial occlusive disease, progressive -- hypertension -- heart defects -- bone fragility -- brachysyndactyly: A rare syndrome characterized by narrowing or blockage of a number of arteries (in the kidneys, abdomen, brain and heart) as well as fragile bones, heart defects and finger abnormalities. Fractures and high blood pressure often start during the first years of life.
  • Artery symptoms: Symptoms affecting the arteries (large blood vessels)
  • Asphyxia: Inability to breath and suffocation
  • Asphyxiation: A condition which is characterized by the inability to respire
  • Atenolol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Atenolol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Atheroma: A region of plaque occurring in atherosclerosis
  • Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels. It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low density (especially small particle) lipoproteins (plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol from the macrophages by functional high density lipoproteins (HDL). It is commonly referred to as a hardening or furring of the arteries. It is caused by the formation of multiple plaques within the arteries.
  • Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: A rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause.
  • Autoimmune Vasculitis: A inflammation of the blood vessels caused by an autoimmune reaction
  • Autonomic dysreflexia syndrome: A complication caused by injury to the neck or upper back region of the spinal cord. Symptoms are induced by stimulation below the level of the injury which can be caused by such things as distended bladder, scratching the feet, squeezing the penis, stimulation of the rectum or accumulation of gas.
  • Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Severe form of PKD, a genetic kidney disease.
  • Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: Genetic kidney disease causing kidney cysts.
  • Avasthey syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by pulmonary hypertension, lymphedema and malformation of brain blood vessels.
  • Benazepril -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Benazepril during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Benzthiazide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Benzthiazide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Betaxolol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Betaxolol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Binswanger Disease: Multi-infarct dementia, caused by damage to deep white matter.
  • Binswanger's Disease: A type of senile dementia characterized by chronic cerebrovascular disease.
  • Bisoprolol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Bisoprolol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Black widow spider envenomation: The black widow spider bite is toxic to the nerves and can cause serious symptoms. The black widow spider is most commonly found in North America.
  • Blood conditions: Conditions that affect the blood
  • Blood pressure conditions: Medical disorders of the blood pressure, including high and low blood pressure.
  • Blood vessel conditions: Conditions that affect the blood vessels
  • Bone cement implantation syndrome: A complication that can occur after using bone cement during implantation of an internal prosthesis. Circulation may be affected and a blockage in the pulmonary artery may develop.
  • Brachydactyly -- arterial hypertension: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of hypertension with short digits. Premature death (by the fifth decade) due to stroke occurs in untreated patients.
  • Brachydactyly with hypertension: A very rare disease characterized by the association of hypertension with brachydactyly (abnormally short fingers and/or toes).
  • Brain symptoms: Symptoms affecting the brain
  • Breathing-related sleep disorder: Breathing-related sleep disorder refers to a spectrum of breathing anomalies ranging from chronic or habitual snoring to upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) to frank obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or, in some cases, obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS).
  • Bright's Disease: A condition where the parts of the kidneys that are responsible for filtering become inflamed and results in blood and proteins accidentally leaking into the urine. The condition can occur after certain infections and serious kidney dysfunction can result in severe or chronic complications.
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: A rare form of infant lung disease that usually occurs as a complication of ventilator use in premature babies.
  • Bumetanide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Bumetanide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • COPD: Severe obstruction of bronchial air flow typically from bronchitis and/or emphysema.
  • Cadmium poisoning: A type of heavy metal poisoning caused by excessive exposure to cadmium.
  • Calcitriol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Calcitriol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Captopril -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Captopril during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cardiovascular Disease: Diseases of the heart or blood vessels including cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke.
  • Carnevale-Canun-Mendoza syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by loss of bone tissue in the wrists and ankles as well as kidney problems.
  • Carotid Paraganglioma: A rare, usually benign tumor found in the carotid artery in the neck. The tumor develops from glomus cells which are located along blood vessels involved in automatic body activities such as regulation of blood pressure and blood flow.
  • Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A very rare disorder where the blood clotting system becomes dysfunctional and clots too easily due to the abnormal presence of antphospholipid antibodies. It results in blood flow blockages to various body organs. It is possible that the condition has autoimmune origins. The disorder is often triggered by infections, certain drugs (e.g. anticoagulants), minor surgery and hysterectomy.
  • Cathinone poisoning: Cathinone comes from the leaves of the Khat plant which is native to eastern Africa. Cathinone is a stimulant as well as have pain killing, weight loss and neuromuscular effects. The psychoactive effects are usually utilized by chewing on the leaves of the plant but sometimes dried leaves are used.
  • Central sleep apnea: Central sleep apnea is when the person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep because the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing.
  • Cerebral Arteriosclerosis: Hardening or blockage of arteries in the brain.
  • Cerebral hemorrhage: Bleeding in the brain
  • Cerebrovascular Conditions: Conditions of the brain's blood vessels including stroke.
  • Cerebrovascular accident: Occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted and results in cell injury and death.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Acetaldehyde: Acetaldehyde is a chemical used in the production of various products - mirrors, disinfectants, plastics, explosives, varnish and food flavoring. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chlorothiazide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Chlorothiazide ( a diuretic) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Choroideremia -- hypopituitarism: A rare inherited disorder characterized by eye disease and hypopituitarism.
  • Chronic Illness: Any form of continuing chronic illness.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Long-term and generally irreversible disease of the kidneys due to infection, obstruction, congenital diseases or generalised diseases causing failure of the kidneys' normal functions.
  • Chronic kidney failure: Gradual failure of the kidneys over a period of time
  • Chronic pyelonephritis: Chronic pyelonephritis is persistent kidney inflammation that can scar the kidneys and may lead to chronic renal failure.
  • Chronic renal insufficiency: Chronic lack of function of the renal system. Kidneys.
  • Circulatory system conditions: Medical conditions affecting the heart and the circulatory system.
  • Cocaine abuse: Stimulant drug with various effects
  • Cocaine poisoning: Excessive ingestion of cocaine.
  • Cocaine-induced hypertension: Cocaine-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by use of cocaine. Patients with an existing history of hypertension may suffer further blood pressure increases while taking cocaine and this can be serious. Severity of symptoms varies amongst patients depending on their susceptibility, underlying health and duration of cocaine use.
  • Cockayne syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by a senile-like appearance, hearing and vision impairment and sun sensitive skin.
  • Codeine withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when Codeine use is discontinued or reduced. Codeine is a sedative pain-killer. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Collagen type III glomerulopathy: A rare progressive form of kidney disease characterized by the abnormal deposits of type III collagen in the kidneys. The severity and rate of progression of the condition is variable.
  • Confusion: Mental confusion and impaired thinking.
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency: A rare genetic condition involving deficiency of 17-alpha-hydroxylase which impairs androgen production by the testes and estrogen production by the ovaries. This results in lack of development of secondary sexual characteristics and hypertension as well as other anomalies.
