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Diseases » Irritability » Glossary
 

Glossary for Irritability

  • 2-Hydroxyglutaricaciduria: A rare metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of a certain chemical (2-Hydroxyglutaric) which causes a serious progressive neurological disease and damage to the brain. The features of this disorder are variable and some cases are milder than others.
  • 2-Methylbutyric Aciduria: A very rare genetic disorder where an enzyme deficiency prevents the break down of certain proteins into energy and results in a harmful accumulation of acids in the blood and body tissues. More specifically, there is a deficiency of an enzyme (2-methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase) needed to convert the amino acid isoleucine into energy. 2-methylbutyrylglycine levels build up in the body and may cause damage. Symptoms vary according to the degree of enzyme deficiency - can range from asymptomatic to life-threatening.
  • 2-methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: A very rare genetic disorder where an enzyme deficiency prevents the break down of certain proteins into energy and results in a harmful accumulation of acids in the blood and body tissues. More specifically, there is a deficiency of an enzyme (2-methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase) needed to convert the amino acid isoleucine into energy. 2-methylbutyrylglycine levels build up in the body and may cause damage. Symptoms vary according to the degree of enzyme deficiency - can range from asymptomatic to life-threatening.
  • 4-Alpha-hydroxyphenylpyruvate hydroxylase deficiency: A very rare metabolic disorder where a deficiency of a particular enzyme results in the urinary excretion of a chemical called hawkinsin. Symptoms start once the infant is weaned off breast milk.
  • 49,XXXXY syndrome: A rare sex chromosome abnormality where there are three extra copies of the X chromosome.
  • Achrestic anemia: Achrestic anemia is a form of anemia similar to that caused by Vitamin B12 deficiency but it doesn't respond to treatment with Vitamin B12. The condition tends to progress slowly and can result in death if not treated. There are a variety of possible causes.
  • Acid-Base Imbalance: A disruption to the normal acid-base equilibrium in the body. There are four main groups of disorder involving an acid-base imbalance: respiratory acidosis or alkalosis and metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. Obviously the severity of symptoms is determined by the degree of imbalance.
  • Acute Pesticide poisoning -- xylene: Xylene is an ingredient used in certain insecticides. Exposure to the chemical can cause a range of symptoms depending on the level and route of exposure. Exposure can occur through inhalation, ingestion, the skin or eyes. Acute exposure involves a exposure over a short period of time whereas chronic exposure occurs over a longer period of time.
  • Acute insomnia: Insomnia which lasts for one night to a few weeks.
  • Acute leukaemia of ambiguous lineage: A term used to describe a type of leukemia (a blood cancer) where the leukemic cells cannot be determined as myeloid or lymphoid or where both types of cells are present.
  • Acute meningitis: Acute meningitis is an inflammation of the brain that presents in an acute fashion. The inflammation may be the result of infective agents such as bacteria, viruses and fungi as well as non-infective agents such as certain drugs. Acute forms of meningitis can develop in within hours or days whereas chronic meningitis develops over weeks or months.
  • Acute mountain sickness: A condition that occurs when an un-acclimatized person climbs to high altitudes.
  • Acute vitamin A toxicity: Acute ingestion of vitamin A can cause symptoms. Symptoms usually only last for a day or two.
  • Addison's Disease: A rare progressive hormonal disorder characterized by insufficient production of certain hormones called adrenal corticosteroids.
  • Adenophorea Infections: A parasitic roundworm infection. Roundworms can be found in water and soil environments as well as on plants and in animals.
  • Adhesive abuse: Adhesive abuse is the use of various inhalants for the purpose of achieving a "high". They are often used as a cheap, readily available alternative to street drugs but they can cause serious damage to the body. Adhesives include household glues, rubber cement and model aeroplane glue. These adhesives can be abused by sniffing them, spraying directly into the mouth, heating them and then inhaling them or injecting them directly into the body.
  • Adhesive addiction: Adhesive addiction refers to the compulsive need to abuse adhesives (e.g. sniffing them). Sufferers have withdrawal symptoms when attempting to stop the habit and feel unable to stop the habit despite knowing the harm it is causing their health. Aerosols are very damaging to the body and can readily result permanent brain damage and even death. Death can occur through chronic use and in rare cases can occur after one session of use. Children and teenagers are particular at risk for this type of addiction - it is readily available and users feel it gains them greater acceptance from their peers. Adhesives includes household glue, rubber cement and model airplane glue.
  • Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Diseases of the adrenal cortex. Examples includes Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome and adrenal fatigue.
  • Adrenal hyperplasia: A group of disorder that occur when there is a problem in the process of making adrenal corticosteroids.
  • Aerosol abuse: Aerosol abuse is the use of various inhalants for the purpose of achieving a "high". They are often used as a cheap, readily available alternative to street drugs but they can cause serious damage to the body. Aerosols include air fresheners, hair spray, spray pain and deodorants. These aerosols can be abused by sniffing them, spraying directly into the mouth, heating them and then inhaling them or injecting them directly into the body.
  • Aerosol addiction: Aerosol addiction refers to the compulsive need to abuse aerosol (e.g. sniffing them). Sufferers have withdrawal symptoms when attempting to stop the habit and feel unable to stop the habit despite knowing the harm it is causing their health. Aerosols are very damaging to the body and can readily result permanent brain damage and even death. Death can occur through chronic use and in rare cases can occur after one session of use. Children and teenagers are particular at risk for this type of addiction - it is readily available and users feel it gains them greater acceptance from their peers. Aerosols includes spray pain, air freshener, deodorants and hair sprays.
  • African Sleeping sickness: Fly-borne African parasitic disease.
  • Aging brain syndrome: Aging processes in the brain can cause various psychological and neurological symptoms.
  • Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 1: A rare inherited progressive disease that affects the brain and immune system. Type 1 is caused by a defect on chromosome 3p21.3-p21.2.
  • Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 2: A rare inherited progressive disease that affects the brain and immune system. Type 2 is caused by a defect on chromosome 13q14-q21.
  • Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 3: A rare inherited progressive disease that affects the brain and immune system. Type 3 is caused by a defect on chromosome 11q13.2.
  • Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 4: A rare inherited progressive disease that affects the brain and immune system. Type 4 is caused by a defect on chromosome 19p13.13.
  • Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 5: A rare inherited progressive disease that affects the brain and immune system. Type 5 is caused by a defect on chromosome 3p21.3-p21.2.
  • Al Murrah-induced lead poisoning: Al Murrah is a folk remedy used mainly by Saudi Arabian people to treat problems such as stomach pain, diarrhea and colic. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Alarcon-induced lead poisoning: Alarcon is a folk remedy used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Albayaidle-induced lead poisoning: Albayaidle is a folk remedy used mainly by Mexican and Central American people to treat digestive or stomach problems such as vomiting and colic. It is also used to treat apathy and lethargy. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Albayalde-induced lead poisoning: Albayalde is a folk remedy used mainly by Mexican and Central American people to treat digestive or stomach problems such as vomiting and colic. It is also used to treat apathy and lethargy. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Albuterol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Albuterol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Alcoholism: Alcoholism is the compulsive urge to drink alcohol despite knowing the negative impact on one's health.
  • Alkalosis: Blood alkalinity levels too high (opposite of acidosis)
  • Allergic irritability syndrome: Symptoms such as irritability and poor concentration associated with nose, ear and sinus symptoms caused by allergies such as hayfever.
  • Allergic tension-fatigue syndrome: Variable symptoms caused by food allergy.
  • Alpha thalassemia: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal synthesis of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin consists of two main protein chains called alpha and beta. Alpha thalassemia involves defects in one or more of the four genes required to make each ? protein chain. The main symptom is anemia, the severity of which can vary amongst patients depending on how many defective genes are involved.
  • Alpha thalassemia -- Hemoglobin H disease: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal synthesis of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin consists of two main protein chains called alpha and beta. Hemoglobin H disease involves defects in three of the four genes required to make each ? protein chain. The main symptom is moderate to severe anemia.
  • Alpha thalassemia major: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal synthesis of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin consists of two main protein chains called alpha and beta. Alpha thalassemia major is very rare involves defects in all of the four genes required to make each ? protein chain. The condition leads to infant death before or soon after birth.
  • Aminophyllin -- Teratogenic Agent: Experimental studies on rats indicate that the use of Aminophyllin during pregnancy may cause various harmful effects on the fetus. The likelihood and severity of symptoms may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at. The effect on human fetuses has not been conclusively determined.
  • Amphetamine abuse: Use of the stimulant drugs known as amphetamines or "speed"
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: A lack of fully functioning red blood cells due to a deficiency of iron. The iron allows the body to make hemoglobin in red blood cells which in turn allows the red blood cell to carry oxygen.
  • Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts: A bone marrow disease which results in insufficient red blood cells in the blood (anemia). The prognosis is poor with death usually occurring within a couple of years. There are two types: type 1 refers to cases where the level of blasts is less than 10% and type 2 refers to cases where the level of blasts is 10-20%. When too many immature blood cells (blasts) are produced by the bone marrow, the condition may progress to acute myeloid leukemia - occurs in about a quarter of cases in type 1 and a third of cases in type 2.
  • Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts, type 1: A bone marrow disease which results in insufficient red blood cells in the blood (anemia). The prognosis is poor with death usually occurring within a couple of years. Type 1 refers to cases where the level of blasts is less than 10% and type 2 refers to cases where the level of blasts is 10-20%. When too many immature blood cells (blasts) are produced by the bone marrow, the condition may progress to acute myeloid leukemia - occurs in about a quarter of cases in type 1.
  • Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts, type 2: A bone marrow disease which results in insufficient red blood cells in the blood (anemia). The prognosis is poor with death usually occurring within a couple of years. Type 1 refers to cases where the level of blasts is less than 10% and type 2 refers to cases where the level of blasts is 10-20%. When too many immature blood cells (blasts) are produced by the bone marrow, the condition may progress to acute myeloid leukemia - occurs in about a third of cases in type 2.
