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Diseases » Melanoma » Glossary
 

Glossary for Melanoma

  • Acanthosis nigricans: It is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin usually present in the posterior and lateral folds of the neck, the axilla, groin, umbilicus and other areas.
  • Acral lentiginous melanoma: Acral lentigous melanoma is the most common variant of skin cancer seen in dark-skinned people. This form of melanoma appears on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, or on nails. Lesions are usually brown, black, or multicolored with irregular borders, and flat or nodular.
  • Angiokeratoma: A harmless, discolored, raised skin lesion involving damaged blood capillaries. The lesion ranges in color from red to blue and the skin involved is usually thickened.
  • Animal-type melanoma: Pigment synthesizing melanoma is a rare histopathological variant of melanoma so termed because of prominent melanin production and its similarity to a variant of melanoma seen in grey horses.
  • Balloon cell metastatic melanoma: Balloon cell melanoma, a variant of malignant melanoma, has been reported on rare occasions in animals and is uncommon in man. Such tumours have variable numbers of large, round to polygonal cells with abundant, clear, often vacuolated cytoplasm containing fine melanin granules and variable amounts of lipid.
  • Basal cell carcinoma: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer.
  • Birthmark: Skin marking appearing from birth
  • Blue nails: A condition which is characterized by the occurrence of nails that are blue in appearance
  • Brain cancer: Cancer of the brain.
  • Cancer: Abnormal overgrowth of body cells.
  • Chondroid melanoma: Heterologous differentiation is exceedingly rare in melanoma. Chondroid change in the absence of osteogenic differentiation is extremely rare in malignant melanoma. Melanoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of primary cutaneous neoplasms exhibiting cartilaginous differentiation.
  • Clark nevus: A term used for atypical moles. These types of moles have a high likelihood of becoming cancerous.
  • Cutaneous desmoplastic melanoma: Cutaneous desmoplastic melanoma is a rare variant of a spindle cell melanoma.
  • Cutaneous metastatic melanoma: Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer and accounts for about three-quarters of all skin cancer deaths.
  • De Sanctis-Cacchione syndrome: A rare genetic ectodermal disorder characterized by sunlight sensitivity, skin atrophy and pigmentation and skin tumors as well neurologic involvement.
  • Dermal melanoma: The term "primary dermal melanoma" has been used to describe a solitary melanoma lesion confined to the dermal and/or subcutaneous tissue in primary unknown melanoma cases. There are no significant histopathological differences between primary dermal melanoma and cutaneous metastasis of melanoma. The most important distinction to be made is with metastatic melanoma, because the prognoses for stage IV melanoma and primary dermal melanoma are vastly different.
  • Dermatofibroma: A benign skin growth that usually occurs on the legs but may affect the arms or trunk. The growth is usually discolored and contains hard, scar-like tissue. A minor injury such as an insect bite or a thorn can result in a dermatofibroma. The color of the nodule is variable (brown, pink, skin-colored, yellow, purplish).
  • Desmoplastic neurotrophic melanoma: Desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma (DNM) is a rare variant of a spindle cell melanoma.
  • Dysplastic nevi: Intraepidermal melanocytic dysplasia which is often a precursor to malignant melanoma
  • Dysplastic nevus syndrome: A skin condition characterized by numerous atypical nevi and moles which may develop into melanomas. The nevi and moles vary in size, shape and color and tend to develop during adolescence or young adulthood.
  • Exercise: The use of the human muscles to improve ones health
  • Eye conditions: Any condition that affects the eyes
  • Follicular malignant melanoma: Follicular malignant melanoma can be regarded as a rare and unique presentation of melanoma. It is characterized by a deep-seated follicular structure in which atypical melanocytes extend downward along the follicular epithelium and permeate parts of the follicle as well as the adjacent dermis.
  • Giant cell malignant melanoma: Malignant melanoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. Malignant melanoma of the oral mucosa is a rare tumor. The clinical image can vary, so that diagnostic errors are possible. The case of a primary malignant melanoma camouflaging a giant cell granuloma is presented. The importance of biopsy and histological diagnosis is underlined.
  • Hair loss: Loss or thinning of head or body hair
  • Hemangioma: A condition which is characterized by a benign tumour cause by newly formed blood vessels
  • Hyperpigmentation: Excess skin pigment or coloration
  • Kaposi's Sarcoma: Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancerous tumor of the connective tissue, and is often associated with AIDS.
  • Lentigo maligna: Lentigo maligna is a melanoma in situ that consists of malignant cells but does not show invasive growth..
  • Lentigo maligna melanoma: A slow-growing form of malignant melanoma which is the abnormal proliferation of pigment cells called melanocytes. It tends to occur on sun-exposed skin of the face, scalp or neck. The melanoma can remain non-invasive for many years.
  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by tumor development by young adulthood.
  • Lipoblast-like malignant melanoma: Two distinctive types of signet ring cells may be observed in this variant: (1) the usual type, composed of polygonal cells with accumulation of vimentin filaments in the cytoplasm, which displace the nucleus to the periphery of the cell and also confer a semilunar shape, and (2) a rarer variant, composed of cells with intracytoplasmic vacuoles and scalloped eccentric nuclei. In such situations, the neoplastic cells may resemble monovacuolated lipoblasts. Lipoblast-like cells are very unusual features of metastatic MMs and may be observed in metastatic deposits of signet ring and in balloon cell melanomas.
  • Liver cancer: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver.
  • Lung cancer: Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis, which is the invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs. Most lung tumors are malignant.
  • Melanoma: Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. It is the leading cause of death from skin disease. It involves cells called melanocytes, which produce a skin pigment called melanin. Melanin is responsible for skin and hair color.
  • Mole: Darkened growths on the skin; everyone has a few.
  • Mole symptoms: Skin moles or growths on the skin.
