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Diseases » Insulin Resistance » Glossary
 

Glossary for Insulin Resistance

  • Abdominal obesity metabolic syndrome: A syndrome characterized by a group of conditions that are considered major risk factors for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.
  • Acanthosis nigricans: It is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin usually present in the posterior and lateral folds of the neck, the axilla, groin, umbilicus and other areas.
  • Acanthosis nigricans muscle cramps acral enlargement: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by muscle cramps, dark velvety patches of skin and large hands and feet.
  • Acid-Base Imbalance: A disruption to the normal acid-base equilibrium in the body. There are four main groups of disorder involving an acid-base imbalance: respiratory acidosis or alkalosis and metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. Obviously the severity of symptoms is determined by the degree of imbalance.
  • Acquired total lipodystrophy: A rare acquired disorder that involves adipose tissue abnormalities and is characterized by loss of adipose tissue through the body. The disorder is very similar to the congenital form but the liver involvement is more severe.
  • Aromatase deficiency: A congenital deficiency of the enzyme called aromatase which is needed to convert androgens to estrogens.
  • Cephalothoracic progressive lipodystrophy: A rare acquired disorder that involves adipose tissue abnormalities and is characterized by loss of adipose tissue mainly in the trunk and arms.
  • Congenital partial lipodystrophy: A rare congenital disorder that involves adipose tissue abnormalities and is characterized by loss of adipose tissue mainly in the trunk and limbs.
  • Cortisone reductase deficiency: An inborn error of steroid metabolism due to a deficiency of an enzyme called cortisone reductase (11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). This enzyme is needed to convert cortisone to cortisol.
  • Diabetes: Failing or reduced ability of the body to handle sugars.
  • Endocrine system conditions: Medical conditions affecting the endocrine systems, such as the related hormones or glands.
  • Exercise: The use of the human muscles to improve ones health
  • Gestational diabetes: Diabetes that occurs in pregnant women, usually resolving after birth.
  • Hyperinsulinemia: High insulin levels in the blood
  • Hyperparathyroidism: Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands.
  • Impaired glucose tolerance: Mild glucose metabolism problems not severe enough to be called diabetes.
  • Impaired glucose tolerance- like symptoms as in case of hemochromatosis: The diagnosis of glucose intolerance is based on the circumstance at the time of diagnosis.
  • Insulin resistance, short fifth metacarpals: A rare syndrome characterized by short fifth fingers and fifth hand bones as well as insulin resistance.
  • Insulin-resistance syndrome, type A: A syndrome characterized by insulin resistance resulting in distinctive skin lesions called acanthosis nigricans. It is the least severe form of insulin resistance.
  • Lipoatrophic diabetes:
  • Lipodystrophy: A rare group of disorders that can be acquired or inherited and involves adipose tissue abnormalities. The disorder is characterized by varying degrees of loss of body fat. The three forms of the condition are: total lipodystrophy, partial lipodystrophy and localized lipodystrophy.
  • Lipodystrophy, familial partial, due to AKT2 mutations: An inherited disorder characterized by the loss of fatty tissue from the extremities while fatty tissue on the face, neck and trunk is normal or increased.
  • Mandibuloacral dysplasia: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a prematurely aged appearance and bone abnormalities. There are two subtypes with type B involving loss of fat layers under the skin mainly in the extremities, face and trunk whereas type A involves mainly the extremities. The severity of the symptoms is variable.
  • Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type A lipodystrophy: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a prematurely aged appearance and bone abnormalities. Loss of fat layers under the skin occurs mainly in the extremities in type B. The severity of the symptoms is variable.
  • Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a prematurely aged appearance and bone abnormalities. Loss of fat layers under the skin occurs mainly in the extremities, face and trunk in type B. The severity of the symptoms is variable.
  • Metabolic Syndrome: A common body syndrome with the "deadly quartet" of major conditions: obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and high lipids.
  • Multiple endocrine abnormalities -- adenylyl cyclase dysfunction: A rare syndrome characterized by an enzyme defect (adenylyl cyclase) and a number of endocrine abnormalities.
  • Obesity: An increase in the body weight greater than that required for normal function that is characterised by the accumulation of excessive fat
  • Pancreas conditions: Any condition that affects the pancreas
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder that affects approximately 5% of all women.
  • Primary lipodystrophies: A group of rare diseases which involve loss of body fat. The body fat loss may be localized to certain parts of the body or may be generalized depending on the particular subtype.
  • Systemic disorders: Any condition that occurs in a system of the body
  • Type 2 diabetes: Most common diabetes in adults, usually progressing slowly, mostly treated without insulin at diagnosis.
  • Whipple's Disease: Rare malabsorption disease from bacterial digestive infection

 

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