  • Anemia, hypochromic microcytic: A blood disorder where red blood cells are too small and lack sufficient iron. It can be inherited or caused by insufficient iron in the diet or from a genetic disorder.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 1: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 1 is caused by a defect on chromosome 7q11.2.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 10: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 10 is caused by a defect on chromosome 8q12.1.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 2: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 2 is caused by a defect on chromosome 19q13.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 3: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 3 is caused by a defect on chromosome 1p36.13-p34.3.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 4: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 4 is caused by a defect on chromosome 5p15.2-14.3.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 5: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 5 is caused by a defect on chromosome 2p13.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 6: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are now six different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases an individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 9p21.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 7: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 7 is caused by a defect on chromosome 11q24-q25.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 8: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 8 is caused by a defect on chromosome 14q23.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 9: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 9 is caused by a defect on chromosome 2q33.1.
  • Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension, and fear without apparent stimulus that is associated sometime with somatic responses
  • Anxiety disorders: Anxiety disorders are persistent and excessive feelings of fear, worry or uneasiness that are significant enough to have an impact on day-to-day life. Excessive anxiety can have repercussions on physical and mental health. There are a number of different subtypes of anxiety disorders such as General anxiety, Social anxiety, Phobias, Hypochondria and Obsessive compulsive disorder.
  • Aplastic anemia: A blood disorder where the bone marrow produces insufficient new blood cells.
  • Apnea of prematurity: AOP occurs in infants who are born prematurely (before 34 weeks of pregnancy).
  • Arbovirosis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus. The virus is transmitted by arthropods such as insects and ticks. Examples of arboviruses include Yellow Fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis. The symptoms may vary depending on the type of virus involved. The infection can lead to life-threatening brain inflammation.
  • Arctic bearded seal poisoning: The Arctic Bearded seal is often used as a food source by the arctic inhabitants. Eating the liver and kidneys of the arctic bearded seal can result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases. It is believed that eating more than 100-250 grams of the seal liver can result in human death.
  • Arginase deficiency: A very rare urea cycle disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme (arginase) needed to convert ammonia to the urea which can then be removed in the urine. The condition leads to excess build-up of ammonia in the body which is toxic to the nervous system.
  • Argininosuccinase lyase deficiency, late onset: A rare inherited urea cycle disorder caused by lack of enzymes (argininosuccinase lyase) needed to turn ammonia into urea resulting in excess ammonia in the body. The late onset form of the condition tends to start later in life as there is some level of activity by the defective enzyme. The condition tends to be less severe and can be triggered by a change in diet, illness or some other stress on the body.
  • Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: A rare inborn error of metabolism involving the deficiency of an enzyme (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) needed to process aromatic amino acids. This results in a deficiency of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. The condition manifests as movement and neurological problems.
  • Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: A rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause.
  • Australian Sea Lion poisoning: The Australian Sea Lion is sometimes used as a food source and is found in the South-Southwest waters of Australia. Eating the liver of the Australian Sea Lion can result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases.
  • Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is characterized by an abnormal immune system response which leads to the destruction of red blood cells and hence anemia. The severity of the condition varies depending on the underlying cause e.g. cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, HIV and lupus. The condition may develop gradually or occur suddenly and cause serious symptoms.
  • Autoimmune thyroid disease associated Celiac Disease: Patients with autoimmune thyroid disease are more susceptible to developing celiac disease than the average population. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Autoimmune thyroid diseases: Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland.
  • Azarcon-induced lead poisoning: Azarcon is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Ba Bow Sen-induced lead poisoning: Ba Bow Sen is a folk remedy used mainly by Chinese people to treat childhood hyperactivity and to alleviate nightmares. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Baber's syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by the association of congenital liver cirrhosis with Fanconi syndrome.
  • Bacterial meningitis: Bacterial meningitis is a form of meningitis caused by bacteria that normally lives in the mouth and throat. When the immune system is unable to supress this bacteria, it travels to the cerebrospinal spinal fluid in the brain. From there it affects the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Bali goli-induced lead poisoning: Bali goli (flat black bean) is a folk remedy used mainly by Indian and Asian people to treat intestinal problems. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Barakat syndrome: A rare condition characterized by deafness, kidney disease and insufficiency parathyroid hormone production.
  • Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy: A harmless condition characterized by recurring periods of head tilting resulting from dystonia (sustained muscle contractions) of the neck muscles. Other symptoms such as vomiting and irritability may also occur variably. Episodes tend to occur without any noticeable triggers and may last from hours to days. Episodes can occur as often as every two weeks or as infrequently as every couple of months.
  • Beriberi: Disease due to vitamin B1 deficiency (thiamine)
  • Beta Thalassemia intermedia: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal synthesis of hemoglobin. There are two subtypes of the disorder (alpha and beta) depending on what portion of the hemoglobin is abnormally synthesized. Beta Thalassemia intermedia involves defects in both of the two genes required to make each ? protein chain. The condition causes varying degrees of moderate anemia.
  • Beta thalassemia: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal synthesis of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin consists of two main protein chains called alpha and beta. Beta thalassemia involves defects in one or more of the two genes required to make each ? protein chain. The main symptom is anemia, the severity of which can vary amongst patients depending on how many defective genes are involved.
  • Biliary Atresia: A rare condition that can affect newborns where the bile duct that carries the bile from the liver to the small intestine is blocked or missing.
  • Bing-Neel syndrome: A rare disorder involving infiltration of the central nervous system by abnormal leukemia-like cells (lymphoplasmocytoid cells) that occur in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. The abnormality increases blood viscosity which impairs its circulation through small brain and eye blood vessels.
  • Bint Al Zahab-induced lead poisoning: Bint Al Zahab is a folk remedy used by various ethnic groups (e.g. Indians, Saudi Arabians) to treat infant colic and to facilitate the passage of meconium in newborns. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Bipolar disorder: Cycles of mania and depression; commonly called "manic-depression".
  • Bipolar disorder/cyclothymic disorder/hypomania:
  • Blue Diaper Syndrome: A rare metabolic disorder characterized by vision problems, bluish urine, fever and digestive anomalies.
  • Bokhoor-induced lead poisoning: Bokhoor is a traditional used mainly by Saudi Arabian people to calm infants - it involves burning wood and lead sulphide and inhaling the fumes that are produced. This practice has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to the relatively high exposure to lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Brain Concussion: Trauma resulting in minor injury to the brain which causes a period of interrupted brain function. Simple concussions resolve themselves in about a week whereas more serious ones have persisting symptoms. The onset of symptoms may be delayed.
  • Brain Fag syndrome: A type of neurotic disorder that was first observed in white collar workers in Africa.
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: A rare form of infant lung disease that usually occurs as a complication of ventilator use in premature babies.
  • Brown snake poisoning: The Brown snake is a poisonous Australian snake. They are considered one of the most venomous snakes in the world and their bite can result in death without prompt medical attention. The snake venom contains toxins which affect the blood and nerve systems. Children tend to suffer more severe symptoms due to their smaller body size.
  • Brown-Symmers disease: A rare form of brain inflammation that occurs in children and can quickly lead to death. Symptoms usually start suddenly.
  • Burnout syndrome: Severe stress caused by work-related physical or mental trauma.
  • COPD: Severe obstruction of bronchial air flow typically from bronchitis and/or emphysema.
  • Calcitriol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Calcitriol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 deficiency: A very rare inherited urea cycle disorder where the lack of the enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthetase prevents ammonia from being turned into urea and being excreted in the urine. Excess ammonia builds up in the body which can cause serious complications or even death if left untreated.
  • Cebagin-induced lead poisoning: Cebagin is a folk remedy used mainly by Middle Eastern people to treat teething. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Celiac Disease: Digestive intolerance to gluten in the diet.
  • Central nervous system infections:
  • Central nervous system oxygen toxicity: High oxygen levels which affects the central nervous system. The condition can occur during deep dives with fatal consequences.
  • Central sleep apnea: Central sleep apnea is when the person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep because the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing.
  • Cephalosporin-induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Cephalosporin-induced immune hemolytic anemia is a condition where a use of a medication called Cephalosporin triggers the body's immune system to destroy it's own red blood cells which results in anemia.
  • Cerebellar abscess: An abscess that forms in the part of the brain called the cerebellum. The abscess may result from other infections such as ear infections, dental abscess and lung infections. The prognosis is determined by the size and exact location of the abscess
  • Cerebral abscess: An abscess that forms in the part of the brain called the cerebrum. The abscess may result from other infections such as ear infections, dental abscess and lung infections. The prognosis is determined by the size and exact location of the abscess.
