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Diseases » Kwashiorkor » Glossary
 

Glossary for Kwashiorkor

  • Achalasia: A rare motor disorder of the esophagus characterized by inability of the lower esophageal sphincter and esophageal muscle to relax as well as dilation of the esophagus.
  • Adult ADHD: Adult ADHD, (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder with an onset in childhood that continues into adulthood. Children do not simply grow out of ADHD, as is often believed. Just the opposite is commonly true - the symptoms of ADHD often get worse as a child grows into adulthood. The predominant behaviors of adult ADHD are the same as in children and include:
    • Inattentiveness
    • Hyperactivity
    • Impulsivity

    These behaviors result in difficulties with:

    • Concentration
    • Remaining focused on a task or activity
    • Controlling behavior
    • Hyperactivity or over-activity

    The symptoms of adult ADHD can be treated, but there currently is no cure for the disorder. Most people with ADHD can be successfully treated and lead normal, productive lives at home, work, school and with friends and family. The cause or causes of ADHD are not yet known, although researchers believe that genes may be one factor in the development of the disease. It is most likely that the disorder is the result of a combination of elements, including environmental factors, traumatic head injuries, nutrition, and social influences.

  • Alcoholism: Alcoholism is the compulsive urge to drink alcohol despite knowing the negative impact on one's health.
  • Alzheimer disease 10: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 10 is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 10p13.
  • Alzheimer disease 12: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 12 is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 8p12-q22.
  • Alzheimer disease 13: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q21. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 14: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q25. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 15: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 3q22-q24. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 16: Alzheimer disease 16 (late-onset) is a form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome Xq21.3. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 2, late-onset: Alzheimer disease 2 (late-onset) is a form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 19q13.2. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 3, (early-onset Alzheimer disease): Alzheimer disease 3 is an early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 14q24.3. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 5: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 5 has a late onset and is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 12p11.
  • Alzheimer disease 6: A genetic form of Alzheimer's. Type 6 has a late onset and is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 10q24.
  • Alzheimer disease 7: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 7 is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 10p13.
  • Alzheimer disease 8: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 8 is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 20p.
  • Alzheimer disease 9: A genetic form of Alzheimer's. Type 9 has a late onset and is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 19p13.2.
  • Alzheimer disease, early-onset, with cerebral amyloid angiopathy: An early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 21q21. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial, 1: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 21q. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial, 11: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 9p22.1. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial, 3, with spastic paraparesis and apraxia: This form of Alzheimer's is an early-onset form of Alzheimer's that is linked to a defect on chromosome 14q24.3. It is characterized by features which are atypical for Alzheimer's - spastic paraparesis which occurs before the dementia symptoms and apraxia. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial, 3, with spastic paraparesis and unusual plaques: This form of Alzheimer's is an early-onset form of Alzheimer's that is linked to a defect on chromosome 14q24.3. It is characterized by features which are atypical for Alzheimer's - spastic paraparesis which occurs before the dementia symptoms and unusual plaques in the brain. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial, 4: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q31-q42. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Amphetamine abuse: Use of the stimulant drugs known as amphetamines or "speed"
  • Amyloidosis AL: A disease involving the abnormal deposit of amyloid fibrils in virtually any part of the body - the heart, liver, kidney and peripheral and autonomic nerves are most commonly affected. The abnormal amyloid fibrils are produced abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow. In some cases, the excess growth of abnormal plasma cells can result in a cancerous condition called myeloma resulting in bone pain and infections. A patient with myeloma may develop amyloidosis but it is rare for a patient with AL amyloidosis to go on to develop myeloma.
  • Anisocytosis: Variation in red blood cell size, commonly seen in anaemia
  • Anorexia Nervosa: A disorder where a distorted sense of body image leads to self-starvation to the point of death in some cases.
