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What is Meningococcal disease?

What is Meningococcal disease?

Meningococcal disease, also called meningococcal meningitis, is a serious infectious disease that can be life ...more »

  • Meningococcal disease: Dangerous bacterial infection causing meningitis or bacteremia.
  • Meningococcal disease: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
    Source - Diseases Database

Meningococcal disease is listed as a "rare disease" by the Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This means that Meningococcal disease, or a subtype of Meningococcal disease, affects less than 200,000 people in the US population.
Source - National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Ophanet, a consortium of European partners, currently defines a condition rare when it affects 1 person per 2,000. They list Meningococcal disease as a "rare disease".
Source - Orphanet

Meningococcal disease: Introduction

Types of Meningococcal disease:

Types of Meningococcal disease:

  • Subtypes by body part attacked:
    • Meningococcal septicemia - blood poisoning from the bacteria
    • Meningococcemia - a mild form of blood poisoning not as severe as septicemia
  • Subtypes based on serogroup:
    • Meningococcus A - most common in Africa; causes epidemics.
    • Meningococcus B - about a third of US cases; usually sporadic rather than epidemic.
    • Meningococcus C - about a third of US cases; can cause epidemics.
    • Meningococcus W135
    • Meningococcus X
    • Meningococcus Y - about a quarter of US cases
    • Meningococcus Z
  • more types...»

Broader types of Meningococcal disease:

How many people get Meningococcal disease?

Incidence (annual) of Meningococcal disease: 2,501 annual cases notified in USA 1999 (MMWR 1999)
Incidence Rate of Meningococcal disease: approx 1 in 108,756 or 0.00% or 2,500 people in USA [about data]
Prevalance of Meningococcal disease: Neisseria meningitidis -- 0.8 cases per 100,000; estimated 2,200 cases and 275 deaths annually in the United States (Source: excerpt from Active Bacterial Core Surveillance: DBMD)

Who gets Meningococcal disease?

Patient Profile for Meningococcal disease: Any age possible but typically infants, age 15-24, elderly, or at-risk groups.

Geography Profile for Meningococcal disease: Most common in parts of Africa and Asia

How serious is Meningococcal disease?

Prognosis of Meningococcal disease: The death rate ranges from 5% to 15%, with young children and adults over 50 having the highest risk of death.
Complications of Meningococcal disease: see complications of Meningococcal disease
Deaths for Meningococcal disease: 275 deaths annually in USA (DBMD); 227 in 1999 (NVSR Sep 2001)

What causes Meningococcal disease?

Causes of Meningococcal disease: see causes of Meningococcal disease
Risk factors for Meningococcal disease: see risk factors for Meningococcal disease

What are the symptoms of Meningococcal disease?

Symptoms of Meningococcal disease: see symptoms of Meningococcal disease

Complications of Meningococcal disease: see complications of Meningococcal disease

Incubation period for Meningococcal disease: 2-10 days, typically 3-4 days.

Incubation period for Meningococcal disease: symptoms can develop over several hours, or they may take 1 to 2 days. (Source: excerpt from Meningococcal Disease (General): DBMD)

Onset of Meningococcal disease: The onset of the disease may be rapid and may start with an upper respiratory infection or sore throat. The infection occurs more often in winter or spring and may cause local epidemics at boarding schools, college dormitories, or military bases.

Can anyone else get Meningococcal disease?

More information: see contagiousness of Meningococcal disease
Inheritance: see inheritance of Meningococcal disease

Meningococcal disease: Testing

Diagnostic testing: see tests for Meningococcal disease.

Misdiagnosis: see misdiagnosis and Meningococcal disease.

How is it treated?

Doctors and Medical Specialists for Meningococcal disease: Neurologist, Infectious Disease Specialist ; see also doctors and medical specialists for Meningococcal disease.
Treatments for Meningococcal disease: see treatments for Meningococcal disease
Prevention of Meningococcal disease: see prevention of Meningococcal disease
Research for Meningococcal disease: see research for Meningococcal disease

Society issues for Meningococcal disease


Hospitalization statistics for Meningococcal disease: The following are statistics from various sources about hospitalizations and Meningococcal disease:

  • 0.02% (2,510) of hospital consultant episodes were for meningococcal fever in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 85% of hospital consultant episodes for meningococcal fever required hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 53% of hospital consultant episodes for meningococcal fever were for men in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 47% of hospital consultant episodes for meningococcal fever were for women in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 84% of hospital consultant episodes for meningococcal fever required emergency hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • more statistics...»

Organs Affected by Meningococcal disease:

Organs and body systems related to Meningococcal disease include:

Name and Aliases of Meningococcal disease

Main name of condition: Meningococcal disease

Class of Condition for Meningococcal disease: bacterial

Other names or spellings for Meningococcal disease:

Meningococcal meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, N. meningitidis, Meningococcus, Meningococcal, Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups B (type), Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups C (type), Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (type)

Neisseria meningiditis Source - Diseases Database

Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups B (type), Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups C (type), Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (type)
Source - Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Meningococcal disease: Related Conditions

Research the causes of these diseases that are similar to, or related to, Meningococcal disease:

 

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