  • Chemical poisoning: Morbid condition caused by chemical.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Baking soda: Baking soda is generally considered non toxic and is used in cooking. However, excessive doses can cause various symptoms.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Benzyl Chloride: Benzyl Chloride is a chemical used mainly in the manufacture of products such as dyes, plastics, tannins, perfumes,. Fuel additives, resins, germicides, rubbers, perfumes photographic developers, wetting agents, drugs and pharmaceuticals. It is also used to produce other chemicals such as benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Borates: Borate is a chemical used in a wide variety of products - herbicides, paints, insecticides, rodenticides and various personal products such as skin creams, toothpastes and powders. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Bromide: Bromide is a chemical used for many applications - flame retardant, industrial uses, pesticides, sanitary products, fumigants, medicines, dyes, photographic solutions and water purification. Bromides act as central nervous system depressants and the ingestion of excessive quantities can cause serious symptoms. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Camphor: Camphor is a chemical used mainly in moth repellents, pharmaceuticals (preservative) cosmetics, explosives, varnishes and various therapeutic applications. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Chlordane: Chlordane is a poison use to control termites - is banned in the US and many other countries due to its harmful effects. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The chemical is readily absorbed through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Ethylbenzene: Ethylbenzene is a chemical used mainly in paint thinners, fuels, asphalt, degreasers, manufacture of various as products and as a solvent. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Glaze: Glazes are used to put a shiny finish on various surfaces such as pottery. Glazes contain chemicals such as lead and zinc oxide which can cause serious symptoms if sufficient quantities are eaten. The chemicals cause damage to the gastrointestinal lining and the damage may continue for weeks after the poison was ingested. Death can result in severe cases. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Manganese: Manganese is a chemical used mainly in fertilizers, welding rods, matches, electrical coils, ceramics and animal food additives. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Metaldehyde: Metaldehyde is a chemical used mainly as a molluscicide, in heating fuel and in fire lighters. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Methacrylate: Methacrylate is a chemical used mainly in plastics, adhesives and bone cements. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Phosphine: Phosphine is a chemical used mainly in pesticides and rodenticides. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Tetrachloroethylene: Tetrachloroethylene is a chemical used mainly as a fabric dry cleaner, degreaser, worming treatment for animals and in the manufacture of freons. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Toluene: Toluene is a chemical used mainly in pesticides, degreasers, glues and pain removers. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Childhood depression: Childhood depression is just as serious as adult depression. However, it is important to recognize that children have unique signs to be aware of when recognizing and diagnosing depression.
  • Childhood-onset bipolar disorder: Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by recurrent episodes of depression, mania, and/or mixed symptom states. These episodes cause unusual and extreme shifts in mood, energy, and behavior that interfere significantly with normal, healthy functioning.
  • Cholestasis: A condition where the bile flow is impaired or completely halted.
  • Choroid Plexus neoplasms: A rare type of brain tumor that originates in the choroids plexus. The choroids plexus is located inside a space in the brain called the ventricles and produces cerebrospinal fluid. Symptoms are determined by the size, type and exact location of the tumor.
  • Chromosome 10p duplication/10q deletion syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where a section of the short arm (p) of chromosome 10 is duplicated and a section of the long arm (q) of chromosome 10 is deleted resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Chromosome 17, deletion 17q23 q24: A rare chromosomal disorder involving deletion of genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 17. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the lost genetic material.
  • Chromosome 19p duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where the short arm of chromosome 19 is duplicated resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Chronic Hepatitis B: Chronic form of HepB liver infection.
  • Chronic constipation: Long term decrease in mass and frequency of bowel motions and difficulty passing bowel motions.
  • Chronic tension headache: Chronic headache affecting the occiput of the head often due to overwork or stress.
  • Chronic vitamin A toxicity: Chronic excessive ingestion of vitamin A can cause symptoms.
  • Chuifong tokuwan-induced lead poisoning: Chuifong tokuwan is a folk remedy used mainly by Asian people to arthritis and other pain. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Citrullinemia: Citrullinemia is an inherited urea cycle disorder which causes toxic substances including ammonia to build up in the blood. There are two main subtypes of Citrullinemia (I and II) which are caused by different genetic abnormalities and result in different symptoms. Milder forms may present in childhood and rare late-onset forms (adult-onset) may not cause symptoms until adulthood.
  • Citrullinemia II: A very rare urea cycle disorder involving a deficiency of the transport compound called Citrin. Citrin transports aspartate to where the enzyme argininosuccinic acid synthase can combine it with citrulline to make argininosuccinic acid. The deficiency prevents ammonia being turned into urea which can then be excreted in the urine. The build up of ammonia in the body can cause harmful effects.
  • Cold Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a condition where the body's immune system triggers the production of antibodies against the body's own red blood cells. The red cells are destroyed at an abnormally rapid rate which leads to anemia. Cold haemolytic anemia is characterized by the fact that the abnormal destruction of red blood cells is more active when the patient is exposed to cold temperatures. The severity of the condition varies depending on the underlying cause. The condition may develop gradually or occur suddenly and cause serious symptoms.
  • Cold antibody hemolytic anemia: A rare autoimmune condition where the body's defense system attacks and destroys red blood cells. The onset of the condition is triggered by temperatures 30°C or lower.
  • Collagenous celiac disease: Collagenous celiac disease is used to describe progressive celiac disease characterized by the presence of a layer of collagen (scarring) in the intestinal layers. This form of celiac disease usually fails to respond to treatments such as gluten-free diets. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The condition usually fails to respond to treatment and has a poor prognosis.
  • Combat stress reaction: A term used in the military which refers to behaviors that result from the stress of fighting in a war.
  • Concussion: Brain injury causing loss of consciousness and bruising of the brain
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): A group of disorder that occur when there is a problem in the process of making adrenal corticosteroids.
  • Congenital herpes simplex: An infant born with a herpes simplex infection transmitted through the mother. The infection may be localized or involve various internal organs and even the central nervous system in which case death can occur.
  • Congenital malaria: Fetal infection with malaria.
  • Congenital spherocytic anemia: Congenital Spherocytic anemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by red blood cells that are shaped like a sphere (spherocytes) rather than the normal doughnut shape. These abnormal cells are broken down prematurely resulting in a shortage of red blood cells (anemia).
  • Congenital spherocytic hemolytic anemia: A blood disorder present at birth where the membranes of red blood cells are defective which results in them being spherical rather than doughnut-shaped. These abnormally shaped red blood cells are broken down prematurely by the body which results in anemia. The condition may range from mild to severe.
  • Congenital sucrose-isomaltose malabsorption: A rare disorder where a congenital deficiency of an enzyme (sucrase-isomaltase) prevents the absorption of sucrase and isomaltose consumed in the diet.
  • Congenital tuberculosis: Fetal infection with tuberculosis
  • Cor Triatriatum: A rare congenital malformation where the heart has three atria instead of the normal two due to the presence of a separating membrane.
  • Cordyceps-induced lead poisoning: Cordyceps is a folk remedy by Chinese people to treat high blood pressure, bleeding problems and diabetes. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Crack withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when cocaine hydrochloride use is discontinued or reduced. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Cryptococcosis: A fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans which primarily affects the central nervous system and the lungs. People with weakened immune systems such as AIDS sufferers are generally more susceptible to this type of infection.
  • Cushing syndrome, familial: A hormonal disorder caused by high levels of the cortisol hormone due to the abnormal development of the adrenal gland.
  • Cushing's disease: A condition of hyperadrenocorticism which is secondary to excessive pituitary secretion of ACTH. Cushing's disease is different to Cushing's syndrome which refers to the effects of glucocorticoid excess from any cause.
  • Cushing's syndrome: A rare syndrome where excessive secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex leads to a variety of symptoms. Hormone-secreting adrenal or pituitary tumors are often the cause of the excessive corticosteroid secretion.
  • Cyclical edema syndrome: Periodic swelling or bloating that occurs in women while they are standing but disappears when they lie down. Excessive aldosterone hormone may cause the problem which tends do become worse in the period leading up to menstruation.
  • Cytochrome c oxydase deficiency, French-Canadian type: A rare, progressive, inherited metabolic disorder where a deficiency of the enzyme cytochrome C oxidase affects skeletal muscles, connective tissue, brain and liver.
  • D-plus hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS): A rare condition where gastroenteritis involving bloody diarrhea is caused by a bacteria (usually E.Coli) which leads to toxins being present in the blood. These circulating toxins affect red blood cells, kidneys and occasionally even the brain.
  • Dancing Eye syndrome: Dancing eye syndrome is a rare neurological condition characterized by abnormal eye movements where the eyes seem to move randomly all over the place. Jerky limb movements are also often present. The severity of the condition and response to treatment varies considerably amongst patients.
  • Dandy Walker syndrome recessive form: A rare recessively inherited brain malformation where a cyst develops in the brain which can interfere with the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid and lead to hydrocephalus. The severity of the condition is variable and symptoms tend to only occur if the fluid builds up inside the skull.
  • Dandy-Walker Syndrome: A congenital brain malformation characterized by increased fluid in the brain.
  • Decreased folate: Decrease in one of the B vitamins required for red blood cell production
  • Decreased serum phosphate: Decreased serum phosphate (or hypophosphatemia) refers to an electrolyte disturbance involving a lower than normal level of phosphate in the blood. This abnormality may in some cases be associated with increased levels of phosphate in the urine but this depends on the underlying cause. The nature and severity of symptoms can vary considerably depending on how low the serum phosphate level is.
  • Dehydratase deficiency: A very rare condition involving a deficiency of the enzyme called dehydratase. It is usually asymptomatic and often associated with high blood phenylalanine levels.
  • Dehydration: Loss of fluids in the body
  • Depression: Various syndromes with excessive anxiety, phobias, or fear.
  • Depressive disorders: Depression or its various related conditions.
  • Deshi Dewa-induced lead poisoning: Deshi Dewa is a folk remedy by Indian people as a fertility medicine. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Developmental delay due to 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: A very rare genetic disorder where an enzyme deficiency prevents the break down of certain proteins into energy and results in a harmful accumulation of acids in the blood and body tissues. More specifically, there is a deficiency of an enzyme (2-methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase) needed to convert the amino acid isoleucine into energy. 2-methylbutyrylglycine levels build up in the body and may cause damage. Symptoms vary according to the degree of enzyme deficiency - can range from asymptomatic to life-threatening.
  • Dexedrine withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when Dexedrine use is discontinued or reduced. Dexedrine is an amphetamine. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence. Symptoms are usually peak during the second day and last about a week.
  • Diabetes: Failing or reduced ability of the body to handle sugars.
  • Diabetes Insipidus: Rare pituitary disorder often affecting the kidneys.
  • Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic: A disturbed water balance due to a deficiency of vasopressin (antidiuretic) hormone which causes excessive thirst and urination. Causes include autoimmune disease, malignancy, trauma, infection and blood vessel disease.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 1: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6p21.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 10: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 10 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10p15.1.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 11: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 11 is linked to a defect on chromosome 14q24.3-q31.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 12: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 12 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q33.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 13: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 13 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q34.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 15: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 15 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q21.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 17: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 17 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10q25.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 18: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 18 is linked to a defect on chromosome 5q31.1-q33.1.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 19: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 19 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q24.3.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 2: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 11p15.5.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 20: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 20 is linked to a defect on chromosome 12q24.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 21: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 21 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q25.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 22: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 22 is linked to a defect on chromosome 3p21.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 23: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 23 is linked to a defect on chromosome 4q27.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 24: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 24 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10q23.31.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 3: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 15q26.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 4: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 11q13.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 5: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q25.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 6: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 6 is linked to a defect on chromosome 18q21.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 7: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 7 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q31.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 8: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 81 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q25-q27.
  • Diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic type 2: A rare congenital condition where the kidney fails to respond to the antidiuretic hormone (arginine vasopressin), thus preventing reabsorption of water. This results in excessive urination and thirst. Type II is specifically caused by a defect in the AQP2 gene on chromosome 12q13.
  • Diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic, dominant type: A rare dominantly inherited, congenital condition where the kidney fails to respond to the antidiuretic hormone (arginine vasopressin), thus preventing reabsorption of water. This results in excessive urination and thirst. The condition is specifically caused by a defect in the AQP2 gene on chromosome 12q13.
  • Diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic, recessive type: A rare recessively inherited, congenital condition where the kidney fails to respond to the antidiuretic hormone (arginine vasopressin), thus preventing reabsorption of water. This results in excessive urination and thirst. The condition is specifically caused by a defect in the AQP2 gene on chromosome 12q13.
  • Diabetic hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar attack from insulin or diabetes medications
  • Diencephalic Syndrome: A condition characterized by dysfunction of the diencphalon of the brain
  • Dilantin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the use of Dilantin (anti-seizure medication) during pregnancy may cause a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Dilaudid withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when Dilaudid use is discontinued or reduced. Dilaudid is a pain-killing drug. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence. Symptoms are usually peak during the second day and last about a week.
  • Dilor -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dilor (a bronchodilator) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Dilutional hyponatremia: Low sodium levels due to excessive fluids.
  • Dipylidiasis: A parasitic intestinal infection caused by a tapeworm called Dipylidium caninum. The parasite commonly infects dogs and cats but can occur in humans. Transmission usually occurs through accidental ingestion of infected cat or dog fleas. Children are more likely to become infected and are also more likely to have symptoms.
  • Disequilibrium syndrome: A complication that can occur during or after dialysis and probably caused by abnormal water balance within the brain. Swelling of the brain causes a range of neurological symptoms.
  • Down's syndrome associated Celiac Disease: Patients with Down's syndrome have a high degree of susceptibility to developing celiac disease. Up to 17% of Down's syndrome sufferers develop celiac disease but this rate varies amongst age groups and country of origin. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Doxepine-induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Doxepine -induced immune hemolytic anemia is a condition where use of a medication called Methyldopa triggers the body's immune system to destroy it's own red blood cells which results in anemia.
  • Drug-induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia is a condition where a medication triggers the body's immune system to destroy its own red blood cells which results in anemia. Certain drugs are more likely to trigger this abnormal immune response than others e.g. cephalosphorins and Quinidine.
  • Drug-related insomnia: Drug related insomnia is sleeplessness that is attributable to the excessive usage of medications.
  • Dyphylline -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dyphylline (a bronchodilator) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Dysomnia: Dysomnia is a general term for sleep disorder. It is a primary sleep disorder in which the patient suffers from changes in the quantity, quality, or timing of sleep.
  • Dysthymia: Mild form of depression
  • Dysthymia/seasonal depression disorder, PND:
  • Earache: Pain in the ear called "otalgia"
  • East African Trypanosomiasis: East African sleeping sickness from the tsetse fly
  • Ecstasy abuse: Use of the illicit drug called ecstasy
  • Electrolyte abnormality: An imbalance in the level of any of a number of chemicals (electrolytes) in the blood stream e.g. chloride, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphate and bicarbonate. Symptoms can vary depending on which electrolyte is involved and the severity of the imbalance - severe cases can readily lead to death. An electrolyte abnormality can be caused by such things excessive loss of body fluid through vomiting or diarrhea, kidney conditions, malabsorption and various drugs such as diuretics and chemotherapy drugs.
  • Encephalitis: Dangerous infection of the brain
  • Encephalitis lethargica: A rare brain disease characterized by fever, headache, lethargy and reduced physical and mental responses. The disease occurred as an epidemic in the 1920's but now occurs sporadically - the exact cause is still not known.
  • Endocardial fibroelastosis: A rare heart disorder characterized by a thickening of the heart muscle lining causing heart enlargement and heart failure.
  • Endogenous insomnia: Insomnia that is often caused by a discomfort within the body ranging from indigestion to pain.
  • Enterovirus antenatal infection: Fetal infection with enterovirus. The condition is extremely rare but infection around the time of birth often results in death or paralysis in survivors. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the exact type of virus involved and at what stage of development the infection occurs.
  • Ethosuximide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ethosuximide (antiseizure medication) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Failure To Thrive: Slow growth or inadequate weight gain of an infant or child.
  • Familial hypopituitarism: Impaired pituitary gland hormone-producing activity that tends to run in families. The failure of the pituitary gland in turn affects other hormone-producing glands which rely on the hormones from the pituitary gland for their activity. Symptoms are determined by the degree and type of hormone deficiency involved.
  • Familial hypothyroidism: Impaired thyroid activity that tends to run in families.
  • Familial infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy -- late infantile: An infantile form of an inherited biochemical disorder involving a deficiency of an enzyme called cerebroside sulfatase. The enzyme deficiency causes cerebroside sulfate to build up within the body and causes damage to the nervous system including the brain. The late infantile form of this disease is much more common than the juvenile or adult form.
  • Farouk-induced lead poisoning: Farouk is a folk remedy by Saudi Arabian people to treat teething. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Folic acid toxicity: Excessive consumption of folic acid can cause symptoms of toxicity.
  • Food Additive Adverse reaction -- MSG: An intolerance to MSG is an adverse reaction (not an immune response) by the body to a food additive called MSG which is used in a number of foods. The adverse reaction results from the body's inability to metabolize or deal with the food additive. The amount of the substance required to trigger the onset of symptoms and the nature and severity of symptoms may vary considerably between patients.
  • Food Additive Adverse reaction -- amines: An intolerance to amines is an adverse reaction (not an immune response) by the body to amines which are found naturally in foods such as bananas, pineapples, vegetables, red wine, citrus fruit and many other foods. The adverse reaction results from the body's inability to metabolize or deal with the substance. The amount of the substance required to trigger the onset of symptoms and the nature and severity of symptoms may vary considerably between patients.
  • Food Additive Adverse reaction -- food additives: An intolerance to food additives is an adverse reaction (not an immune response) by the body to food additives. The adverse reaction results from the body's inability to metabolize or deal with the food additive. The amount of the substance required to trigger the onset of symptoms and the nature and severity of symptoms may vary considerably between patients.
  • Food Additive Adverse reaction -- salicylate: An intolerance to salicylates is an adverse reaction (not an immune response) by the body to salicylates which is an ingredient in aspirin but is also found naturally in various fruit, vegetables, herbs and spices. The adverse reaction results from the body's inability to metabolize or deal with the salicylate. The amount of the substance required to trigger the onset of symptoms and the nature and severity of symptoms may vary considerably between patients.
  • Food Additive Adverse reaction -- sulfite: An intolerance to sulfites is an adverse reaction (not an immune response) by the body to sulfites which is often used as a preservative in a variety of foods and medications including meats, salads and dried fruits. The adverse reaction results from the body's inability to metabolize or deal with the sulfite. The amount of the substance required to trigger the onset of symptoms and the nature and severity of symptoms may vary considerably between patients.
  • Fungal meningitis: Fungal meningitis is an infection that causes swelling and irritation of the tissue around the brain and spinal cord. It usually strikes people whose weakened immune systems can't fight off infection. The disease is not common. but it can be very serious.
  • GTP cyclohydrolase deficiency: A rare metabolic disorder caused by an enzyme deficiency (GTP cyclohydrolase) which causes a harmful build up of phenylalanine in the blood.
  • Galactosemia I: A rare inherited disorder where deficiency of a particular enzyme (galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase) prevents the metabolism of galactose which is a sugar component of milk. Ranges from milk intolerance in mild cases to death in severe untreated cases.
  • Generalised anxiety disorder: Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension or fear.
  • Generalized anxiety disorder: Excessive anxiety and worrying.
  • Ghasard-induced lead poisoning: Ghasard is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Asian and Indian people as a tonic (usually for indigestion). This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Glutamate decarboxylase deficiency: A rare disorder of amino acid metabolism characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme called glutamate decarboxylase which causes seizures that will only respond to pyridoxine (vitamin B6).
  • Gluten allergy: Gluten allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to gluten or foods containing gluten. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients from a severe anaphylactic reaction to asthma, abdominal symptoms, eczema or headaches. Gluten allergy is similar to celiac disease - celiac disease only occurs in people with a genetic defect which predisposes them to the condition whereas gluten can occur in anyone but is more common in people who are also prone to other allergies.
  • Glycogen storage disease type 1C: A genetic metabolic disorder involving a deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (due to a defect in the microsomal phosphate) which results in the accumulation of glycogen in various tissues. G6P is stored as glycogen until the body needs to convert it to a sugar for energy. The enzyme deficiency prevents the conversion and hence low blood sugar levels result.