  • Autoimmune enteropathy: A very rare condition that occurs when the body's own immune system attacks the intestinal wall and affect the way it absorbs food.
  • Beriberi: Disease due to vitamin B1 deficiency (thiamine)
  • Blind loop syndrome: A rare intestinal defect where there is a small loop in the intestines that allow digesting material to enter but not exit. The symptoms are variable depending on the size and location of the pouch.
  • Boyd-Stearns syndrome: A rare syndrome associated with various metabolic disorders such as glycosuria, acidosis, albuminuria and hypochloremia. Symptoms include rickets during infancy, short stature, low blood phosphate levels, malnutrition and osteoporosis.
  • Brinton disease: Thickening and hardening of the stomach wall usually associated with diffuse stomach cancer or damage due to the consumption of caustic soda.
  • Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer is malignant cancer of the cervix uteri or cervical area
  • Chronic liver disease: Any form of chronic liver disease
  • Chylomicron Retention Disease: A rare condition characterized by the inability of the intestines to absorb fats from the diet which cause failure to thrive in infants.
  • Classic galactosemia: Rare serious genetic defect in galactose metabolism.
  • Cocaine addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use cocaine on a regular basis. Chronic cocaine use can lead to dependency in as little as two weeks. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Cocaine fetopathy: Cocaine use during pregnancy resulting in various birth defects and other abnormalities.
  • Color blindness: Difficulty distinguishing colors; various subtypes
  • Congenital microvillous atrophy: A birth disorder involving a defect in the cells lining the intestines which results in watery diarrhea from birth which can be life threatening if not treated.
  • Congenital short bowel: A rare birth defect where the bowel is abnormally short. A short bowel can impair the body's ability to absorb enough nutrients and hence result in malabsorption.
  • Congenital sucrose-isomaltose malabsorption: A rare disorder where a congenital deficiency of an enzyme (sucrase-isomaltase) prevents the absorption of sucrase and isomaltose consumed in the diet.
  • Crack addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use crack on a regular basis. Chronic crack use can lead to dependency in as little as two weeks. Crack is a form of cocaine - powdered cocaine is heated with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate to make rocks of crack. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Cutaneous photosensitivity colitis, lethal: A very rare syndrome where extreme sun sensitivity of the skin is associated with difficult to treat diarrhea. Death often occurs during infancy.
  • Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease affecting the exocrine (mucus) glands of the lungs, liver, pancreas, and intestines, causing progressive disability due to multisystem failure.
  • Dehydration: Loss of fluids in the body
  • Delayed puberty: A lack of sexual maturation in an adolescent at an age significantly higher than the average age that child of that epidemiology attains puberty.
  • Dermatomyositis: A muscle disease characterized by chronic muscle inflammation resulting in progressive muscle weakness and a characteristic rash.
  • Diarrhea 2, with Microvillous Atrophy: A rare congenital condition characterized by diarrhea resulting form a defect in small intestine.
  • Down's Syndrome associated Alzheimer's disease: Early-onset Alzheimer's is more prevalent in Down's Syndrome sufferers than in the general population. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Duplication 13: A rare and very severe chromosome disorder leading to mental retardation and physical defects. It is so severe that many babies die soon after birth. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is duplicated.
  • Early-onset Alzheimer's: Early-onset Alzheimer's is a form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to genetic defects or occurs in a familial pattern. It is not as common as the non-inherited form of Alzheimer's - occurs in up to 90% of Alzheimer sufferers. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Ecstasy addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use ecstasy on a regular basis. Chronic ecstasy use can lead to dependency in as little as two weeks. Ecstasy is a synthetic psychoactive drug often used as a recreational drug. Street names for the drug includes: XTC, Adam, Clarity, Lover's Speed, Hug, Beans and Love Drug. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Edema: Fluid retention in tissues
  • Electrolyte imbalance: impairment in the level of electrolytes in the body
  • Epidermalolysis bullosa: A group of skin disorders characterized by fragile skin which can blister upon little or no trauma to the skin. There are a number of different subtypes with some being inherited and some acquired. The hands and feet are often the main parts of the body affected.
  • Epidermolysis bullosa, junctional: A rare inherited skin disease which is characterized by fragile skin which readily forms skin blisters and can result in fatal complications.
  • Epidermolysis bullosa, simplex: A group of skin disorders characterized by fragile skin which can blister upon little or no trauma to the skin. There are a number of different subtypes with some being inherited and some acquired. The hands and feet are often the main parts of the body affected.
  • Epidermolytic epidermolysis bullosa: A group of skin disorders characterized by fragile skin which can blister upon little or no trauma to the skin. There are a number of different subtypes with some being inherited and some acquired. The hands and feet are often the main parts of the body affected.
