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Diseases » Male infertility » Glossary
 

Glossary for Male infertility

  • Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Diseases of the adrenal cortex. Examples includes Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome and adrenal fatigue.
  • Adverse reaction to chemical -- 1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane: 1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane is a chemical used in soil fumigants and as a nematocide for various field crops. Commercial examples include Fumagon, Nemagon, Fumazone, Nemapax, Nemafume. Some people can suffer an adverse reaction to the chemical. The severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the route of exposure.
  • Alcohol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Alcohol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Alcoholism: Alcoholism is the compulsive urge to drink alcohol despite knowing the negative impact on one's health.
  • Anemia: Reduced ability of blood to carry oxygen from various possible causes.
  • Azoospermia: Total lack of sperm in ejaculate
  • Bloom Syndrome: A rare genetic inherited genetic disorder which mainly affects Ashkenazic Jewish people and is characterized by short stature, malar hypoplasia, and a telangiectatic erythema of the face.
  • Chemical poisoning -- 1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane: 1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane is a chemical used in soil fumigants and as a nematocide for various field crops. Commercial examples include Fumagon, Nemagon, Fumazone, Nemapax, Nemafume. Excessive exposure to this chemical can cause relatively mild symptoms. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin. The severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the route of exposure.
  • Chlamydia: Common sexually transmitted disease often without symptoms.
  • Chromosome Y deletion: An inherited chromosomal disorder where the deletion of the chromosome results in male infertility.
  • Chronic Alcoholism -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that chronic alcoholism during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Ciliary dyskinesia, due to transposition of ciliary microtubules: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move adequately due to abnormal cilia structure. The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Cushing syndrome, familial: A hormonal disorder caused by high levels of the cortisol hormone due to the abnormal development of the adrenal gland.
  • Cushing's syndrome: A rare syndrome where excessive secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex leads to a variety of symptoms. Hormone-secreting adrenal or pituitary tumors are often the cause of the excessive corticosteroid secretion.
  • Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease affecting the exocrine (mucus) glands of the lungs, liver, pancreas, and intestines, causing progressive disability due to multisystem failure.
  • Del Castillo's syndrome: Infertility due to absence of germinal cells which are needed to make sperm.
  • Diabetes: Failing or reduced ability of the body to handle sugars.
  • Diethylstilbestrol antenatal infection: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly caused by exposure to diethylstilbestrol (used to prevent complications during pregnancy such as miscarriage and prematurity) during pregnancy
  • Ectopic pregnancy: A condition where a fertilized egg embeds itself outside the uterus.
  • Epididymitis: Infection of the epididymis (testicle tube)
  • Epididymo-orchitis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of the epididimis and testes of a male
  • Ethanol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ethanol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Factor XIII Deficiency: A very rare inherited or acquired blood disorder caused by a deficiency of Factor XIII which is involved in stabilizing blood clot formation. The condition manifests as bleeding problems.
  • Factor XIII deficiency, congenital: A very rare inherited blood disorder caused by a deficiency of Factor XIII which is involved in stabilizing blood clot formation. The condition manifests as bleeding problems.
  • Factor XIII, A1 subunit Deficiency: A very rare inherited or acquired blood disorder caused by a deficiency of subunit A of Factor XIII which is involved in stabilizing blood clot formation. The condition manifests as bleeding problems.
  • Factor XIII, B subunit Deficiency: A very rare inherited or acquired blood disorder caused by a deficiency of subunit B of Factor XIII which is involved in stabilizing blood clot formation. The condition manifests as bleeding problems.
  • Female infertility: Infertility that affects the female
  • Feminisation: Female-like physical changes in males
  • Fertility conditions: Medical conditions relating to fertility, including infertility.
  • Forbes-Albright syndrome: A rare condition where a hormone secreting pituitary or hypothalamic tumor causes galactorrhea and amenorrhea.
  • Galactorrhoea-Hyperprolactinaemia: Increased blood prolactin levels associated with galactorrhea (abnormal milk secretion). It may be caused by such things as certain medications, pituitary disorders and thyroid disorders. The condition can occur in males as well as females.
  • Gonorrhea: Common sexually transmitted disease often without symptoms.
  • Haloperidol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Haloperidol (an antipsychotic drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Hereditary Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder where too much iron is absorbed from food and it is stored in various parts of the body which can cause damage. There are 4 types of hemochromatosis and they are distinguished by age of onset, genetic cause and type of inheritance. Some sufferers may be asymptomatic.
  • Human carcinogen -- Cyclophosphamide: Cyclophosphamide is a chemical deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the nature (e.g. inhalation, ingestion, skin contact), duration and level of exposure. Cyclophosphamide exposure is associated mainly with an increased risk of developing leukemia.
  • Hyperpituitarism: A condition that results in the excess secretion of hormones that are secreted from the pituitary gland
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypogonadism: Medical term for a defect of the reproductive system that results in lack of function of the gonads (ovaries or testes).
  • Hypopituitarism: A disorder caused by reduced pituitary hormone levels. Hormones produce by the pituitary gland produces growth hormones, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, antidiuretic hormone and others.
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Immotile cilia syndrome, due to defective radial spokes: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move adequately due to abnormal cilia structure. The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility.
  • Immotile cilia syndrome, due to excessively long cilia: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move adequately due to abnormally long cilia. The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Impotence: Inability to attain or sustain an erection.
  • Infertility: The inability to produce offspring
  • Kallmann Syndrome: A rare inherited condition characterized by hypogonadism, eunuchoidism and impaired or absent sense of smell. The condition occurs as a result of failure of a part of the hypothalamus which results in hormonal imbalance.
  • Kartagener syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by enlarged bronchial tubes, sinusitis and cross-positioning of body organs.