  • Glycogen storage disease type 1D: A genetic metabolic disorder involving a deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (due to a defect in the microsomal glucose transporter) which results in the accumulation of glycogen in various tissues. G6P is stored as glycogen until the body needs to convert it to a sugar for energy. The enzyme deficiency prevents the conversion and hence low blood sugar levels result.
  • Graeck-Imerslund disease:
  • Grasbeck-Imerslund Disease: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Graves Disease: is an autoimmune disease characterized by hyperthyroidism due to circulating autoantibodies. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs) bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors, causing the thyroid gland to grow and the thyroid follicles to increase synthesis of thyroid hormone.
  • Greta-induced lead poisoning: Greta is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Guarana overuse: The consumption of high doses of guarana can cause symptoms.
  • Hai Ge Fen-induced lead poisoning: Hai Ge Fen is clamshell powder used mainly by Chinese people to make traditional Chinese herbal medicines. This product has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Hangover: Condition following excessive alcohol consumption.
  • Head injury: An injury to the head
  • Helminthiasis: Infection of the human body with a parasitic worm such as roundworms and pinworms. The worms usually only involve the intestinal tract but sometimes they may invade other organs. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the type of worm and the part of the body infected.
  • Hemangioblastoma: A benign tumor that tends to occur in the central nervous system such as the brain and spinal cord. The tumor arises from the stem cells that develop into blood vessels or blood cells (hemangioblasts). Symptoms vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 1: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 8q34.3.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 2: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1q32.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 3: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 4q25.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 4: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 6p21.3.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 5: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 19p13.3-p13.2.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 6: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 20p11.2.
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome: A rare condition characterized by acute kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia (reduced blood platelet count). The condition is often caused by upper respiratory infections or infectious diarrhea.
  • Hemophagocytic reticulosis: The abnormal proliferation of reticulum cell (histiocytes) which infiltrate various organs and. Macrophages destroy blood cells causing blood abnormalities. Meningoencephalitis frequently occurs when the histiocytes infiltrate the mininges and cerebral tissue. Symptoms start at birth or soon after and become progressively worse without treatment. Medication can control the condition but a hematopoietic stem cell transplant is needed to achieve remission.
  • Henna-induced lead poisoning: Henna is used mainly by Middle Eastern people as a hair and skin dye. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Hepatorenal tyrosinemia: A rare genetic metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of particular enzymes which prevents the breakdown of tyrosine which then builds up in the liver. Type 1 involves a deficiency of the enzyme fumaril acetoacetate hydrolase.
  • Heroin withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when heroin use is discontinued or reduced. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Herpes, Neonatal: Neonatal herpes is the infection of a newborn with the herpes virus within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions.
  • Herpes, Neonatal -- Central Nervous System Infection: Central nervous system herpes infection in neonates is a herpes infection of the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord) that develops in infants within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions. Central nervous system infection will occur in nearly three quarters of infants with a herpes infection.
  • Herpes, Neonatal -- Disseminated: Disseminated neonatal herpes is a widespread infection of a newborn with the herpes virus within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions. Brain infection will occur in over half of infants with the disseminated form.
  • Huntington's Disease: Inherited disease causing progressive mental deterioration.
  • Hydranencephaly: A very rare condition where fluid replaces a portion of the brain.
  • Hydrocephalus: A rare condition where the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid is impaired by dilated brain ventricles which causes the fluid to accumulate in the skull and hence result in increased brain pressure.
  • Hydrocephalus autosomal recessive: A rare, recessively inherited disorder where there is an abnormal buildup of fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) inside the skull.
  • Hydrocodone withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when Hydrocodone use is discontinued or reduced. Hydrocodone is pain-killing drug. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence. Symptoms are usually peak during the second day and last about a week.
  • Hymenolepiasis: A rare parasitic disease caused by a tapeworm called Hymenolepis nana or Hymenlepis dimunita. Infestation occurs through fecal contamination or by accidentally consuming insects that have eaten the parasitic eggs.
  • Hymenolepsis diminuta infection: A tapeworm infection caused by Hymenolepsis diminuta that is relatively common in rodents but can rarely cause infection in humans. Insects such as fleas and beetles are intermediate hosts and transmission to humans can result from accidentally swallowing infected arthropods. Symptoms tend to only occur in children or in patients with a relatively heavy infestation.
  • Hymenolepsis nana infection: A tapeworm infection caused by Hymenolepsis nana that is relatively common in house mice but can cause infection in humans. Insects such as fleas and beetles are intermediate hosts and transmission to humans can result from accidentally swallowing infected arthropods. Transmission can also occur through ingestion of infected fecal matter. Symptoms tend to only occur in children or in patients with a relatively heavy infestation.
  • Hypergonadotropic ovarian failure: Premature onset of menopause - occurs before the fourth decade -average age of onset of menopause is about 50 years of age. The condition can occur sporadically or may be inherited in a familial manner.
  • Hypergonadotropic ovarian failure, familial or sporadic: A rare disorder where the ovaries fail to function prematurely. Ovarian failure can occur in the 20's or 30's. Normal ovarian failure occurs during menopause. Premature ovarian failure can be caused by a genetic mutation and can occur sporadically or in a familial pattern.
  • Hypernatraemia: increased concentration of sodium in the blood
  • Hypernatremia: Increased blood sodium levels. Can be caused by excessive sodium levels but is more often a result of low water levels in the body.
  • Hyperostosis cortical infantile: A rare inflammatory disorder that affects bones and soft tissue in infants. The condition may affect virtually any bone and causes excessive enlargement of part of the bone (cortex). Infant feeding problems may occur if the jaw bone is affected which can affect weight gain. The inflammatory course of the disease eventually stops and over time the bones remodel to a normal appearance.
  • Hyperoxia: A high level of oxygen in body tissues. It can be caused by exposure to high atmospheric pressure or long term inhalation of high oxygen concentrations. The high levels of oxygen may affect the lungs, nervous system or the eyes and thus can result in varying symptoms.
  • Hypertension due to coarctation of the aorta: Hypertension due to coarctation of the aorta is high blood pressure resulting from a birth defect where a heart blood vessel called the aorta is abnormally narrowed. The high blood pressure tends to affect mainly the upper part of the body. Babies and very young children tend to have more severe symptoms as the degree of narrowing tends to be greater than in older children or adults.
  • Hypertension in children: Hypertension in children is a condition in which a child has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hypertension in children from 11 through adolescence: Hypertension in children from 11 through adolescence refers to a child between the ages of 11 years through adolescence who has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hypertension in children one to ten years: Hypertension in children one to ten years refers to a child between the ages of one to ten years who has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hypertension in children under one year: Hypertension in children under one year is a condition in which a child under the age of one year has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypervitaminoses A and D: The excessive physiological effect of vitamin A or D cause by excessive intake of the vitamins
  • Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar level
  • Hypoglycemic attack: Sudden onset of low blood sugar levels
  • Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: A rare inherited muscle condition characterized by periods of severe muscle weakness or paralysis which can last from hours to days. Episodes can occur as often as daily or only rarely.
  • Hypomagnesemia primary: Low blood magnesium levels which is caused by the abnormal absorption and excretion of the mineral and can be caused by such things as kidney problems and intestinal malabsorption.
  • Hypophosphatasia: A rare genetic disorder characterized by short limbs, dwarfism and general lack of bone calcification.
  • Hypophosphatemia: Low blood phosphate levels. Causes include malnourishment, chronic alcoholism excessive carbohydrate consumption, malabsorption, phosphaturia, liver failure, respiratory alkalosis and certain genetic disorders.
  • Hypopnea syndrome: Hypopnea Syndrome is a condition in which an individual experiences severe shallow breathing or a slow rate of airflow during sleep.
  • Hypothalamic hamartomas: A benign congenital tumor that develops on or near the hypothalamus.
  • Ichthyohepatotoxication: Ichthyohepatotoxication is a condition caused by eating the liver of certain fish. It is believed that the high vitamin A content of the liver leads to vitamin A overdose and the resulting symptoms. Tropical shark livers are associated with this condition.
  • Idiopathic alveolar hypoventilation syndrome: A rare condition characterized by a reduced breathing rate despite no respiratory system abnormalities. The cause of the condition is unknown.
  • Idiopathic edema: A condition involving salt retention that isn't a result of impaired heart, kidney or liver function.
  • Inborn amino acid metabolism disorder: A group of inherited disorders where the body is not able to metabolize amino acids consumed in the diet. Amino acids are a part of carbohydrates, fats and proteins and are metabolized in order to provide energy or to make other needed compounds. There are many steps involved in metabolism and the severity can be greatly variable depending on the exact nature of the disorder.
  • Inborn urea cycle disorder: A genetic disorder involving a deficiency of one of the enzymes needed in the urea cycle. The urea cycle is the process of removing ammonia from blood stream by converting it to urea and excreting it via urine. A build-up of ammonia in the blood is toxic to the body and can cause serious brain damage. The progressively severe symptoms usually become obvious within the first few weeks of birth. Nevertheless, mild or partial enzyme deficiencies may cause little or no symptoms or symptoms that don't start until later in life.
  • Infantile polymyoclonus: A rare disorder characterized by involuntary muscle jerking and rapid eye movements. The condition is not progressive and symptoms go through periods of improvement and deterioration.
  • Infantile sleep apnea: Apnea of infancy occurs in children who are younger than 1 year old and who were born after a full-term pregnancy.
  • Inhalant abuse: Inhalant abuse is the use of various inhalants for the purpose of achieving a "high". They are often used as a cheap, readily available alternative to street drugs but they can cause serious damage to the body. Inhalants include gasoline, adhesives, solvents, and aerosols. These inhalants can be abused by sniffing them, spraying directly into the mouth, heating them and then inhaling them or injecting them directly into the body.
