Types of Lupus
Lupus: Types list
The list of types of Lupus mentioned in various sources includes:
Curable Types of Lupus:
- SLE of the joints
- Retinal vasculitis related to SLE
- Psychosis related to SLE
- Deep vein thrombosis related to SLE
- Acute ischemia related to SLE
- Drug( isoniazid, hydralazine, chlorpromazine) associated SLE
Rare Types of Lupus:
The Many Shades of Lupus: NIAMS (Excerpt)
There are three main types of lupus:
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (eh-RITH-eh-muh-TOE-sus) is
the most common form. It's sometimes called SLE, or just lupus. The
word "systemic" means that the disease can involve many parts of the
body such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, and brain. SLE symptoms can be
mild or serious.
- Discoid lupus erythematosus mainly affects the skin. A red
rash may appear, or the skin on the face, scalp, or elsewhere may
- Drug-induced lupus is triggered by a few medicines. It's
like SLE, but symptoms are usually milder. Most of the time, the
disease goes away when the medicine is stopped. More men develop
drug-induced lupus because the drugs that cause it, hydralazine and
procainamide, are used to treat heart conditions that are more common
(Source: excerpt from The Many Shades of Lupus: NIAMS
Lupus Fact Sheet: NWHIC (Excerpt)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the form of the disease that most
people are referring to when they say "lupus". SLE can affect many parts of the
body and its symptoms can range from mild to serious. Although SLE usually
develops in people between the ages of 15 and 45 years, it can occur in
childhood or later in life as well.
Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) mainly affects the skin, causing a red,
raised rash on the face, scalp, or other parts of the body. The rash may become
thick and scaly and may last for days or years. A small percentage of people
with DLE later develop SLE.
Drug-induced lupus is a rare adverse reaction to certain medications. Its
symptoms are similar to those of SLE (arthritis, rash, fever, and chest pain,
but not kidney disease) but they go away when the drug is stopped. Common
medications that may cause drug-induced lupus include hydralazine (Apresoline_),
procainamide (Procan_, Pronestyle_), methyldopa (Aldornet_), quinidine
(Quinaglute_), isoniazid (INH_), and some anti-seizure medications such as
phenytoin (Dilantin_) or carbamazepine (Tegretol_). However, not everyone who
takes these drugs will develop drug-induced lupus. Only about 4 percent of the
people who take these drugs will develop the antibodies suggestive of lupus. Of
those 4 percent, only an extremely small number will develop drug-induced lupus.
Neonatal lupus can affect some newborn babies of women with SLE or certain
other immune system disorders. Babies with neonatal lupus may have a serious
heart defect. Other affected babies may have a skin rash, liver abnormalities,
or low blood counts. Neonatal lupus is very rare, and most infants of mothers
with SLE are entirely healthy.
What Causes Lupus?
Although the cause of lupus is unknown, it is likely a combination of
genetic, environmental, and possibly hormonal factors. The exact cause may
differ from one person to another. Research suggests that genetics plays an
important role; and it appears that several genes may be responsible for
increasing a person's susceptibility to the disease. Most cases of SLE occur
sporadically, indicating that both genetic and environmental factors play a role
in the development of the disease. Some of the factors that scientists are
studying include sunlight, stress, certain drugs, and infectious agents such as
viruses. Even though a virus might trigger the disease in susceptible
individuals, a person cannot "catch" lupus from someone else.
What Are the Symptoms of Lupus?
Lupus is characterized by periods of illness (flares) and periods of wellness
(remission). It is difficult to diagnose because it is often mistaken for other
diseases. The following are some common symptoms of lupus:
- Extreme fatigue
- Painful or swollen joints (arthritis)
- Unexplained fever
- "Butterfly" rash across the nose and cheeks that is characteristic to
- Skin rashes on other parts of the body
- Chest pain or pleurisy (inflammation of the pleura, the membrane that
covers the lungs)
- Kidney problems
- Unusual loss of hair
- Pale or purple fingers from cold or stress
- Sensitivity to the sun
- Low red blood-cell count
- Mouth or nose ulcers
- Cardiovascular disease
Some people also experience headaches, dizziness, or depression. New symptoms
may continue to appear years after the initial diagnosis, and different symptoms
can occur at different times.
How Is Lupus Diagnosed?
Early diagnosis and treatment are needed to improve health and reduce tissue
damage. Diagnosing lupus can be difficult, however, because it may take months
or even years for doctors to piece together the symptoms to make an accurate
diagnosis. Giving the doctor a complete, accurate medical history is critical to
the process of diagnosis. This information, along with a physical examination
and the results of laboratory tests, helps the doctor rule out other diseases
that may mimic lupus. Reaching a diagnosis may take time and occur gradually as
new symptoms appear.