  • Congenital hepatic porphyria: A rare congenital disorder where there is an excess of porphyrin (pigments) in the body. The liver is responsible for making porpyrins.
  • Congenital mitral malformation: Malformations of the mitral valve that are present at birth. The mitral valve allows blood to flow between the two chambers on the left side of the heart. Types of mitral malformation are atresia (absent mitral valve), stenosis (narrowed mitral valve) and parachute mitral valve.
  • Congenital mitral stenosis: A heart malformation that is present at birth. The mitral valve is narrower than normal which affects blood flow between the upper and lower chambers on the left side of the heart. It usually occurs in conjunction with other malformations
  • Congestive Heart Failure: Inadequate pumping and decline of heart function common in the elderly.
  • Conn Syndrome-induced hypertension: Conn Syndrome-induced hypertension is high blood pressure associated with Conn Syndrome. It results from excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal glands. The high blood pressure often responds poorly to the usual medications. Death can result in severe cases.
  • Conn's adenoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adrenal adenoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conn's syndrome: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adenoma, carcinoma or enlargement of the adrenal gland or glands. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conn-Louis Carcinoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition results from the presence of an adrenal carcinoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Coronary heart disease: Disease affecting the heart's arteries (narrowed arteries)
  • Corticosteroid-induced hypertension: Corticosteroid-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by use of corticosteroids. Patients with an existing history of hypertension may suffer further blood pressure increases while taking corticosteroids. Severity of symptoms varies amongst patients depending on their susceptibility, underlying health and duration of corticosteroid therapy.
  • Cushing syndrome, familial: A hormonal disorder caused by high levels of the cortisol hormone due to the abnormal development of the adrenal gland.
  • Cushing's disease: A condition of hyperadrenocorticism which is secondary to excessive pituitary secretion of ACTH. Cushing's disease is different to Cushing's syndrome which refers to the effects of glucocorticoid excess from any cause.
  • Cushing's syndrome: A rare syndrome where excessive secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex leads to a variety of symptoms. Hormone-secreting adrenal or pituitary tumors are often the cause of the excessive corticosteroid secretion.
  • Cyclosporin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Cyclosporin (an immunosuppressant drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cyclosporine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Cyclosporine-induced hypertension: Cyclosporine-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by taking cyclosporine. Patients with an existing history of hypertension may suffer further blood pressure increases while taking amphetamines and this can be serious. Severity of symptoms varies amongst patients depending on their susceptibility, underlying health and duration of cyclosporine use.
  • Cystic hamartoma of lung and kidney: A very rare condition characterized mainly by benign cysts in the lungs and kidneys.
  • Death: The cessation of life
  • Dexamethasone sensitive hypertension: A very rare inherited genetic involving excessive aldosterone levels which usually causes high blood pressure. The severity of the disorder is greatly variable.
  • Diabetes: Failing or reduced ability of the body to handle sugars.
  • Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen
  • Diffuse systemic sclerosi: A rare condition that characterized by skin tightness affecting the trunk and extremities as well as organ involvement. It involves an early period of internal inflammation which distinguishes it from other forms of scleroderma and the organ involvement can be severe and even life-threatening.
  • Disequilibrium syndrome: A complication that can occur during or after dialysis and probably caused by abnormal water balance within the brain. Swelling of the brain causes a range of neurological symptoms.
  • Dizziness: Feelings of lightheadedness or giddiness.
  • Down Syndrome: A chromosome syndrome causing physical effects and mental retardation.
  • Drug-induced hypertension: Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by taking certain drugs or medications e.g. corticosteroids, cyclosporine, amphetamines, alcohol and estrogens.
  • Dysautonomia: Disorder of the autonomic nervous system
  • Eclampsia: Eclampsia is the development of seizures or coma in pregnant women suffering from high blood pressure. Eclampsia is a serious condition which requires urgent medical treatment. Eclampsia may be associated with moderate as well as significant increases in blood pressure. The blood pressure can return to normal after delivery or may persist for a period of time.
  • Ecstasy abuse: Use of the illicit drug called ecstasy
  • Ectopia lentis, isolated: A rare syndrome characterized by dislocation of eye lenses which often occurred at birth.
  • Eisenmenger Syndrome: Increased lung blood pressure that can result from conditions such as a hole in the wall between the two heart chambers.
  • Electrical burns: Burns caused when an electric current pass through the body or part of it. The symptoms and severity of the burn depends on the strength of the electrical current, the duration of the exposure and the part of the body involved. Prompt treatment in more severe cases can improve the prognosis.
  • Enalapril -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Enalapril (an ACE inhibitor) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • End-stage renal disease: Final stage of total kidney failure.
  • Endometrial Cancer: Cancer of the endometrium (uterus lining).
  • Environment associated hypertension: High blood pressure caused by environmental factors such as poor diet, stress and lack of exercise.
  • Ephedrine poisoning: Excessive ingestion of ephedrine drugs.
  • Epoetin alfa -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Epoetin alfa (used to treat some forms of anemia) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Epogen -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Epogen (used to treat some forms of anemia) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Essential mixed cryoglobulinemia: A rare autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of a mixture of various types of antibodies (crylglobulins) in the blood.
  • Exercise-induced hypertension: Exercise-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by exercise. Studies indicate that people with this condition have a significant risk of developing vascular disease. An increase in blood pressure of more than 60 mmHg during exercise usually indicates exercise-induced hypertension.
  • Eye symptoms: Symptoms affecting the eye
  • Fabry's Disease: Genetic fat storage disorder
  • Familial pulmonary arterial hypertension: Familial pulmonary arterial hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the arteries that carry blood to the lungs. Blood pressure in other parts of the body is normal or sometimes even low. The condition occurs in a familial pattern i.e. tends to run in families.
  • Familial renal cell carcinoma: A genetic form of kidney cancer that develops in the lining of the tubules in the kidney and tends to run in families.
  • Faye-Petersen-Ward-Carey syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by excess fluid in the skull, a blood disorder and bone and bone abnormalities.
  • Felodipine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Felodipine (an antihypertensive drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia of arteries: A rare disease where the blood vessel walls thicken and harden which reduces blood flow through the arteries and into various organs. The main arteries that may be affected are those in the kidney's and abdomen as well as the carotid artery which caries blood from the heart to the neck.
  • Fitzsimmons-Walson-Mellor syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by spastic paraplegia, progressive kidney disease and deafness.
  • Fosinopril -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Fosinopril during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Fowler-Christmas-Chapple syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of polycystic ovaries with the abnormal functioning of the urinary valve.
  • Furosemide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Furosemide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Gaucher disease type 3: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the deficiency of the enzyme called glucocerebrosidase and accumulation of glycosylceramide (glucocerebroside). There are three forms of this disease: type 1, 2 and 3. Type 3 is a subacute neurological form which often first appears in childhood.
  • Gestational hypertension: Hypertension that occurs to a mother during pregnancy
  • Glomerular Disease: Condition affecting the glomerules in the kidney.