  • Inhalant addiction: Inhalant addiction refers to the compulsive need to abuse inhalants (e.g. inhaling them). Sufferers have withdrawal symptoms when attempting to stop the habit and feel unable to stop the habit despite knowing the harm it is causing their health. Inhalants are very damaging to the body and can readily result permanent brain damage and even death. Death can occur through chronic use and in rare cases can occur after one session of use. Children and teenagers are particular at risk for this type of addiction - it is readily available and users feel it gains them greater acceptance from their peers. Inhalants includes glues, shoe polish, household cleaners, room deodorizers and nail polish removers.
  • Inherited Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A condition which is characterized by thrombotic microangiography occurring with renal failure, hemolytic anemia and severe thrombocytopenia
  • Inherited spherocytic anemia: Inherited Spherocytic anemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by red blood cells that are shaped like a sphere (spherocytes) rather than the normal doughnut shape. These abnormal cells are broken down prematurely resulting in a shortage of red blood cells (anemia).
  • Insomnia: Insomnia is defined as repeated difficulty with the initiation, duration, maintenance, or quality of sleep that occurs despite adequate time and opportunity for sleep that results in some form of daytime impairment.
  • Intrinsic factor, congenital deficiency of: A very rare disorder where a deficiency of a protein called intrinsic factor prevents vitamin B12 from being absorbed from the stomach. Thus, vitamin B12 deficiency occurs which leads to anemia.
  • Iron deficiency: When there is a deficiency of iron in the body
  • Jin Bu Huan-induced lead poisoning: Jin Bu Huan is a folk remedy used mainly by Chinese people to treat pain. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma: A type of brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. The tumor is derived from a type of cell called an astrocyte and it can occur in various parts of the brain as well as the optic pathways and the spinal cord. Malignancy is rare. Symptoms may vary depending on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Kandu-induced lead poisoning: Kandu (red powder) is a folk remedy used mainly by Asian and Indian people to treat intestinal problems. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Kleine-Levin Syndrome: Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterized by recurring periods of excessive amounts of sleep and altered behavior.
  • Kohl-induced lead poisoning: Kohl is a folk remedy used mainly by various ethnic groups (e.g. Africans, Asians, Indians and Pakistanis) to treat skin infections and to manage the umbilical stump. It is also used as a cosmetic in Arab communities. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Krabbe leukodystrophy: A rare inherited biochemical disorder involving the deficiency of an enzyme called galactocerebrosidase. It is a leukodystrophy which refers to a group of genetic disorders that affect the growth of the protective coating around the brain nerves.
  • Krabbé Disease: Brain myelin disorder with various symptoms.
  • Kushta-induced lead poisoning: Kushta is a folk remedy used mainly by Indian and Pakistani people as an aphrodisiac and to treat diseases involving organs such as the liver, brain, heart and stomach. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lamictal -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lamictal during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Lamotrigine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lamotrigine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Lead poisoning -- African Folk Remedies -- Kohl: Kohl is a folk remedy used mainly by African people to treat skin infections and to manage the umbilical stump. It is also used as a cosmetic in Arab communities. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- African Folk Remedies -- Surma: Surma is a black powder used as a cosmetic as well as a folk remedy by African people to treat teething. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Aisan Folk Remedies -- Chuifong tokuwan: Chuifong tokuwan is a folk remedy used mainly by Asian people to arthritis and other pain. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Asian Folk Remedies -- Bali goli: Bali goli (flat black bean) is a folk remedy used mainly by Asian people to treat intestinal problems. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Asian Folk Remedies -- Deshi Dewa: Deshi Dewa is a folk remedy by Asian people as a fertility medicine. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Asian Folk Remedies -- Ghasard: Ghasard is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Asian and Indian people as a tonic (usually for indigestion). This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Asian Folk Remedies -- Kandu: Kandu (red powder) is a folk remedy used mainly by Asian people to treat intestinal problems. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Asian Folk Remedies -- Kohl: Kohl is a folk remedy used mainly by Asian people to treat skin infections and to manage the umbilical stump. It is also used as a cosmetic in Arab communities. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Asian Folk Remedies -- Pay-loo-ah: Pay-loo-ah is a folk remedy used mainly by Vietnamese people to treat fever and rash. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Asian Folk Remedies -- Surma: Surma is a black powder used as a cosmetic as well as a folk remedy by Asian people to treat teething. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Chinese Folk Remedies -- Ba Bow Sen: Ba Bow Sen is a folk remedy used mainly by Chinese people to treat childhood hyperactivity and to alleviate nightmares. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Chinese Folk Remedies -- Cordyceps: Cordyceps is a folk remedy by Chinese people to treat high blood pressure, bleeding problems and diabetes. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Chinese Folk Remedies -- Hai Ge Fen: Hai Ge Fen is clamshell powder used mainly by Chinese people to make traditional Chinese herbal medicines. This product has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Chinese Folk Remedies -- Jin Bu Huan: Jin Bu Huan is a folk remedy used mainly by Chinese people to treat pain. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Chinese Folk Remedies -- Po Ying Tan: Po Ying Tan is a folk remedy used mainly by Chinese people to treat minor childhood complaints. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Chinese Folk Remedies -- Rueda: Rueda is a lead-containing folk remedy used mainly by Chinese people to treat infant colic or to calm young children. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Folk Remedies: A number of folk remedies have the potential to cause lead poisoning due to their relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. The high content of lead in some folk remedies can cause symptoms of lead poisoning which can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Hispanic Folk Remedies -- Alarcon: Alarcon is a folk remedy used mainly by Hispanic people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Hispanic Folk Remedies -- Azarcon: Azarcon is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Hispanic people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Hispanic Folk Remedies -- Coral: Coral is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Hispanic people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Hispanic Folk Remedies -- Greta: Greta is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Hispanic people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Hispanic Folk Remedies -- Liga: Liga is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Hispanic people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Hispanic Folk Remedies -- Luiga: Luiga is a folk remedy used mainly by Hispanic people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Hispanic Folk Remedies -- Maria Luisa: Maria Luisa is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Hispanic people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Indian Folk Remedies -- Deshi Dewa: Deshi Dewa is a folk remedy by Indian people as a fertility medicine. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Indian Folk Remedies -- Kandu: Kandu (red powder) is a folk remedy used mainly by Indian people to treat intestinal problems. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Indian Folk Remedies -- Kohl: Kohl is a folk remedy used mainly by Indian people to treat skin infections and to manage the umbilical stump. It is also used as a cosmetic in Arab communities. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Indian Folk Remedies -- Kushta: Kushta is a folk remedy used mainly by the Indian people as an aphrodisiac and to treat diseases involving organs such as the liver, brain, heart and stomach. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Indian Folk Remedies -- Surma: Surma is a black powder used as a cosmetic as well as a folk remedy by Indian people to treat teething. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Iranian Folk Remedies -- Bint Al Zahab: Bint Al Zahab is a folk remedy used mainly by Iranian people to treat infant colic and to facilitate the passage of meconium in newborns. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Kuwait Folk Remedies -- Bokhoor: Bokhoor is a traditional used mainly by Kuwait people to calm infants - it involves burning wood and lead sulphide and inhaling the fumes that are produced. This practice has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to the relatively high exposure to lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Loas Folk Remedies -- Pay-loo-ah: Pay-loo-ah is a folk remedy used mainly by the Hmong people from Loas to treat fever and rash. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Mexican Folk Remedies -- Alarcon: Alarcon is a folk remedy used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Mexican Folk Remedies -- Albayaidle: Albayaidle is a folk remedy used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems such as vomiting and colic. It is also used to treat apathy and lethargy. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Mexican Folk Remedies -- Albayalde: Albayalde is a folk remedy used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems such as vomiting and colic. It is also used to treat apathy and lethargy. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Mexican Folk Remedies -- Azarcon: Azarcon is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Mexican Folk Remedies -- Coral: Coral is a folk remedy used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Mexican Folk Remedies -- Greta: Greta is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Mexican Folk Remedies -- Liga: Liga is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Mexican Folk Remedies -- Luiga: Luiga is a folk remedy used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Mexican Folk Remedies -- Maria Luisa: Maria Luisa is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Middle East Folk Remedies -- Surma: Surma is a black powder used as a cosmetic as well as a folk remedy by Middle East people to treat teething. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Middle Eastern Folk Remedies -- Alkohl: Alkohl is a folk remedy used mainly by Middle Eastern people to treat skin infections and to manage the umbilical stump. It is also used as a cosmetic in Arab communities. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Middle Eastern Folk Remedies -- Anzroot: Anzroot is a folk remedy used mainly by Middle Eastern people to treat gastroenteritis. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Middle Eastern Folk Remedies -- Cebagin: Cebagin is a folk remedy used mainly by Middle Eastern people to treat teething. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Middle Eastern Folk Remedies -- Henna: Henna is used mainly by Middle Eastern people as a hair and skin dye. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Middle Eastern Folk Remedies -- Kohl: Kohl is a folk remedy used mainly by Middle Eastern people to treat skin infections and to manage the umbilical stump. It is also used as a cosmetic in Arab communities. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Middle Eastern Folk Remedies -- Saoot: Saoot is a folk remedy used mainly by Middle Eastern people to treat digestive eye injuries, teething and to manage the umbilical stump in newborns. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Pakistan Folk Remedies -- Kohl: Kohl is a folk remedy used mainly by Pakistani people to treat skin infections and to manage the umbilical stump. It is also used as a cosmetic in Arab communities. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Pakistan Folk Remedies -- Kushta: Kushta is a folk remedy used mainly by the Pakistani people as an aphrodisiac and to treat diseases involving organs such as the liver, brain, heart and stomach. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Pakistan Folk Remedies -- Surma: Surma is a black powder used as a cosmetic as well as a folk remedy by Pakistani people to treat teething. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Pakistani eye cosmetics: Exposure to lead can result from the use of Pakistani eye cosmetics contaminated with lead. The most frequent cases have been noted in children as they are more sensitive to the effects of lead. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Lead poisoning -- Saudi Arabian Folk Remedies -- Al Murrah: Al Murrah is a folk remedy used mainly by Saudi Arabian people to treat problems such as stomach pain, diarrhea and colic. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Saudi Arabian Folk Remedies -- Bint Dahab: Bint Dahab is a folk remedy used mainly by Saudi Arabian people to treat such things as constipation, diarrhea, colic and various other infant conditions. It is also used by Saudi Arabian jewelers. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Saudi Arabian Folk Remedies -- Bokhoor: Bokhoor is a traditional used mainly by Saudi Arabian people to calm infants - it involves burning wood and lead sulphide and inhaling the fumes that are produced. This practice has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to the relatively high exposure to lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Saudi Arabian Folk Remedies -- Farouk: Farouk is a folk remedy by Saudi Arabian people to treat teething. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Saudi Arabian Folk Remedies -- Santrinj: Santrinj is a paint primer but is also used as a folk remedy mainly by Saudi Arabian people to treat teething and gum boils. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Saudi Folk Remedies -- Traditional Saudi medicine: Traditional Saudi medicine is a folk remedy used mainly by Saudi people to treat teething and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lead poisoning -- Tamarind candy: Eating tamarind candy jam products made in Mexico can lead to exposure to lead as the product is often packaged in lead-containing containers which can leach lead. The most frequent cases have been noted in children as they are more sensitive to the effects of lead. Elevated levels of lead in the blood can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Lead poisoning -- Tibetan Folk Remedies -- Tibetan herbal vitamin: Tibetan herbal vitamin is a folk remedy used mainly by Tibetan people to improve brain functioning. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Learning disabilities: Various developmental problems impairing learning or schooling.
