Assessment
Questionnaire

Have a symptom?
See what questions
a doctor would ask.
 
Diseases » Kidney Dialysis » Symptoms
 

Symptoms of Kidney Dialysis

Kidney Dialysis: Complications

Review medical complications possibly associated with Kidney Dialysis:

Kidney Dialysis Symptoms: Book Excerpts

Research More About Kidney Dialysis

Do I have Kidney Dialysis?

Kidney Dialysis: Undiagnosed Conditions

Diseases that may be commonly undiagnosed in related medical areas:

Home Diagnostic Testing

Home medical tests related to Kidney Dialysis:

Kidney Dialysis: Research Doctors & Specialists

Research all specialists including ratings, affiliations, and sanctions.

More about symptoms of Kidney Dialysis:

More information about symptoms of Kidney Dialysis and related conditions:

Medical Books Online about Kidney Dialysis

Medical Books Excerpts Excerpts of published medical book chapters related to Kidney Dialysis are available from published medical books for more detailed information about Kidney Dialysis.

Medical Books Excerpts
 

Copyright notice for book excerpts: Copyright © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved.

Symptoms of Kidney Dialysis: Online Medical Books

16 MEDICAL BOOKS ONLINE! Review excerpts from medical books online, free, without registration, for more information about the symptoms of Kidney Dialysis.


Acute renal failure: Signs and Symptoms
(Professional Guide to Diseases (Eighth Edition))

Oliguria, azotemia, anuria, electrolyte imbalances, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation, stomatitis, uremic breath, headache, drowsiness, irritability, confusion, neuropathy, seizures, coma, pruritus, pallor, heart failure, edema

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Professional Guide to Diseases (Eighth Edition), 2005

Chronic renal failure: Signs and symptoms
(Professional Guide to Diseases (Eighth Edition))

Chronic renal failure produces major changes in all body systems:

Renal and urologic: Initially, salt-wasting and consequent hyponatremia produce hypotension, dry mouth, loss of skin turgor, listlessness, fatigue, and nausea; later, somnolence and confusion develop. As the number of functioning nephrons decreases, so does the kidneys’capacity to excrete sodium, resulting in salt retention and overload. Accumulation of potassium causes muscle irritability, then muscle weakness as the potassium level continues to rise. Fluid overload and metabolic acidosis also occur. Urinary output decreases; urine is very dilute and contains casts and crystals.

Cardiovascular: Renal failure leads to hypertension, arrhythmias (including life-threatening ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation), cardiomyopathy, uremic pericarditis, pericardial effusion with possible cardiac tamponade, heart failure, and periorbital and peripheral edema.

Respiratory: Pulmonary changes include reduced pulmonary macrophage activity with increased susceptibility to infection, pulmonary edema, pleuritic pain, pleural friction rub and effusions, crackles, thick sputum, uremic pleuritis and uremic lung (or uremic pneumonitis), dyspnea due to heart failure, and Kussmaul’s respirations as a result of acidosis.

GI: Inflammation and ulceration of GI mucosa cause stomatitis, gum ulceration and bleeding and, possibly, parotitis, esophagitis, gastritis, duodenal ulcers, lesions on the small and large bowel, uremic colitis, pancreatitis, and proctitis. Other GI symptoms include a metallic taste in the mouth, uremic fetor (ammonia smell to breath), anorexia, nausea, and vomiting.

Cutaneous: Typically, the skin is pallid, yellowish bronze, dry, and scaly. Other cutaneous symptoms include severe itching; purpura; ecchymoses; petechiae; uremic frost (most often in critically ill or terminal patients); thin, brittle fingernails with characteristic lines; and dry, brittle hair that may change color and fall out easily.

Neurologic: Restless leg syndrome, one of the first signs of peripheral neuropathy, causes pain, burning, and itching in the legs and feet, which may be relieved by voluntarily shaking, moving, or rocking them. Eventually, this condition progresses to paresthesia and motor nerve dysfunction (usually bilateral footdrop) unless dialysis is initiated. Other signs and symptoms include muscle cramping and twitching, shortened memory and attention span, apathy, drowsiness, irritability, confusion, coma, and seizures. EEG changes indicate metabolic encephalopathy.

Endocrine: Common endocrine abnormalities include stunted growth patterns in children (even with elevated growth hormone levels), infertility and decreased libido in both sexes, amenorrhea and cessation of menses in females, and impotence, decreased sperm production, and testicular atrophy in males. Increased aldosterone secretion (related to increased renin production) and impaired carbohydrate metabolism (increased blood glucose levels similar to diabetes mellitus) may also occur.

Hematopoietic: Anemia, decreased red blood cell (RBC) survival time, blood loss from dialysis and GI bleeding, mild thrombocytopenia, and platelet defects occur. Other problems include increased bleeding and clotting disorders, demonstrated by purpura, hemorrhage from body orifices, easy bruising, ecchymoses, and petechiae.

Skeletal: Calcium-phosphorus imbalance and consequent parathyroid hormone imbalances cause muscle and bone pain, skeletal demineralization, pathologic fractures, and calcifications in the brain, eyes, gums, joints, myocardium, and blood vessels. Arterial calcification may produce coronary artery disease. In children, renal osteodystrophy (renal rickets) may develop.