  • Monster cell malignant melanoma: Cells with significantly enlarged nuclei have been described in basal cell carcinomas, dermatofibromas, and pleomorphic fibromas, to name a few. These cells are typically visible using low power microscopy and have been termed "pleomorphic" or "monster cells." They have not been previously described in cutaneous melanomas. We sought to determine the prevalence of monster cells in otherwise conventional biopsies of primary cutaneous melanomas and its association with other histopathologic features of this malignancy.
  • Myxoid melanoma: Myxoid melanoma is a rare variant of malignant melanoma. The diagnostic problems are obviously increased when it presents as amelanotic metastasis in a lymph node. In the present case, myxoid metastasis occurred with the partial spontaneous disappearance of the primary nonmyxoid malignant melanoma.
  • Nausea: The queasy feeling of nausea and often also vomiting.
  • Neurofibroma: A benign tumor that originates from nerve cells. The tumors usually arise from nerves in the skin or just under the skin.
  • Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by basal cell carcinomas, broade face and rib abnormalities.
  • Nevoid melanoma: Naevoid melanoma is a rare form of nodular melanoma that may mimic benign melanocytic lesions. The lesions are called 'naevoid' because the cytological and architectural features resemble features of benign intradermal or compound melanocytic naevi. Nevoid melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma characterized by deceptive morphologic features reminiscent of a benign melanocytic nevus.
  • Nodular melanoma: Nodular melanoma is the most aggressive form of melanoma. It grows in vertical direction from the outset and grows very fast (months). Nodular melanoma has no known precursor. It is a small black, or if amelanotic, pink nodule that simply enlarges. The lesions tend to bleed.
  • Ocular melanoma: A type of cancer that develops in the eye. The cancer develops from pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. This cancer becomes more common with increasing age.
  • Osteogenic melanoma: Osteogenic melanoma is a rare variant of malignant melanoma. All tumors arose from acral lentiginous melanomas.
  • Pathological fracture: The occurrence of a fracture a bone of the body caused by a disease state
  • Primary malignant melanoma: Primary malignant melanomas of the GI tract are very rare and occur in the anorectum and esophagus. Criteria for primary melanoma include lack of concurrent or previous removal of a melanoma or atypical melanocytic lesion from the skin, lack of other organ involvement, and in situ change in the overlying or adjacent gastrointestinal epithelium. This latter feature, recognized histologically by the presence of atypical melanocytic cells in the basal layer of the epithelium and extending in a "pagetoid" fashion into the more superficial epithelium, may be reported in 40%-100% of primary GI melanomas.
  • Pruritus: The sensation of itch
  • Rhabdoid melanoma: Malignant melanoma is known to display tremendous histologic diversity. One rare variant is the rhabdoid phenotype, so called because of the appearance of cells resembling rhabdomyoblasts seen in malignant rhabdoid tumors of the kidney.
  • Schwannoma: Solid, benign tumour derived from Schwann cells. Primarily found in the cerebellopontine angle.
  • Seborrheic keratosis: Thickening of the skin condition usually from age
  • Secondary melanoma: Advanced melanoma means the cancer has spread from where it started to another part of the body. It is also called stage 4 melanoma. Cancer that has spread to another part of the body is called secondary cancer or metastases.
  • Signet ring cell melanoma: Two distinctive types of signet ring cells may be observed in this variant: (1) the usual type, composed of polygonal cells with accumulation of vimentin filaments in the cytoplasm, which displace the nucleus to the periphery of the cell and also confer a semilunar shape, and (2) a rarer variant, composed of cells with intracytoplasmic vacuoles and scalloped eccentric nuclei. In such situations, the neoplastic cells may resemble monovacuolated lipoblasts. Lipoblast-like cells are very unusual features of metastatic MMs and may be observed in metastatic deposits of signet ring and in balloon cell melanomas.
  • Skin Cancer: Cancer of the skin; the most common type of cancer.
  • Skin conditions: Any condition that affects the skin
  • Small cell melanoma: Rare melanomas appearing in adolescence and children on scalp having characteristics that of a merkel cell melanoma and naevoid melanoma over sun damaged skin in elderly individuals.
  • Spitzoid melanoma: A Spitz melanoma is a type of skin tumour. They can also be called Spitz tumours, melanocytomas of Spitz, benign juvenile naevus and epithelioid cell naevus. They appear as smooth, round, dull pinkish swellings that grow to a size of about a centimetre over a period of 6 to 12 months. They then often turn darker to a tan or brown colour.Spitz melanomas are completely benign (non cancerous).
  • Superficial spreading melanoma: Superficial spreading melanoma is usually characterized as the most common form of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasians.
  • Vulva cancer: Cancer of the skin of the vulval area.
  • Xeroderma: Genetic condition in which the enzyme systems repairing damage from solar ultraviolet rays is defective, causing early development of skin cancers.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum: A rare pigmentary disease that is caused by an enzyme deficiency
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 1: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation - type 1 has the lowest level of repair and the most neurological complications.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 2: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation. Type B is often associated with signs of Cockayne syndrome.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 3: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation. Neurological symptoms are rarely experienced in type 3.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 4: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation. Type D involves neurological symptoms.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 5: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation. Type E is a very rare form of the condition and involves mild skin symptoms with no neurological symptoms.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 6: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation. The skin and neurological symptoms in Type 6 tend to be mild.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 7: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation. Type G usually involves severe neurological symptoms.

 

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