  • Glomerulonephritis: Kidney disease where the kidney's have problems removing waste material and excessive fluid.
  • Glomerulonephritis, membranous congenital due to anti-maternal NEP alloimmunisation: An immune reaction involving maternal antibodies which attack the fetus and causes kidney problems. The condition occurs when a mother with a deficiency of NEP becomes exposed to NEP antigen produced by the fetus which results in the production of antibodies that attack NEP and cause kidney damage.
  • Glucocorticoid resistance: A rare condition where all or parts of the body are unable to respond to glucocorticoids. Symptoms depend on the level or resistance.
  • Glycine encephalopathy, classical neonatal early-onset form: A rare disorder of amino acid metabolism where glycine are unable to be metabolized properly due to defects in the glycine cleavage system. The early onset classical neonatal form usually starts after a period of normal development during the first 6 months of life.
  • Glycine encephalopathy, classical neonatal form: A rare disorder of amino acid metabolism where glycine are unable to be metabolized properly due to defects in the glycine cleavage system.
  • Glycine encephalopathy, classical neonatal late-onset form: A rare disorder of amino acid metabolism where glycine are unable to be metabolized properly due to defects in the glycine cleavage system. The late onset classical neonatal form usually starts during childhood.
  • Glycine synthase deficiency: A rare genetic disorder characterized by high blood glycine levels which is toxic to the body. The severity of the condition varies according to the degree of deficiency and age of onset. The classical neonatal form is generally quite severe, the atypical mild form which generally includes symptoms such as aggressiveness, behavioral problems and speech problems. The transient neonatal form involves high blood glycine levels at birth which then returns to normal within a couple of months - there was no neurological or developmental impairment.
  • Glycine synthase deficiency, type 1: A rare genetic disorder characterized by high blood glycine levels. It is caused by a defect in the P protein (pyridoxal phosphate-dependent glycine decarboxylase) in the energy creating center of cells (mitochondria).
  • Glycine synthase deficiency, type 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by high blood glycine levels. It is caused by a defect in the T protein (tetrahydrofolate-requiring enzyme) in the energy creating center of cells (mitochondria).
  • Goodpasture syndrome: A rare disease involving inflammation of membranes in the lung and kidneys.
  • Goodpasture's syndrome: A condition which is characterized by glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage with circulating antibodies against basement membranes.
  • Gram's syndrome: A postmenopausal syndrome involving high blood pressure, rheumatoid arthritis of the knee and the development of multiple lipomas.
  • Grange syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the abnormal narrowing of various arteries, high blood pressure, heart defects, fragile bones and short, webbed digits. The congenital heart defects are not present in all cases.
  • Granulomatous arthritis of childhood: A rare chronic inflammatory condition that starts during early childhood and is characterized by arthritic joints, uveitis and a skin rash that forms on the trunk and limbs.
  • Graves Disease: is an autoimmune disease characterized by hyperthyroidism due to circulating autoantibodies. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs) bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors, causing the thyroid gland to grow and the thyroid follicles to increase synthesis of thyroid hormone.
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome: A rare progressive form of ascending polyneuropathy believed to be an autoimmune response.
  • HELLP syndrome: A rare potentially fatal condition that occurs in pregnant women and is frequently associated with pre-eclampsia.
  • Head injury: An injury to the head
  • Headache: In medicine a headache or cephalalgia is a symptom of a number of different conditions of the head and sometimes neck. Some of the causes are benign while others are medical emergencies. It ranks among the most common pain complaints
  • Heart attack: Serious and often fatal acute heart condition
  • Heart block: Failure of the heart's normal rhythm controls leading to arrhythmia
  • Heart conditions: Any condition that affects the heart
  • Heart disease: Any of various heart conditions.
  • Heart failure: Slow failure of the heart (cardiac insufficiency).
  • Heart injury: An injury to the heart
  • Heart valve diseases: Diseases that affect the valves of the heart
  • Hemangiomatosis, familial pulmonary capillary: A rare condition involving the excessive proliferation of lung capillaries which results in pulmonary hypertension.
  • Hemangiopericytoma: A slow growing tumor that develops in deep soft tissues an tends to occur mainly in the abdomen (pelvic retroperitoneum specifically), hips, shoulders, upper arms and upper legs.
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome: A rare condition characterized by acute kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia (reduced blood platelet count). The condition is often caused by upper respiratory infections or infectious diarrhea.
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical, childhood: A rare disorder involving destruction of blood cells and kidney disease. Unlike typical hemolytic uremic syndrome which usually follows a bacterial infection, the atypical form is possibly a genetic disorder. The distinguishing feature of the atypical form is that no diarrhea is involved. The atypical form has a poorer prognosis than the typical form.
  • Hepatocellular jaundice: A condition which is characterized by jaundice due to injury or damage to the hepatocellular cells of the liver
  • Hepatorenal tyrosinemia: A rare genetic metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of particular enzymes which prevents the breakdown of tyrosine which then builds up in the liver. Type 1 involves a deficiency of the enzyme fumaril acetoacetate hydrolase.
  • Herbal Agent adverse reaction -- Ginseng: Ginseng can be used as a herbal agent, usually in the form of a tea, to help combat stress. Some people may develop an adverse reaction to Ginseng.
  • Herbal Agent overdose -- Ginseng: Ginseng can be used as a herbal agent, usually in the form of a tea, to help combat stress. Excessive doses of ginseng can cause overdose symptoms - 3 to 15 g per day for a number of years can cause overdose symptoms.
  • Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy 3: A very rare inherited disorder affecting the peripheral and autonomic nervous system and characterized by reduced tear production, excessive sweating, poor body temperature control, blood pressure problems, impaired sensation and poor muscle control.
  • High Blood Pressure/Hypertension:
  • Hydrochlorothiazide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Hydrochlorothiazide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Hydroflumethiazide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Hydroflumethiazide (a diuretic) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Hydronephrosis congenital: A rare kidney disorder that is present at birth and involves enlargement of the part of the ureter closest to the kidney due to obstruction of the flow of urine out of the kidney. The severity of the condition is determined by the degree of obstruction.
  • Hyperadrenalism: Excessive levels of adrenal hormones in the body. Symptoms depend on which hormone is involved and the degree of involvement. Adrenal hormones are aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Hyperaldosteronism-induced hypertension: Hyperaldosteronism -induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal glands. The high blood pressure often responds poorly to the usual medications. Death can result in severe cases.
  • Hypercalcemia: Raised level of calcium in the blood
  • Hypereosinophilic syndrome: A rare condition where too many eosinophils are produced over an extended period of time for no apparent reason. The eosinophils can infiltrate various organs and tissues and cause dysfunction or damage
  • Hyperparathyroidism: Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands.
  • Hyperpituitarism: A condition that results in the excess secretion of hormones that are secreted from the pituitary gland
  • Hypersecretion of growth hormone: increased production of growth hormone from the pituitary gland
  • Hypertension: High blood pressure
  • Hypertension due to bilateral renal artery stenosis: Hypertension due to bilateral renal artery stenosis is high blood pressure resulting from narrowing kidney blood vessels which prevents the blood from flowing through the kidneys properly.