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Professional Guide to Diseases (Eighth Edition), 2005

Renal failure, acute: Signs and symptoms
(Handbook of Diseases)

Acute renal failure is a critical illness. Its early signs are oliguria, azotemia and, rarely, anuria. Electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, and other severe effects follow as the patient becomes increasingly uremic and renal dysfunction disrupts other body systems:

GI — anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation, stomatitis, bleeding, hematemesis, dry mucous membranes, uremic breath

central nervous system (CNS) — headache, drowsiness, irritability, confusion, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, coma

cutaneous — dryness, pruritus, pallor, purpura; rarely, uremic frost

cardiovascular — early in the disease, hypotension; later, hypertension, arrhythmias, fluid overload, heart failure, systemic edema, anemia, altered clotting mechanisms

respiratory — Kussmaul’s respirations, pulmonary edema.

Fever and chills indicate infection, a common complication.

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Handbook of Diseases, 2003

Renal failure, chronic: Signs and symptoms
(Handbook of Diseases)

Chronic renal failure produces major changes in all body systems.

Renal and urologic changes

Initially, salt-wasting and consequent hyponatremia produce hypotension, dry mouth, loss of skin turgor, listlessness, fatigue, and nausea. Later, somnolence and confusion develop.

As the number of functioning neph-rons decreases, so does the kidneys’ capacity to excrete sodium, resulting in sodium retention and overload. Accumulation of potassium causes muscle irritability and then muscle weakness as the potassium level continues to rise.

Fluid overload and metabolic acidosis also occur. Urine output decreases; urine is very dilute and contains casts and crystals.

Cardiovascular changes

Renal failure leads to hypertension and arrhythmias, including life-threatening ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Other effects include cardiomyopathy, uremic pericarditis, pericardial effusion (and possibly cardiac tamponade), heart failure, and peripheral edema.

Respiratory changes

Pulmonary changes include reduced pulmonary macrophage activity with increased susceptibility to infection, pulmonary edema, pleuritic pain, pleural friction rub and effusions, uremic pleuritis, and uremic lung (or uremic pneumonitis). Dyspnea from heart failure also occurs, as do Kussmaul’s respirations as a result of acidosis.

GI changes

Inflammation and ulceration of GI mucosa cause stomatitis, gum ulceration and bleeding and, possibly, parotitis, esophagitis, gastritis, duodenal ulcers, lesions on the small and large bowel, uremic colitis, pancreatitis, and proctitis. Other GI signs and symptoms include a metallic taste in the mouth, uremic fetor (ammonia smell to breath), anorexia, nausea, and vomiting.

Cutaneous changes

Typically, the skin is pallid, yellowish bronze, dry, and scaly. Other cutaneous signs and symptoms include severe itching; purpura; ecchymoses; petechiae; uremic frost (most common in critically ill or terminal patients); thin, brittle fingernails with characteristic lines; and dry, brittle hair that may change color and fall out easily.

Neurologic changes

Restless leg syndrome, one of the first symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, causes pain, burning, and itching in the legs and feet, which may be relieved by voluntarily shaking, moving, or rocking them. Eventually, this condition progresses to paresthesia and motor nerve dysfunction (usually bilateral footdrop) unless dialysis is initiated.

Other signs and symptoms include muscle cramping and twitching, shortened memory and attention span, apathy, drowsiness, irritability, confusion, coma, and seizures. EEG changes indicate metabolic encephalopathy.

Endocrine changes

Common endocrine abnormalities include stunted growth in children (even with elevated growth hormone levels), infertility and decreased libido in both sexes, amenorrhea and cessation of menses in women, and impotence and decreased sperm production in men. Other changes include increased aldosterone secretion (related to increased renin production) and impaired carbohydrate metabolism (causing increased blood glucose levels similar to those found with diabetes mellitus).

Hematopoietic changes

Anemia, decreased red blood cell (RBC) survival time, blood loss from dialysis and GI bleeding, mild thrombocytopenia, and platelet defects occur. Other problems include increased bleeding and clotting disorders, demonstrated by purpura, hemorrhage from body orifices, easy bruising, ecchymoses, and petechiae.

Skeletal changes

Calcium-phosphorus imbalance and consequent parathyroid hormone imbalances cause muscle and bone pain, skeletal demineralization, pathologic fractures, and calcifications in the brain, eyes, gums, joints, myocardium, and blood vessels. Arterial calcification may produce coronary artery disease. In children, renal osteodystrophy (renal rickets) may develop.

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Handbook of Diseases, 2003

Medical articles and books on symptoms:

These general reference articles may be of interest in relation to medical signs and symptoms of disease in general:

About signs and symptoms of Kidney Dialysis:

The symptom information on this page attempts to provide a list of some possible signs and symptoms of Kidney Dialysis. This signs and symptoms information for Kidney Dialysis has been gathered from various sources, may not be fully accurate, and may not be the full list of Kidney Dialysis signs or Kidney Dialysis symptoms. Furthermore, signs and symptoms of Kidney Dialysis may vary on an individual basis for each patient. Only your doctor can provide adequate diagnosis of any signs or symptoms and whether they are indeed Kidney Dialysis symptoms.

 

By using this site you agree to our Terms of Use. Information provided on this site is for informational purposes only; it is not intended as a substitute for advice from your own medical team. The information on this site is not to be used for diagnosing or treating any health concerns you may have - please contact your physician or health care professional for all your medical needs. Please see our Terms of Use.

Home | Symptoms | Diseases | Diagnosis | Videos | Tools | Forum | About Us | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Site Map | Advertise