  • Leigh syndrome, French Canadian type: A rare, progressive, inherited metabolic disorder where a deficiency of the enzyme cytochrome C oxidase affects skeletal muscles, connective tissue, brain and liver.
  • Leigh syndrome, Saguenay-Lac-St. Jean type: A rare, progressive, inherited metabolic disorder where a deficiency of the enzyme cytochrome C oxidase affects skeletal muscles, connective tissue, brain and liver.
  • Letterer-Siwe disease: A rare usually fatal condition characterized by skin lesions, bleeding tendency, enlarged liver and spleen, enlarged lymph nodes and progressive anemia. The condition is caused by excessive proliferation of histiocytes.
  • Leukomalacia: Softening or destruction of the white matter of the brain. Brain tissue that surrounds fluid-filled parts of the brain (ventricles) is destroyed. It tends to occur mainly in premature or newborn babies who have been deprived of oxygen or have poor blood flow to parts of the brain. Intrauterine infections and premature membrane rupture tend to predispose infants to this condition. This type of brain destruction can cause cerebral palsy. Severity of symptoms varies according to the degree of injury to the brain.
  • Liga-induced lead poisoning: Liga is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Lortab withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when Lortab use is discontinued or reduced. Lortab is a pain-killer and cough reliever. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence. Symptoms are usually peak during the second day and last about a week.
  • Lufyllin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lufyllin (a bronchodilator) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Luiga-induced lead poisoning: Coral is a folk remedy used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Macrocytic anemia: Macrocytic anemia is a blood disorder where the red blood cells are larger than normal but have low levels of haemoglobin which is needed to carry oxygen throughout the body. The condition usually results from a deficiency of vitamin B12 or folate, digestive problems, malabsorption and certain medications which affect folic acid levels. Various rare inherited disorders may also result in macrocytic anemia e.g. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Severity and range of symptom may vary depending on the underlying condition.
  • Magnesium wasting renal: A rare genetic syndrome characterized mainly by excessive loss of magnesium in the urine due to kidney problems.
  • Maria Luisa-induced lead poisoning: Maria Luisa is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Marijuana withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when marijuana use is discontinued or reduced. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Medulloblastoma: A type of brain tumor.
  • Megaloblastic Anemia 1: A rare genetic blood disorder where a defect in the vitamin B12 receptor means that it can't be absorbed from food during digestion. As a result of the low vitamin B12 levels, the body produces increased numbers of abnormal enlarged red blood cells (megaloblasts).
  • Megaloblastic anemia: A rare blood disorder where insufficient vitamin B12 absorption results in reduced production of red blood cells and increased levels of abnormal, enlarged red blood cells (megaloblasts). Vitamin B12 insufficiency can result from absorption problems or lack of dietary intake of the vitamin or folic acid.
  • Meningitis: Dangerous infection of the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Meningococcal disease: Dangerous bacterial infection causing meningitis or bacteremia.
  • Menkes Disease: Genetic disease of copper deficiency.
  • Menopause: The end of female menstruation and fertility.
  • Metabolic encephalopathy: Metabolic encephalopathy is temporary or permanent damage to the brain due to lack of glucose, oxygen or other metabolic agent, or organ dysfunction.
  • Methamphetamine withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when methamphetamine use is discontinued or reduced. Methamphetamines are often called speed, meth, crystal or crank. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Methyldopa-induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Methyldopa-induced immune hemolytic anemia is a condition where use of a medication called Methyldopa triggers the body's immune system to destroy it's own red blood cells which results in anemia.
  • Methylphenidate -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Methylphenidate during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Middle ear infection: Infection of middle ear also called otitis media.
  • Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Mild brain injury caused by trauma, accident or injury
  • Mixed apnea: Mixed apnea is a combination of central and obstructive apnea and is seen particularly in infants or young children who have abnormal control of breathing.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia: A group of conditions that is characterised by the hyperplasia and hyperfunction of two or more glands of the endocrine system
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 3: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Myelofibrosis-osteosclerosis: Formation of fibrous tissue in the bone marrow in response to bone marrow damage.
  • Neonatal hepatitis: A liver inflammation that occurs during the first few months of an infant's life.
  • Neonatal tetanus: Muscle tetanus of the very young infant
  • Neuroectodermal tumor, primitive: A very rare type of tumor that occurs in children under the age of ten. It is very aggressive and has a poor prognosis with less than half of patients surviving. The tumor originates from primitive nerve cells in the brain (CNS PNET) or other parts of the body (peripheral PNET). CNS tumors can be further divided into infratentorial tumors (e.g. medulloblastoma) or supratentorial tumors. The tumors usually cause no symptoms in the early stages and the symptoms that do develop will vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Neurosyphilis: A complication of untreated syphilis where the infection invades the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and causes a range of neurological symptoms. The condition can be life-threatening but some cases are asymptomatic. There are four forms of the condition: asymptomatic, meningovascular, tabes dorsalis and general paresis.
  • Non-diarrheal (D-) HUS syndrome: A rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that is not associated with diarrhea which means that it is not a result of bacterial gastroenteritis. This form of hemolytic uremic syndrome may be caused by kidney transplants, certain drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, cytotoxic drugs), pregnancy, malignancy, HIV, non-diarrheal bacterial infections, immunological conditions or it may be inherited or in some cases there is no obvious cause (idiopathic).
  • Non-hereditary spherocytic anemia: Non-inherited spherocytic anemia is an acquired blood disorder characterized by red blood cells that are shaped like a sphere (spherocytes) rather than the normal doughnut shape. These abnormal cells are broken down prematurely resulting in a shortage of red blood cells (anemia). The blood condition may result from such things as acute, widespread burns to the body, low blood phosphate levels, Zieve's syndrome and toxins from poisonous snakes, spiders and insects.
  • Nyssen-Van Bogaert syndrome: An adult form of an inherited biochemical disorder involving a deficiency of an enzyme called cerebroside sulfatase. The enzyme deficiency causes cerebroside sulfate to build up within the body and causes damage to the nervous system including the brain.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- ammunition production: Exposure to lead can occur in people employed as ammunition makers if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- battery manufacturing: Exposure to lead can occur in people employed in the battery manufacturing industry if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- brass foundry: Exposure to lead can occur in people employed in the brass foundry industry if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- ceramic production: Exposure to lead can occur in people employed in the ceramic production industry if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- explosives production: Exposure to lead can occur in people employed in the explosives production industry if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- furniture refinishing: Exposure to lead can occur in people employed in the furniture refinishing industry if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- lead glass factory: Exposure to lead can occur in people employed in lead glass factories if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- lead mine: Exposure to lead can occur in people employed in lead mines if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- lead smelting: Exposure to lead can occur in people employed in the lead smelting industry if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- painter: Exposure to lead can occur in painters if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- pottery making: Exposure to lead can occur in people involved in pottery making if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- radiator repair: Exposure to lead can occur in people employed in the radiator repair industry. The soldering required to repair the radiator can lead to the lead exposure if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- ship building: Exposure to lead can occur in people employed in the ship building industry if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- ship repairing: Exposure to lead can occur in people employed in the ship repairing industry if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Occupational lead exposure -- smelting: Exposure to lead can occur in people employed in the smelting industry if adequate precautions are not taken. Lead exposure can cause elevated levels of lead in the blood which in turn can cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of the exposure.
  • Opsoclonus Myoclonus: Condition with involuntary muscle and eye movement.
  • Organic mood syndrome: Persistant mood changes due to physical causes such as a chemical imbalance rather than psychiatric causes. The duration and severity of the condition is determined by the nature and location of the cause.
  • Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency: A rare metabolic disorder where a deficiency of the enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase means that nitrogen isn't removed from the body and builds up in the blood in the form of ammonia.
  • Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) Deficiency: A rare metabolic disorder where a deficiency of the enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase means that nitrogen isn't removed from the body and builds up in the blood in the form of ammonia.