  • Hypertension due to coarctation of the aorta: Hypertension due to coarctation of the aorta is high blood pressure resulting from a birth defect where a heart blood vessel called the aorta is abnormally narrowed. The high blood pressure tends to affect mainly the upper part of the body. Babies and very young children tend to have more severe symptoms as the degree of narrowing tends to be greater than in older children or adults.
  • Hypertension in children: Hypertension in children is a condition in which a child has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hypertension in children from 11 through adolescence: Hypertension in children from 11 through adolescence refers to a child between the ages of 11 years through adolescence who has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hypertension in children one to ten years: Hypertension in children one to ten years refers to a child between the ages of one to ten years who has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hypertension in children under one year: Hypertension in children under one year is a condition in which a child under the age of one year has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hypertension of pregnancy: Pregnancy hypertension is the development of high blood pressure during pregnancy. Hypertension is a serious health condition due to the fact that it often causes no symptoms until it is severe. The increased blood pressure can cause complications in pregnancy women e.g. eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. The blood pressure usually returns to normal after delivery.
  • Hypertension, Essential: Essential hypertension is a type of hypertension that has no detectable cause. Patients have an increased blood pressure for no apparent reason. Most cases of hypertension are of this form.
  • Hypertensive heart disease: Heart disease that is caused by hypertension
  • Hypertensive hypokalemia familial: A rare inherited form of high blood pressure. The high blood pressure is due to a kidney tubule abnormality results in too much sodium being reabsorbed into the blood stream instead of being excreted.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • I cell disease: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the harmful accumulation of chemicals (glycoproteins and glycoplipids) due to the deficiency of an enzyme (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-I-phosphotransferase).
  • IgA nephropathy: A rare disorder where kidney inflammation leads to a build up of the antibody (IgA) in the kidney which results in the characteristic symptom of blood in the urine.
  • Impaired vision: Reduced or degraded vision.
  • Increased intracranial pressure: Increased pressure inside the skull due to brain swelling or fluid accumulation
  • Indian Tobacco poisoning: The Indian Tobacco plant contains alkaloids such as lobeline which can result in similar effects to nicotine. The plant is sometimes used in herbal preparations which is usually how poisoning occurs.
  • Inherited Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A condition which is characterized by thrombotic microangiography occurring with renal failure, hemolytic anemia and severe thrombocytopenia
  • Intrauterine Growth Retardation: Slowly growing fetus in the womb during pregnancy
  • Ischemia: Inadequate blood supply to tissues, usually caused by a problem in the blood vessel.
  • Isolated systolic hypertension: Isolated systolic hypertension is an increase in the top number (>140mm Hg) of blood pressure readings. This type of hypertension is more common in older people. Smoking, age, diabetes and obesity are risk factors for this condition.
  • Itraconazole -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Itraconazole (an antifungal drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Jimsonweed poisoning: The Jimsonweed is a herb that bears single large white or lavender flowers and seeds surrounded by a spiny shell. The plant contains tropane alkaloids (mainly the seeds and leaves) which can cause symptoms if eaten in large quantities.
  • Juvenile Paget's Disease:
  • Kallikrein hypertension: Hypertension caused by a reduced level of Kallikrein which is involved in controlling blood pressure through it's effect on kidney function. Reduced kallikrein secretion can be associated with hypertension.
  • Kashani-Strom-Utley syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a narrowed pulmonary aorta and urinary obstructive disease.
  • Kidney Cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the kidneys
  • Kidney arteriovenous fistula: An abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in the kidneys.
  • Kidney disease: Reduced kidney function from various causes.
  • Kidney disease-Induced Hypertension: High blood pressure that results from kidney disease. Kidney diseases can cause changes to the rennin-aldosterone system which can result in high blood pressure by affecting the amount of water and salt retained within the body.
  • Kidney failure: Total failure of the kidneys to filter waste
  • Labile Hypertension: Labile hypertension is a term used to describe frequent fluctuations in blood pressure. The blood pressure can change dramatically within a day. A range of factors including anxiety, physical exertion, noncompliance with treatment and phaeochromocytoma can cause the variations in the blood pressure.
  • Lead poisoning: A type of heavy metal poisoning caused by excessive exposure to lead.
  • Left heart failure: Failure of the left side of the heart
  • Licorice-induced hypertension: Licorice-induced hypertension is a relatively quick increase in blood pressure due to eating licorice (either in the form of candy or as a herb). Blood pressure usually resumes to normalisation quite rapidly. Patients with existing blood pressure problems should avoid consuming licorice as it can cause their blood pressure to rise to dangerously high levels.
  • Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis: A rare disorder that primarily affects the skin and blood vessels. It is characterized by calcified skin deposits (C), Raynaud syndrome (R), esophageal dysfunction (E), scleroderma of the fingers and toes(S) and telengiectasia - dilated blood vessels (T).
  • Lipodystrophy, familial partial, type 1 (FPLD1): An inherited disorder characterized by the loss of fatty tissue from the extremities while fatty tissue on the face, neck and trunk is normal or increased.
  • Lipodystrophy, familial partial, type 3 (FPLD3): A rare metabolic disorder involving abnormal fat gradually disappears from the limbs, trunk and buttocks but stays the same or accumulates on areas such as the face, shoulders, neck and genitals.
  • Lisinopril -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lisinopril during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Lobelia poisoning: Lobelia is a herbaceous plant which bears elongated shafts of small blue, white or red flowers. The plant contains alkaloids such as lobeline which can result in similar effects to nicotine. The plant is sometimes used in herbal preparations which is usually how poisoning occurs.
  • Lockwood-Feingold syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized mainly by arthritis, skeletal abnormalities and a lack of subcutaneous fat.
  • Losartan -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Losartan during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Lupus: Autoimmune disease with numerous effects on various organs and linings.
  • Lupus nephritis: Kidney damage caused by lupus.
  • Lymphangiomatosis, pulmonary: A rare disorder characterized by the presence of numerous small lung cysts at birth which severely affects breathing and blood pressure and generally results in infant death.
  • Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis: A rare, progressive blood vessel disease where nodular lesions destroy blood vessels - lungs, skin and nervous system are mainly involved.
  • MSBD syndrome: A rare form of osteosclerosis caused by a lack of calcium in the bones.
  • Malignant hypertension: Malignant hypertension is a condition characterized by very high blood pressure and swelling of the optic nerve. This type of hypertension is more common in people with kidney problems such as narrowed kidney blood vessels. The condition is a medical emergency which can cause organ damage if not treated promptly.
  • Malignant rhabdoid tumors: An aggressive malignant tumor that occurs in children. Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor. The tumors often form in the kidneys and then tend to metastasize to the brain and sometimes the lungs. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Membranous nephropathy, idiopathic: A rare kidney disorder which occurs for no obvious reason and involves thickening and dysfunction of the filtering part of the kidneys.