  • Erythrodermic eczema: Erythrodermic eczema is a severe condition that results from worsening eczema.
  • Familial Forms of Alzheimer's Disease: Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour. Familial forms of the disease tend to run in families and are linked to mutations on various genes. Chromosome 1, 14 19 and 21 are the main chromosomes where mutations resulting in Alzheimer's are located..
  • Finnish nephrosis syndrome: A rare inherited disorder where the kidney's ability to filter is defective and results in excessive protein in the urine, failure to thrive and malnutrition.
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A rare kidney disorder involving scarring of parts of the kidney filtering system which affects kidney function. It usually occurs for no apparent reason but can result from kidney damage caused by illicit drug use, certain viral infections and HIV.
  • Follicular hamartoma -- alopecia -- cystic fibrosis: A rare syndrome characterized by small benign growths that develop in hair follicles, alopecia and cystic fibrosis.
  • Gastrointestinal amyloidosis: Amyloidosis is a rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage. In gastrointestinal amyloidosis, amyloid deposits occur in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Hereditary amyloidosis: An inherited form of amyloidosis which is characterized by a build up of the protein amyloid in tissues and organs. This form of amyloidosis tends to affect mainly the nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the amyloid deposits.
  • Heroin dependence: The physical and psychological dependence to the recreational drug heroin
  • Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Rare condition of excessive vomiting during pregnancy
  • Hyperpigmentation: Excess skin pigment or coloration
  • Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar level
  • Hypothermia: Low body temperature
  • Immune symptoms: Symptoms affecting the immune system
  • Intestinal epithelial dysplasia: A rare intestinal disorder characterized by defects in the intestinal lining which results in severe chronic diarrhea usually soon after birth. Parenteral nutrition is usually required long term which can result in various complications and thus an intestinal transplant is usually recommended in severe cases.
  • Intestinal pseudo-obstruction: A digestive disorder where the intestines are unable to contract normally and push food through the digestive system. This results in symptoms similar to an obstruction and hence the name pseudo-obstruction. The walls of the affected gastrointestinal tract becomes thin and the muscles that control its motion start to degenerate.
  • Intractable diarrhea with enterocytes assembly abnormalities, congenital, familial: An inherited disorder characterized by severe, chronic diarrhea in infants due to defects in the intestinal absorptive cells called enterocytes.
  • Juvenile tropical pancreatitis syndrome: A disease that tends occurs in tropical developing countries. It involves calcification and chronic inflammation of the pancreas. The condition tends to affect mainly young people.
  • Kwashiorkor: A malnutrition state that is produced by severe protein deficiency
  • Late-onset Alzheimer's: Late-onset Alzheimer's is a form of Alzheimer's disease that doesn't appear to be linked to any genetic defects or familial pattern. It is by far the most common form of Alzheimer's - occurs in up to 90% of Alzheimer sufferers. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Lethargy: feeling of tiredness
  • Marasmus: A form of malnutrition caused by a severe deficiency of both protein and calories
  • Mesenteric artery syndrome: A rare condition where a part of the duodenum is compressed by the mesenteric artery which results in duodenal obstruction.
  • Microsporidiosis: An infectious disease caused by a certain group of protozoa which form spores (microsporidia) e.g. Encephalitozoon, Enterocytozoon, Nosema, Pleistophora, Trachipleistophora, Vittaforma, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Enterocytozoan )Septata) intestinalis). The protozoa invade and live inside the hosts cells. The release spores into the gastrointestinal tract where they are excreted and can infect other animals. The infection is often asymptomatic in healthy people but can cause serious symptoms affecting various parts of the body in immunocompromised people.
  • Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy syndrome: A rare genetic disorder which affects a number of body systems and manifests results in symptoms such as droopy eyelids, progressive eye muscle weakness, gastrointestinal dysmotility, brain disease, thin body, peripheral neuropathy and muscle disease.
  • Muscle weakness: A condition which is characterized by an inability of the muscles to function at their full strenght
  • Narcotic addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use narcotics on a regular basis. The drug may be used as a therapeutic medication for various conditions but it's use is also frequently abused. Examples of narcotic drugs include heroin, morphine, Demerol and codeine. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Nephrotic syndrome: Various kidney glomeruli conditions
  • Nutritional deficiency: Any deficiency of the nutrients that are required to sustain human life
  • Obal syndrome: The association of eye problems with severe malnutrition. The condition occurred frequently in soldiers, prisoners of war and people in concentration camps.