  • Oxycontin addiction: Oxycontin is a commonly prescribed pain killer which is recognized as carrying a high risk of addiction. Initial use of the drug may be to control chronic pain but patients may find themselves increasingly dependent on the drug and unable to stop its use. Other cases of addiction may occur when people deliberately and illegally misuse Oxycontin as a recreational drug.
  • Pay-loo-ah-induced lead poisoning: Pay-loo-ah is a folk remedy used mainly by the Hmong people from Loas to treat fever and rash. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Peganone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Peganone (an anticonvulsant drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Pellagra: Dietary deficiency of vitamin B3 (niacin)
  • Penicillin-induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Penicillin-induced immune hemolytic anemia is a condition where use of a medication called Penicillin triggers the body's immune system to destroy it's own red blood cells which results in anemia.
  • Perinatal hypophosphatasia: An inherited bone disorder due to an inborn error of metabolism characterized by a severe deficiency of alkaline phosphate which results in death before or within days of birth.
  • Pernicious anemia: Pernicious anemia is a blood disorder where the body is unable to use it properly use Vitamin B12 to make red blood cells.
  • Persistent anxiety: Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension or fear.
  • Pheniramine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Pheniramine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Phenylketonuria: A metabolic disorder where there is a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase which leads to a harmful buildup of the phenylalanine in the body. Normally the phenylalanine is converted into tyrosine. The severity of the symptoms can range from severe enough to cause mental retardation to mild enough not to require treatment. Severity is determined by the level of impairment of enzyme activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase.
  • Po Ying Tan-induced lead poisoning: Po Ying Tan is a folk remedy used mainly by Chinese people to treat minor childhood complaints. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Poikilocytic anemia: Poikilocytic anemia refers a blood disorder characterized by abnormally shaped red blood cells. The abnormal red blood cells may be destroyed prematurely resulting in anemia. The severity of the anemia and hence the severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Polar bear poisoning: Polar bears are often used as a food source by the arctic inhabitants. Eating the liver and kidneys of the polar bear is believed to result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases. Eating more than 200 grams of Polar bear liver can result in human death however death is considered rare.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Phenytoin: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Phenytoin (an anticonvulsant medication) has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Zidovudine: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Zidovudine (an anti-HIV drug) has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder: Stress following a traumatic event.
  • Postconcussive syndrome: Symptoms that can occur following a head injury.
  • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a diagnosis used to indicate serious premenstrual distress with associated deterioration in functioning.
  • Premenstrual syndrome: Condition with cyclic symptoms related to menstruation.
  • Primary Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Primary autoimmune hemolytic anemia is characterized by an abnormal immune system response. The body's immune system produces antibodies against the body's own red blood cells which leads to the destruction of red blood cells and hence anemia. The secondary form of the condition is the result of an underlying condition such as lupus or hepatitis whereas the primary form has no underlying condition.
  • Primary Cold Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Primary cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a condition where the body's immune system triggers the production of antibodies against the body's own red blood cells. The process occurs only when the patient is exposed to temperatures colder the average body temperature. The red cells are destroyed at an abnormally rapid rate which leads to anemia. The primary form of the condition means that there is no underlying condition. The condition may develop gradually or occur suddenly and cause serious symptoms.
  • Primary insomnia: Primary insomnia is sleeplessness that is not attributable to a medical, psychiatric, or environmental cause.
  • Primidone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Primidone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Problem Sleepiness: Problem daytime drowsiness.
  • Promethazine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Promethazine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Protozoan infections: A condition which is characterized by an infection caused by protozoans
  • Psychiatric disorders associated Celiac Disease: Patients with Psychiatric disorders are more susceptible to developing celiac disease than the average population. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Psychological addiction: Psychological addiction refers to the lack of willpower in fighting against a compulsive need for something i.e. a mental dependence rather than a physical dependence. The addiction stems from psychological or emotional factors. Psychological addictions may involve addictions to drugs, sex, shopping and just about anything else. A person finds themselves unable to resist the source of their addiction.
  • Psychoneurosis: Neuroses is characterized by anxiety, depression, or other feelings of unhappiness or distress that are out of proportion to the circumstances of a person's life.
  • Puberty: Sexual and physical maturation in adolescents
  • Puerperal psychosis: An acute mental illness which occurs to a mother following childbirth
  • Pyle disease: A rare genetic disorder characterized by numerous bone abnormalities as well as loss of vision and hearing.
  • Pyridoxine deficiency: Deficiency of vitamin B6 which has many uses in the body.
  • Quinidine-induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Quinidine-induced immune hemolytic anemia is a condition where use of a medication called Methyldopa triggers the body's immune system to destroy it's own red blood cells which results in anemia.
  • Rabies: An infectious disease that can affect any mammal including humans and is transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal. The infectious agent is the Neurotropic lyssavirus which affects the salivary gland and also causes neurological symptoms.
  • Refractory Celiac Disease: Refractory Celiac Disease is celiac disease that fails to respond to treatment which involves a gluten-free diet. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The condition is quite uncommon and often the resulting poor absorption of nutrients from the intestines leads to a poor prognosis.
  • Respiratory acidosis: Respiratory acidosis is acidosis (abnormally increased acidity of the blood) due to decreased ventilation of the pulmonary alveoli, leading to elevated arterial carbon dioxide concentration.
  • Reye's Syndrome: A syndrome in children recovering from infection and associated with aspirin.
  • Ringed seal poisoning: The Ringed seal is often used as a food source by the arctic inhabitants. Eating the liver of the ringed seal can result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases.
  • Ritter syndrome: A rare infantile skin disorder involving severe redness, inflammation, blistering and peeling of skin and mucous membranes which can result from a variety of infections, malignancies and drugs.
  • Roseola infantum: Contagious infant conditions
  • Rueda-induced lead poisoning: Rueda is a lead-containing folk remedy used mainly by Chinese people to treat infant colic or to calm young children. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • SBCAD deficiency: A very rare genetic disorder where an enzyme deficiency prevents the break down of certain proteins into energy and results in a harmful accumulation of acids in the blood and body tissues. More specifically, there is a deficiency of an enzyme (2-methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase) needed to convert the amino acid isoleucine into energy. 2-methylbutyrylglycine levels build up in the body and may cause damage. Symptoms vary according to the degree of enzyme deficiency - can range from asymptomatic to life-threatening.
  • Santrinj-induced lead poisoning: Santrinj is a paint primer but is also used as a folk remedy mainly by Saudi Arabian people to treat teething and gum boils. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Saoot-induced lead poisoning: Saoot is a folk remedy used mainly by Middle Eastern people to treat digestive eye injuries, teething and to manage the umbilical stump in newborns. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Scurvy: Severe disease from vitamin C deficiency
  • Secondary Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Secondary autoimmune hemolytic anemia is characterized by an abnormal immune system response. The body's immune system produces antibodies against the body's own red blood cells which leads to the destruction of red blood cells and hence anemia. The secondary form of the condition is the result of an underlying condition such as lupus or hepatitis whereas the primary form has no underlying condition. The condition may develop gradually or occur suddenly and cause serious symptoms.
  • Secondary Cold Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Secondary cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a condition where the body's immune system triggers the production of antibodies against the body's own red blood cells. The process occurs only when the patient is exposed to temperatures colder the average body temperature. The red cells are destroyed at an abnormally rapid rate which leads to anemia. The secondary form of the condition means that it is the result of an underlying condition - it usually occurs after some sort of infection. The condition may develop gradually or occur suddenly and cause serious symptoms.
  • Secondary insomnia: Secondary insomnia differs from primary insomnia in that a specific condition can be identified as the cause of the sleep problem and should be evaluated by a physician.
  • Selected Encephalitides: Selected conditions which cause inflammation of the brain
  • Selective Vitamin B12 malabsorption with Proteinuria: A rare genetic blood disorder where a defect in the vitamin B12 receptor means that it can't be absorbed from food during digestion. As a result of the low vitamin B12 levels, the body produces increased numbers of abnormal enlarged red blood cells (megaloblasts).
  • Selenium -- overuse: Excessive use of selenium can case various adverse symptoms.
  • Serotonin Syndrome: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Shaken Baby Syndrome: A condition caused by violent shaking of a baby.
  • Sickle Cell Anemia: Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by red blood cells which are crescent-shaped rather than the normal doughnut shape. These abnormally shaped red blood cells are unable to function normally and tend to undergo premature destruction which leads to anemia. If the genetic defect which causes the condition is inherited from both parents the condition can be quite severe whereas if it is inherited from only one parent, often there are no symptoms. The abnormally shaped red blood cells can cause problems when they clump together and block blood vessels.
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Syndromes involving the cessation of breathing during sleep. Examples include obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea. The condition may range from mild to severe.
  • Sleep apnea: Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Sleep disorders: Any disorder that affects ones sleep
  • Smoking Cessation:
  • Solvent abuse: Solvent abuse is the use of various inhalants for the purpose of achieving a "high". They are often used as a cheap, readily available alternative to street drugs but they can cause serious damage to the body. Solvents include nail polish removers, paint thinners, gasoline, typing correction fluid and toxic markers. These solvents can be abused by sniffing them, spraying directly into the mouth, heating them and then inhaling them or injecting them directly into the body.
  • Solvent addiction: Solvent addiction refers to the compulsive need to abuse solvents (e.g. sniffing them). Sufferers have withdrawal symptoms when attempting to stop the habit and feel unable to stop the habit despite knowing the harm it is causing their health. Solvents are very damaging to the body and can readily result permanent brain damage and even death. Death can occur through chronic use and in rare cases can occur after one session of use. Children and teenagers are particular at risk for this type of addiction - it is readily available and users feel it gains them greater acceptance from their peers. Solvents includes paint thinner, toxic markers, gasoline, cigarette lighter fluid, typing correction fluid and nail polish removers.

 

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