  • Mesangial sclerosis, diffuse: A rare inherited disorder involving a kidney disorder that starts early in life and rapidly progresses to kidney failure. Death often occurs within years of birth.
  • Metabolic Syndrome: A common body syndrome with the "deadly quartet" of major conditions: obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and high lipids.
  • Metabolic syndrome (syndrome X): Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
  • Methyclothiazide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Methyclothiazide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Methylcobalamin deficiency cbl G type: An inherited organic acid disorder where an enzyme deficiency (cbl G) impairs the body's ability to break down certain proteins consumed in the diet. This results in a buildup of homocystine which results in harmful affects.
  • Metolazone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Metolazone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Metoprolol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Metoprolol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Microscopic Polyangiitis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of microscopic blood or lymph vessels
  • Mixed sclerosing bone dystrophy: A rare form of osteosclerosis caused by a lack of calcium in the bones.
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type I Hurler syndrome: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans) in various body tissues due to insufficient amounts of the enzyme (?-L-diuronidase) needed to break it down. There are three main sub-types of the disorder: Hurler - severe form, Scheie - mild form and Hurler/Scheie form which is intermediate.
  • Multi-Infarct Dementia: Dementia due to brain blood clots and strokes.
  • Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis: A rare condition characterized by the proliferation of histiocytes (immune cells) which causes destructive arthritis and skin nodules.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Mustard tree poisoning: The mustard tree is found in various parts of America and contains nicotine. Ingestion of the plant can cause various symptoms. The leaves of the plant is sometimes smoked for its effects but it can result in death.
  • Myxedema: Skin and tissue disorder usually due to hypothyroidism
  • Nadolol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Nadolol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Nasal decongestant-induced hypertension: Nasal decongestant-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by taking nasal decongestants. Patients with an existing history of hypertension may suffer further blood pressure increases while taking nasal decongestants and this can be serious. Severity of symptoms varies amongst patients depending on their susceptibility, underlying health and duration of nasal decongestant use.
  • Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcium salt deposits in the kidneys which may affect it's ability to function. The condition refers to a generally increased level of calcium in the kidneys rather than actual localized deposits such as occurs in kidney stones. It may be caused by such things as high blood calcium levels and tuberculosis. The condition often goes unnoticed until kidney or urinary tract stones form.
  • Nephropathy: Any type of non-inflammatory kidney condition
  • Nephrosclerosis: Hardening of the kidney. Is often caused by blood vessel disease such as atherosclerosis.
  • Nephrosis -- deafness -- urinary tract -- digital malformation: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by kidney disease, deafness and abnormalities of the urinary tract, fingers and toes.
  • Nephrotic syndrome: Various kidney glomeruli conditions
  • Neuroblastoma: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblstoma.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 1: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1p36.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 2: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 4p12.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 3: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 2p23.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 4: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 6p.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 5: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q35.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 6: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1q21.
  • Neurofibromatosis syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant.
  • Neurofibromatosis syndrome Type II: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation, acoustic neuromas and the development of many noncancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant - it is a more severe form of type I neurofibromatosis.
  • Neurogenic hypertension: High blood pressure caused by excessive sympathetic nervous system stimulation.
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A severe, potentially fatal reaction to antipsychotic drugs.
  • Nicotine addiction: Nicotine addiction is the uncontrollable desire to continue smoking. Smoking products contain nicotine which is a chemical that can lead to addiction if used over a period of time. Cessation causes withdrawal symptoms which can vary in nature and severity.
  • Nifedipine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Nifedipine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Nipah virus encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain caused by the Nipah virus which can infect pigs and humans so transmission usually occurs through contact with pigs.
  • No symptoms: The absence of noticable symptoms.
  • Non-diarrheal (D-) HUS syndrome: A rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that is not associated with diarrhea which means that it is not a result of bacterial gastroenteritis. This form of hemolytic uremic syndrome may be caused by kidney transplants, certain drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, cytotoxic drugs), pregnancy, malignancy, HIV, non-diarrheal bacterial infections, immunological conditions or it may be inherited or in some cases there is no obvious cause (idiopathic).
  • Obesity: An increase in the body weight greater than that required for normal function that is characterised by the accumulation of excessive fat
  • Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is defined as the combination of obesity (body mass index above 30kg/m2), hypoxia (falling oxygen levels in blood) during sleep, and hypercapnia (increased blood carbon dioxide levels) during the day, resulting from hypoventilation (excessively slow or shallow breathing)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Oculo skeletal renal syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by eye, skeletal and kidney problems.
  • Oligohydramnios: A deficiency in the amount of amniotic fluid in the gestational sac during pregnancy
  • Oral contraceptives -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Oral contraceptives during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Osteodysplasia, familial, Anderson type: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by skeletal abnormalities involving the spine, legs, pelvis and collar bone.
  • Paget's Disease: Breast carcinoma involving nipple and areola.
  • Paget's disease of bone: A chronic, slowly progressing bone disorder where the bone is destroyed rapidly and replaced by abnormal bone which is dense and fragile.
  • Paraganglioma: A rare, usually benign tumor most often found in the abdomen, chest, head and neck areas. The tumor develops from glomus cells which are located along blood vessels involved in automatic body activities such as regulation of blood pressure and blood flow. Symptoms may vary depending on the exact location of the tumor.
  • Pediatric granulomatous arthritis: A rare chronic inflammatory condition that starts during early childhood and is characterized by arthritic joints, uveitis and a skin rash that forms on the trunk and limbs.
  • Penbutolol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Penbutolol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Phencyclidine poisoning: Excessive ingestion of phencyclidine drugs.
  • Phentermine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Phentermine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Phenylpropanolamine poisoning: Excessive ingestion of phenylpropanolamine drugs.
  • Pheochromocytoma: Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth and secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Pheochromocytoma as part of Neurofibromatosis: A tumor that develops in the part of the adrenal gland called the medulla which produces adrenalin and noradrenaline. This tumor is often associated with a condition called neurofibromatosis. The tumor affects automatic body activities such as regulating breathing rate and heartbeat.
  • Pheochromocytoma-induced hypertension: Pheochromocytoma-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by an adrenal gland tumor. The high blood pressure often responds poorly to the usual medications. Death can result in severe cases.
  • Physical inactivity: When an individual is physically inactive
  • Pickwickian syndrome: A syndrome characterized by obesity, somnolence, hypoventilation and erythrocytosis
  • Pierre Robin's sequence: A rare genetic disorder characterized by an underdeveloped jaw, cleft soft palate and abnormal tongue location.
  • Pierson syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a small pupil and kidney disease at birth.
  • Pindolol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Pindolol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Pituitary Cancer: Cancer of the pituitary gland.
  • Poisoning: The condition produced by poison
  • Polio: Dangerous virus now rare due to vaccination.