What Are the Treatments for Lupus?
Because each person's symptoms are different, doctors treat lupus on an
individual basis. Once lupus has been diagnosed, the doctor will develop a
treatment plan based on the patient's age, gender, health, symptoms, and
lifestyle. Tailored to the individual's needs, this plan may change over time.
In developing a treatment plan, the doctor has several goals: to prevent flares,
to effectively treat them when they do occur, and to minimize complications. The
doctor and patient should reevaluate the plan regularly to ensure that it is as
effective as possible.
Treatment for lupus includes physical and emotional rest, protection from
direct sunlight, a healthful diet, exercise, prompt treatment of infections,
avoidance of known allergens and aggravating factors, and medication when
necessary. The medication the doctor chooses is based on the patient's
individual symptoms and needs. For people with joint pain, fever, and swelling,
drugs that decrease inflammationCnonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs)Care often used. Antimalarials are another type of drug commonly used to
treat lupus. They may be used alone or in combination with other drugs to treat
fatigue, joint pain, skin rashes, and inflammation of the lungs. Corticosteroid
hormones are the mainstay of lupus treatment. Related to cortisol, which is a
natural anti-inflammatory hormone, corticosteroids work by rapidly suppressing
inflammation. Because they are potent drugs, the doctor will seek the lowest
dose with the greatest benefit.
Working closely with the doctor helps ensure that treatments for lupus are as
successful as possible. Because some treatments may cause harmful side effects,
it is important to promptly report any new symptoms to the doctor.
It is also important not to stop or change treatments without talking to the
doctor first. With early diagnosis and the correct treatment and medication,
most people with lupus can maintain an overall high quality of life.
SOURCES: National Institute of Arthritis and
Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, NIH Publication No. 93-3219; Lupus Foundation
Department of Health and Human Services Activities on Lupus
Office on Women's Health (OWH) within the Department of
Health and Human Services (DHHS) is the Federal government's focal point for
women's health issues. OWH works to improve women's health by coordinating
women's health research, health care services, policy, and public and health
care professional education across the agencies of the DHHS; and collaborating
with other government organizations, and consumer and health care professional
Phone: (202) 690-7650;
National Women's Health Information Center (NWHIC), a
service of OWH, is a national resource for information on women's health.
Through NWHIC, the public and health professionals can access the vast array
of Federal and other sources of women's health information.
National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the Federal focal
point for biomedical research in the United States. The goal of NIH is to
acquire new knowledge to help prevent, detect, diagnose, and treat disease and
disability. Within NIH, the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal
and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) and the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)
conduct and support research on lupus.
Phone: (301) 496-4000;
NIAMS of the NIH leads the Federal medical research effort
in arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases. NIAMS supports research
and research training throughout the United States as well as on the NIH
campus in Bethesda, MD. The National Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin
Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NAMSIC) is a public service sponsored by
NIAMS that provides health information.
Phone: (301) 495-4484; TTY: (301)
NIAMS has recently produced a manual entitled LUPUS: A Patient Care Guide
for Nurses and Other Health Professionals to help health professionals who
work with lupus patients to improve their care and quality of life. The guide
covers symptoms and diagnosis, advances in lupus research, lab tests for
diagnosis and evaluation, lupus medications, health care interventions for
general and system-specific manifestations of lupus, psychosocial aspects, and
National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), a component
of NIH, supports research and research training in universities, hospitals,
research centers, and at NIH in areas related to health promotion and disease
prevention, managing the symptoms and disabilities of illness, and improving
the environment in which patient care is delivered. Chronic diseases, such as
lupus and arthritis, are among the six major areas of emphasis for the
Phone: (301) 496-0207;
(Source: excerpt from Lupus Fact Sheet: NWHIC
Lupus: NWHIC (Excerpt)
There are three different forms of lupus:
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the most serious form,
may affect many parts of the body including joints, skin, kidney, lungs,
heart and brain.
discoid or cutaneous lupus mainly affects the skin.
drug-induced lupus is caused by some prescription
medicines. It resembles SLE, but is less serious.
(Source: excerpt from Lupus: NWHIC
Lupus: Rare Types
Rare types of medical conditions and diseases in related medical categories:
Lupus: Related Disease Topics
More general medical disease topics related to Lupus include:
Research More About Lupus