  • Oesophageal spasm: An oesophageal spasm is incoordinated contraction of the muscles in the esophagus which carries food from the mouth to the stomach. The muscles contract simultaneously instead of a rhythmic successive motion.
  • Opioid addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use opioids on a regular basis. Opioids may may be prescribed by a physician for the purpose of pain relief but patients may become physically dependent on the drug and continue to obsessively use it even after the condition it was prescribed for has resolved. In other cases, opioid addiction results from the illicit use of the drug for recreational purposes. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling. Examples of opioids includes morphine, heroin, oxycodone and fentanyl.
  • Opisthorchiasis: Infection with a type of fluke (Southeast Asian liver fluke or cat liver fluke). Infection usually occurs by consuming infected undercooked fish. Acute infection may cause fever, joint pain, rash, eosinophilia and lymphadenopathy where as chronic infections may cause enlarged liver, malnutrition. Mild cases can cause constipation, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Occasionally, the infection may be asymptomatic and in the other extreme, severe cases may result in complications such as cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Opium addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use opium on a regular basis. Opium may may be prescribed by a physician for the purpose of pain relief but patients may become physically dependent on the drug and continue to obsessively use it even after the condition it was prescribed for has resolved. In other cases, opium addiction results from the illicit use of the drug for recreational purposes. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Pancreatic Islet Cell Cancer: A malignant carcinoma that is located in the islet cells of the pancreas
  • Pancreatic insufficiency: Impaired pancreatic functioning. The pancreas does not produce sufficient digestive enzymes to properly digest lipids and proteins. Pancreatic insufficiency may be caused by such things as pancreatic cancer, cystic fibrosis, pancreatic resection and chronic pancreatitis.
  • Patau syndrome: A condition characterised by autosomal trisomy
  • Polyneuropathy -- Ophthalmoplegia -- Leukoencehalopathy -- Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction: A rare genetic disorder which affects a number of body systems and manifests results in symptoms such as droopy eyelids, progressive eye muscle weakness, gastrointestinal dysmotility, brain disease, thin body, peripheral neuropathy and muscle disease.
  • Poor growth: Poor body growth or delayed physical development.
  • Prescribed medication addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use prescribed medication in a manner or frequency not prescribed. Drugs such as painkillers are prescribed to treat such things as pain but patients may become physically dependent on the drug and continue to obsessively use it even after the condition it was prescribed for has resolved. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Protein deficiency:
  • Relapsing fever: Tick-borne disease with symptoms that resolve and then relapse
  • Right parietal lobe syndrome related Alzheimer's disease: Right parietal lobe syndrome related Alzheimer's disease is a variant of Alzheimer's disease that involves abnormalities in a particular part of the brain. It is characterized by Alzheimer's symptoms as well as problems with such things as construction (making things) and drawing as well as denial of their disabilities. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Rumination disorder: A chronic eating condition where the stomach contents are regurgitated, rechewed and swallowed again. It tends to occur predominantly in infants, young children and people with mental impairment but it can occur in otherwise healthy individuals. Sufferers often try to hide their condition for fear of being diagnosed as having bulimia. The condition is often misdiagnosed as gastroparesis or bulimia. The regurgitation can occur as soon as the food is swallowed or even up to an hour after finishing eating.
  • Sandifer syndrome: A rare disorder where torticollis (neck spasms) is associated with a hiatus hernia. All the symptoms seem to be as a result of the hiatus hernia.
  • Self Harm: When a person willingly harms themselves
  • Short Bowel Syndrome: Disorder of shortened bowel usually from bowel surgery.
  • Sinus bradycardia: A condition which is characterized by a slow heart rate
  • Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency: A condition which is characterized by a deficiency of sucrase-isomaltase deficiency
  • Sucrase-isomaltase malabsorption, congenital: A rare disorder where a congenital deficiency of an enzyme (sucrase-isomaltase) prevents the absorption of sucrose and isomaltose consumed in the diet.
  • Sucrase-isomaltose malabsorption, congenital: A rare disorder where a congenital deficiency of an enzyme (sucrase-isomaltase) prevents the absorption of sucrose and isomaltose consumed in the diet.
  • Thiamine deficiency: Dietary deficiency of vitamin B1 (thiamine)
  • Tuberculosis: Bacterial infection causing nodules forming, most commonly in the lung.
  • Ulcerative colitis: Ulcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis is a form of colitis, a disease of the intestine, specifically the large intestine or colon, that includes characteristic ulcers, or open sores, in the colon.
  • Vincent's disease: Form of gingivitis causing ulcers
  • Weight loss: Loss of body weight.
  • Whooping Cough: An infectious condition caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis

 

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