  • Polyarteritis nodosa: A serious blood vessel disease where small and medium-sized arteries become swollen and damaged and are unable to adequately supply oxygenated blood to various tissues in the body. The disease can occur in a mild form or a serious, rapidly fatal form.
  • Polycystic kidney disease: Genetic kidney disease causing kidney cysts.
  • Polycystic kidney disease type 1: A rare condition where cysts in the kidney grow and cause the kidney to become larger and reduce it's ability to function. PKD 1 is an autosomal dominant form of the disease and differs from PKD 2 in that it is more severe and is caused by a mutation in a different gene.
  • Polycystic kidney disease, adult type: A rare condition where cysts in the kidney grow and cause the kidney to become larger and reduce it's ability to function. PKD 2 is an autosomal dominant form of the disease and differs from PKD 1 in that it is less severe and is caused by a mutation in a different gene.
  • Polycystic kidney disease, infantile type: Severe form of polycystic kidney disease which is a genetic kidney disease. Symptoms develop very early in life and may even be present during the fetal stage.
  • Polycystic kidney disease, type 2: A rare condition where cysts in the kidney grow and cause the kidney to become larger and reduce it's ability to function. This adult form of the condition is milder than the infantile form.
  • Polycystic kidneys, severe infantile, with tuberous sclerosis: A rare genetic disorder characterized by numerous kidney cysts and hamartomas (benign nodules that can occur in the skin or various organs including the brain).
  • Polycystic ovaries urethral sphincter dysfunction: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of polycystic ovaries with the abnormal functioning of the urinary valve.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder that affects approximately 5% of all women.
  • Polycythemia: Excess red blood cells in the blood
  • Polygenic diseases: Any diseases that are caused by conditions that affect several different genes
  • Polythiazide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Polythiazide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Porphyria: A group of disorders characterized by excess production of porphyrin or its precursors which affects the skin and/or nervous system.
  • Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis: Kidney complication (glomerulonephritis) following streptococcal infection
  • Pregnancy: The condition of supporting a fetus from conception till birth.
  • Pregnancy toxemia /hypertension: Preeclampsia is the development of high blood pressure, excess protein in the urine and swelling during pregnancy. Hypertension is a serious health condition due to the fact that it often causes no symptoms until it is severe. The blood pressure usually returns to normal after delivery.
  • Prehypertension: Prehypertension is a term used to describe blood pressure that is higher than normal but not high enough to be considered high blood pressure - systolic pressure 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic pressure 80-89 mm Hg.
  • Presbycusis: Progressive deterioration of hearing ability that affects both ears and occurs with aging. The hearing loss is sensorineural in nature and is most noticeable at high frequencies. There are a number of risk factors associated with age-related hearing impairment: smoking, ototoxic medication, cardiovascular disease and exposure to loud noise. It is estimated that a third of people over the age of 60 have some hearing loss and more than half of people over the age of 75 years have hearing loss.
  • Primary Aldosteronism: Primary aldosteronism is a condition which the body's adrenal glands produce too much of the hormone aldosterone, causing retention sodium and loss of potassium.
  • Primary Hyperaldosteronism: A condition characterised by the excessive production and release into the circulation of aldosterone
  • Primary Hypertension: A condition which is characterized by high blood pressure not associated with any identifiable pathological cause
  • Primary cortisol resistance: A rare genetic disorder where the body is unable to respond to a hormone called cortisol. The body produces excess cortisol to compensate for this defect.
  • Primary pulmonary hypertension: Primary pulmonary hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the arteries that carry blood to the lungs for no apparent reason. Blood pressure in other parts of the body is normal or sometimes even low.
  • Procrit -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Procrit (used to treat some forms of anemia) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Proteinuria: Protein in the urine
  • Pseudoaldosteronism: A rare genetic disorder involving early onset high blood pressure, reduced aldosterone secretion, hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. The disorder originates from kidney dysfunction rather than impaired aldosterone secretion.
  • Pseudoephedrine poisoning: Excessive ingestion of pseudoephedrine drugs.
  • Pseudohyperaldosteronism: A disorder that occurs in some people who eat a lot of licorice. The licorice inhibits a particular enzyme which results in excessive production of aldosterone.
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism: A group of disorders involving an electrolyte imbalance due to the kidney's inability to respond to aldosterone. The actual level of aldosterone may range from high to low.
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II: A rare condition characterized by electrolyte disorders caused by the kidney's inability to respond to aldosterone. Type II is differentiated from Type I in that sodium wasting doesn't occur.
  • Pulmonary artery agenesis: A rare defect where the pulmonary artery or a portion of it fails to develop. The pulmonary artery has two branches, each of which goes to a different lung. The affected lung tends to be smaller and the bronchial arteries that supply it tend to be enlarged.
  • Pulmonary cystic lymphangiectasis: A rare congenital condition where the lungs fail to develop normally. The disorder is characterized by the presence of dilated lymph ducts throughout the lungs.
  • Pulmonary embolism: Blocked lung blood vessel often from a blood clot.
  • Pulmonary fibrosis /granuloma: A lung disease characterized by stiffening and inflammation of lung tissue.
  • Pulmonary hemangiomatosis: A rare condition characterized by the proliferation of small blood vessels or capillaries in various parts of the lungs - pleura, bronchial and venous walls and alveolar septa.
  • Pulmonary hypertension: Pulmonary hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs. Blood pressure in other parts of the body is normal or sometimes even low. The condition may be caused by such things as lung conditions (e.g. emphysema, chronic bronchitis), heart conditions (e.g. congestive heart failure, birth defects involving heart), AIDS or medications such as fenfluramine (a diet drug). Sometimes it occurs for no apparent reason and is called primary pulmonary hypertension.
  • Pulmonary hypoxic hypertension: Pulmonary hypoxic hypertension is characterized by high blood pressure and low oxygen levels that result from constriction of the blood vessels leading to the lungs.
  • Pulmonary thromboembolic hypertension: Pulmonary thromboembolic hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs due to a blood clot in one of these blood vessels. Blood pressure in other parts of the body is normal or sometimes even low.
  • Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease: Any disease which causes a lung vein to become narrow or blocked. The pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to various body tissues.
  • Pulmonary venous hypertension: Pulmonary venous hypertension is high blood pressure results when the heart is unable to efficiently carry blood away from the lungs. The blood tends to collect in the lung tissue. It is usually the result of conditions such as left-sided heart disease, constrictive pericarditis and other heart problems.
  • Pulmonary venous return anomaly: A rare disorder where one or more of the four veins that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs drain to the right atrium of the heart instead of the left atrium. Symptom severity is determined by the number of veins involved and the exact location of the heart that the veins drain into.
  • Quinapril -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Quinapril during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Ramipril -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ramipril during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Rebound hypertension: Rebound hypertension is an increase in blood pressure in response stopping or reducing high blood pressure medication. Severe cases can result in a very large increase in blood pressure which requires prompt treatment to avoid complications such as organ damage. Rebound hypertension can be avoided by taking the doses as prescribed and reducing dosages gradually if a lower dosage is recommended.