  • Klinefelter syndrome: A genetic condition where males have at least one extra X chromosome or extra copies of both the X and Y chromosomes in each cell. Normally male cells contain one X and one Y chromosome in each cell. The condition is not inherited but is a result of problems during cell division. Klinefelter syndrome variants is a more severe form of the condition as it involves more than one extra X or X and Y chromosome in each cell.
  • Lead poisoning: A type of heavy metal poisoning caused by excessive exposure to lead.
  • Male pseudohermaphroditism, incomplete hereditary (type 1): A rare condition involving a deficiency of dihydrotestosterone receptor which impairs the function of androgen receptors and hence the androgen (male hormone) is partially or completely ineffective depending on the level of deficiency. The degree of feminization ranges from feminine phenotype through to male phenotype depending on the level of androgen insensitivity.
  • Male reproductive conditions: Medical conditions affecting the male reproductive system.
  • Male sexual conditions: Any condition that affects the ability of a male to have sexual relations
  • Marijuana -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Marijuana during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Men only conditions: Conditions affecting only males, and not females.
  • Mens Health Conditions: Medical conditions related to men's health.
  • Mumps: An acute viral disease that causes the salivary glands to become swollen, sore and inflamed. Immunization had greatly reduced the incidence of this disease.
  • Myotonic Dystrophy: An inherited disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting as well as eye defects, heart abnormalities and other anomalies. The severity of the condition is greatly variable. There are two type of myotonic dystrophy with type 1 being more severe than type 2.
  • Oligospermia: Having too few sperm
  • Orchitis: Testicle inflammation.
  • Pituitary Cancer: Cancer of the pituitary gland.
  • Pituitary conditions: Any condition that affects the pituitary
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Lead: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Lead has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Premature ejaculation: The premature ejaculation of the male during sexual intercourse before it is desired
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 10: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 10 differs from the other forms of primary ciliary dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (14q21.3). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 11: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 11 differs from the other forms of primary ciliary dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (6q22). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 12: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 12 differs from the other forms of primary ciliary dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (6p21.1). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 2: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 2 differs from the other forms of primary ciliar dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (19q13.3qter). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 3: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 3 differs from the other forms of primary ciliar dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (5p). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 4: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 4 differs from the other forms of primary ciliar dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (15q13.1-q15.1). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 5: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 5 differs from the other forms of primary ciliar dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (16p12.2-p12.1). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 6: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 6 differs from the other forms of primary ciliar dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (7p14-p13). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 7: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 7 differs from the other forms of primary ciliary dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (7p21). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 8: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 8 differs from the other forms of primary ciliary dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (15q24-q25). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 9: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 9 differs from the other forms of primary ciliary dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (17q25). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Progressive Spinobulbar muscular atrophy: Genetic disease affecting nerves and muscles
  • Radiation sickness: Illness from radiation exposure or cancer radiotherapy.
  • Reproductive conditions: Medical conditions of the reproductive system in men or women.
  • Retrograde Ejaculation: Ejaculation that is delayed after an orgasm or does not appear to occur at all.
  • Sexual dysfunction: Any dysfunction of sexual activity
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Various diseases spread by sexual contact.
  • Sperm symptoms: Symptoms affecting the sperm in male reproduction.
  • Spermatogenic failure, nonobstructive, Y-linked: Male infertility or reduced sperm count due to a chromosomal disorder rather than an obstruction. Some men with reduced sperm counts are still able to father children naturally.
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A rare condition characterized by progressive degeneration of the spinal and brainstem motor neurons. During fetal development excess primary neurons are formed. The body automatically destroys the extra primary neurons so that only some survive and mature into neurons. In spinal muscular dystrophy, the process that destroys the excess primary neurons doesn't switch off and continues destroying the neurons resulting in progressive motor problems. Various types of the condition range from mild to severe enough to cause death within a couple of years of birth.
  • Spironolactone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Spironolactone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Sulphasalazine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Sulphasalazine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Syphilis: A sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacteria (Treponema pallidum). The condition is often asymptomatic in the early stages but one or more sores may be present in the early stages. Untreated syphilis usually results in remission of visible symptoms but further severe damage may occur to internal organs and other body tissues which can result in death.
  • Testicle disorders: Any condition that affects the testicles
  • Testicular Cancer: Cancer (malignant) that develops in the tissues of one or both testicles.
  • Testicular torsion: Twisting of a testicle's spermatic cord
  • Tuberculosis: Bacterial infection causing nodules forming, most commonly in the lung.
  • Undescended Testicle: Congenital failure of one or both testes to descend
  • Undescended testes: A condition which is characterized by the failure of the testes to descend into the scrotum
  • Varicocele: Varicose veins around the testes
  • Young syndrome: Symptoms in a fetus that occur when the mother is suffering from advanced diabetes mellitus during pregnancy.

 

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