  • Renal Artery Stenosis: An abnormal narrowing of the renal artery which is the main artery the supplies the kidney.
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma 2: A genetic form of kidney cancer.
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma 3: A dominantly inherited form of kidney cancer which is linked to chromosome 5q.
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma 4: A genetic form of kidney cancer.
  • Renal artery stenosis: An abnormal narrowing of the renal artery which is the main artery the supplies the kidney.
  • Renal cancer, familial: A genetic form of kidney cancer that tends to run in families.
  • Renal hypertension: Renovascular hypertension is high blood pressure resulting from narrowing or damage to kidney blood vessels which prevents the blood from flowing through the kidneys properly.
  • Renal infarction: The death of an area of tissue in the kidney due to a localized lack of oxygen. Usually results from an interruption in the blood supply. The severity of the symptoms depends on how large the affected part of the kidney is. Small infarcts can produce virtually no symptoms. The condition is relatively uncommon and frequently misdiagnosed.
  • Renal segmental hypoplasia-induced Hypertension: Renal segmental hypoplasia-induced hypertension is high blood pressure resulting from either an abnormally developed kidney (birth defect) or from damage to the kidney resulting from vesicureteral reflux.
  • Renal tuberculosis: Kidney affected by tuberculosis
  • Renal tubular transport disorders, inborn: Genetic defects in the transporters and channels along the kidney tubules that help to regulate body fluids as well as defects in the receptors and enzymes involved in the process. Examples of such disorders include nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and hereditary renal hypouricemia. Symptoms are determined by the exact nature of the disorder.
  • Renoprival hypertension: High blood pressure that results from a lack of kidney function.
  • Renovascular Hypertension: Renovascular hypertension is high blood pressure resulting from narrowing or damage to kidney blood vessels which prevents the blood from flowing through the kidneys properly.
  • Renovascular stenosis: Renal artery stenosis is a narrowing or blockage of the artery that supplies blood to the kidney.
  • Resistant hypertension: Resistant hypertension is a form of high blood pressure that doesn't respond to treatment. Blood pressure remains high even when a combination of three drugs is used. It can be caused by such things a secondary hypertension, fluid retention or if the patient doesn't stick to the treatment plan.
  • Respiratory acidosis: Respiratory acidosis is acidosis (abnormally increased acidity of the blood) due to decreased ventilation of the pulmonary alveoli, leading to elevated arterial carbon dioxide concentration.
  • Respiratory failure: Failure of the respiratory system
  • Retina symptoms: Symptoms affecting the retina in the back of the eye
  • Retroperitoneal fibrosis: A rare disorder involving the formation of a fibrous mass of tissue in the hollow space at the back of the abdomen. The mass can affect the flow of urine to the kidneys and may also affect other abdominal organs.
  • Rhabdoid tumor: An aggressive malignant tumor that occurs in children. Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor. The tumors often form in the kidneys and then tend to metastasize to the brain and sometimes the lungs.
  • Salcedo syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by kidney disease
  • Schroeder syndrome 1: High blood pressure and reduced salt concentration in sweat associated with an overactive adrenal cortex which is involved with hormone production.
  • Scleroderma: A rare, progressive connective tissue disorder involving thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissue. There are a number of forms of scleroderma with some forms being systemic (involving internal organs).
  • Scleroderma, diffuse: A rare autoimmune connective tissue disease where the body attacks parts of the body and causes scarring and thickness of the tissue. In the diffuse form the the disorder, large areas of skin as well as organs are involved. Death can occur.
  • Scleroderma, systemic: A rare autoimmune connective tissue disease where the body attacks parts of the body and causes scarring and thickness of the tissue. In the systemic form, the skin and organs are involved.
  • Secondary Hypertension: Secondary hypertension is high blood pressure resulting from an underlying cause such as kidney disease. Hypertension is a serious health condition due to the fact that it often causes no symptoms until it is severe.
  • Secondary Reflux: A urological abnormality where some of the urine flows from the bladder back into the kidneys. Vesicoureteral reflux may result from secondary causes such as a urinary tract blockage but primary vesicoureteral reflex results from a genetic defect which affects the development of the ureterovesical junction.
  • Secondary pulmonary hypertension: Secondary pulmonary hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the arteries that carry blood to the lungs. Blood pressure in other parts of the body is normal or sometimes even low. The condition may be caused by such things as lung conditions (e.g. emphysema, chronic bronchitis), heart conditions (e.g. congestive heart failure, birth defects involving heart), AIDS or medications such as fenfluramine (a diet drug).
  • Sedative dependence: The psychological or physical dependence on sedative medication
  • Selye syndrome: A condition associated with prolonged extreme stress. The stressing agent may include such things as exposure to cold, starvation, death of someone close or work stress.
  • Senior health conditions: Medical conditions affecting seniors, male or female.
  • Senior-Loken Syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by kidney dysfunction and progressive eye disease.
  • Senior-Loken syndrome 1: A rare inherited disorder characterized by kidney dysfunction and progressive eye disease. Type 1 is caused by a chromosomal defect on chromosome 2q13. End stage kidney disease usually occurs early in the second decade.
  • Senior-Loken syndrome 3: A rare inherited disorder characterized by kidney dysfunction and progressive eye disease. Type 3 is caused by a chromosomal defect on chromosome 3q22. This form generally has an early onset.
  • Senior-Loken syndrome 4: A rare inherited disorder characterized by kidney dysfunction and progressive eye disease. Type 4 is caused by a chromosomal defect on chromosome 1p36.
  • Senior-Loken syndrome 5: A rare inherited disorder characterized by kidney dysfunction and progressive eye disease. Type 5 is caused by a chromosomal defect on chromosome 3q21.1. This form generally has a later onset.
  • Senior-Loken syndrome 6: A rare inherited disorder characterized by kidney dysfunction and progressive eye disease. Type 6 is caused by a chromosomal defect on chromosome 12q21.3. End stage kidney disease usually occurs early in the second decade and vision impairment occurs by 3 years of age.
  • Serotonin Syndrome: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Serotonin toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Shaken Baby Syndrome: A condition caused by violent shaking of a baby.
  • Silent conditions: Any condition that is not visible clinically
  • Silicosis: An occupation lung disease caused by breathing in silica dust.
  • Simple kidney cysts: Usually harmless kidney cysts appearing later in life.
  • Skull fracture: A fracture of the bones of the skull
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Syndromes involving the cessation of breathing during sleep. Examples include obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea. The condition may range from mild to severe.
  • Sleep apnea: Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Sleep disorders: Any disorder that affects ones sleep
  • Smoking Cessation:
  • Sneddon Syndrome: A rare progressive inherited disorder involving the blood vessel disease and neurological symptoms.
  • Spastic paraplegia nephritis deafness: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by spastic paraplegia, progressive kidney disease and deafness.
  • Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia -- nephritic syndrome:
  • Steroid abuse: Steroids are man-made chemicals that can be used to promote muscle development and increase male sexual characteristics. Steroids are a prescription drug usually used to treat disorders such as delayed puberty and body wasting in AIDS patients. Excessive or improper use of steroids usually occurs in athletes and can result in a range of unwanted symptoms.
  • Stress: Emotional stress (sometimes refers to physical stress)
  • Stress-Induced Hypertension: Stress-induced hypertension is high blood pressure associated with physical or emotional stress. Chronic stress and associated high blood pressure can cause problems and treatment with anti-anxiety medication is usually prescribed.
  • Stroke: Serious brain event from bleeding or blood clots.
  • Systemic disorders: Any condition that occurs in a system of the body
  • Tacrolimus -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Tacrolimus during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Takayasu arteritis: A rare disorder involving inflammation of large elastic arteries including the aorta which impairs blood flow to the upper body.
  • Thieffry and Sorrell Dejerine syndrome: A rare inherited syndrome characterized by kidney problems and progressive destruction of the wrist and ankle bones which may spread to adjoining bones.
  • Thrombocytopenia: Decreased platelets in the blood
  • Thromboembolism: Lodgement of a blood clot causing blockage
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, acquired: A rare blood condition where small blood clots form in blood vessels which reduces the number of blood platelets and results in kidney failure, neurological symptoms and anemia. The condition may be familial or acquired - symptoms tend to recur regularly in the familial form.
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, congenital: A rare blood condition where small blood clots form in blood vessels which reduces the number of blood platelets and results in kidney failure, neurological symptoms and anemia.
  • Timolol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Timolol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Tinnitus: Hearing noises in the ears: ringing, roaring, clicks, whistling, or hissing.
  • Toxemia: A medical condition that occurs when there is a release of toxins from bacteria within the bloodstream
  • Toxic mushrooms -- Psychedelic: Some mushrooms contain chemicals called psilocybin and psilocin which produce effects similar to LSD. Mushroom species from this group include certain species of Conocybe syanopus, Conocybe spectabilis, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Pluteus, Psilocybe and Stropharia. About five dried mushroom caps can result in hallucinations.
  • Transient Ischemic Attack: Temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that persists, by definition, for less than 24 hours.
  • Trichlormethiazide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Trichlormethiazide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Turner Syndrome: Rare chromosome syndrome with one X but no second X or Y chromosome.
  • Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: A condition which can occur to twins in the uterus of the carrying mother due to transfusion of blood from one to the other
  • Type 2 diabetes: Most common diabetes in adults, usually progressing slowly, mostly treated without insulin at diagnosis.
  • Type A personality:
  • Tyrosinemia: A rare genetic metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of particular enzymes which prevents the breakdown of tyrosine which then builds up in the liver.
  • Tyrosinemia Type I: A condition which is characterized by an increase in the concentration of tyrosine in the blood
  • Under-diagnosed conditions: Any medical condition that is undiagnosed
  • Unilateral pulmonary agenesis: A very rare birth defect where one side of the lung is incompletely developed or totally absent. The symptoms and severity of the condition is variable and other malformation are often associated with the condition.
  • Urinary tract infections: Infection of the urinary system; usually bacterial.
  • Urine retention: Partial or total inability to excrete urine
  • Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the uterus.
  • Vague symptoms: Vague, unclear, mild or non-specific symptoms
  • Valsartan -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Valsartan during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Variegate porphyria: A rare metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of a certain enzyme which results in a build-up in the body of porphyrins or their precursors. This form of hepatic porphyria causes the sufferer to have acute attacks as well as skin sensitivity.
  • Vasculitis: Inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel
  • Vasculitis hypersensitivity: A condition which is characterised by a reaction that results in the inflammation of the blood vessels
  • Vater-like syndrome, with pulmonary hypertension, abnormal ears and growth deficiency: A rare syndrome characterized by unusual ears, retarded growth, pulmonary hypertension.
  • Vesicoureteral Reflux 1: A urological abnormality where some of the urine flows from the bladder back into the kidneys. Vesicoureteral reflux may result from secondary causes such as a urinary tract blockage but primary vesicoureteral reflex results from a genetic defect which affects the development of the ureterovesical junction. Type 1 is linked to a defect in chromosome 1p13 and type 2 is linked to a defect in chromosome 3p12.3. A significant number of children (up to a third) who develop urinary tract infections have vesicoureteral reflux.
  • Vesicoureteral Reflux 2: A urological abnormality where some of the urine flows from the bladder back into the kidneys. Vesicoureteral reflux may result from secondary causes such as a urinary tract blockage but primary vesicoureteral reflex results from a genetic defect which affects the development of the ureterovesical junction. Type 1 is linked to a defect in chromosome 1p13 and type 2 is linked to a defect in chromosome 3p12.3. A significant number of children (up to a third) who develop urinary tract infections have vesicoureteral reflux.
  • Vesicoureteral reflux: Reverse flow of urine from bladder back into kidneys.
  • Viral vasculitis not HBV and HCV: Blood vessel inflammation due to a viral infection such as cytomegalovirus or immune reaction initiated by a viral infection. Blood vessels in virtually any part of the body may be infected including the brain and the heart. Symptoms depend on the location and extent of the inflammation.
  • Vitamin D -- adverse effects: Excessive use of vitamin D supplements can cause symptoms.
  • Von Gierke disease IB: A metabolic disorder involving a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (due to a G6P transporter defect) which results in the accumulation of glycogen in various tissues and a reduced blood sugar level. The condition is characterized primarily by an increased risk of bacterial infections due to impaired neutrophil activity which is needed to fight bacterial invasions.
  • Von Hippel-Lindau Disease: Genetic disease causing multiple benign tumors
  • Wagener syndrome: A disorder involving the association of hypertension, arteriosclerosis, thickened heart muscle and severe neuroretinitis.
  • Wegener's granulomatosis: A rare disease involving blood vessel inflammation which can affect the blood flow to various tissues and organs and hence cause damage. The respiratory system and the kidneys are the main systems affected.
  • Werner syndrome: A form of premature aging where sufferers start aging during adolescence or soon after and appear old by the time they reach their 30's or 40's. Milder forms of the condition may also occur.
  • White coat hypertension: White coat hypertension is a term used to describe a condition where patients have increased blood pressure readings when measured in a clinical setting such as a doctor's office. Blood pressure readings taken in the home environment while the patient is relaxed are normal. The underlying cause is believed to be tension and anxiety associated with visiting health professionals such as general practitioners. A significant number of patients with this condition eventually develop true hypertension.
  • Williams Syndrome: A syndrome characterised by mental retardation, facial abnormalities and emotional instability
  • Wilms' tumor: A malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children.
  • Wolfram's disease: A condition that is inherited and consists of multiple symptoms
  • X-linked Dominant Genetic Diseases: Any disease that affects the x chromosome and is inherited in a dominant manner

 

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