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Diseases » Menstrual conditions » Glossary
 

Glossary for Menstrual conditions

  • Abdominal pain: A condition which is characterized by the sensation of pain that is located in the abdomen
  • Adenomyosis: A rare disorder where the endometrium (lining of the uterus) grows inside the muscle walls of the uterus. The condition is generally harmless but can be very painful.
  • Adrenal Cancer: A malignant cancer that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids. Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Diseases of the adrenal cortex. Examples includes Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome and adrenal fatigue.
  • Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: A tumor that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids.
  • Adrenal adenoma, familial: A benign tumor that develops in the adrenal gland and tends to run in families. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids . Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal gland hyperfunction: Excessive activity of the adrenal gland which causes excessive production of one or more adrenal hormones (aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine). The increased adrenal gland activity may be caused by an adrenal gland tumor or by excessive stimulation of the gland. Pituitary hormones stimulate adrenal gland activity.
  • Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 11-Beta-hydroxylase deficiency: A rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia characterized by a deficiency of 11-Beta-hydroxylase which results in excess androgen production and hypertension. The disorder can occur in virilizing, hypertensive and salt-wasting forms and symptoms may range from mild to severe.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma: A tumor of the adrenal gland that is discovered incidentally while performing an imaging examination for reasons other than an adrenal tumor. The tumor may be asymptomatic or can causes excessive secretion of adrenal hormones and resulting symptoms. The tumor may also be malignant or benign.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma: A condition which is characterized by malignancy which affects the adrenocortex.
  • Ahumada-Del Castillo Syndrome: A rare endocrine disorder characterized by dysfunction of the pituitary and hypothalamus glands in women.
  • Alcoholism: Alcoholism is the compulsive urge to drink alcohol despite knowing the negative impact on one's health.
  • Amenorrhea: Absence of menstrual periods due to many possible causes.
  • Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: Females with male XY genetics but inability to respond to testosterone.
  • Androgen insensitivity syndrome, partial: A rare inherited condition where males are partially insensitive to the male hormones which results in varying degrees of feminization. The effect of the condition can range from the presence of normal female sexual characteristics to normal male sexual characteristics or a combination of both.
  • Anorexia nervosa, genetic types: There is mounting evidence that anorexia nervosa may be caused by genetic factors which when combined with psychosocial factors can increase a persons risk of developing the condition.
  • Anovulation: Failure to ovulate
  • Asherman Syndrome: Amenorrhoea due to intrauterine adhesions often secondary to curette.
  • Autoimmune Endometriosis: An endometriosis that is caused by an autoimmune reaction
  • Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis: A skin rash that appears to be a result of the body's immune reaction to progesterone. As progesterone production is linked to menstrual cycles, the rash occurs usually in the week before menstruation until a few days after menstruation starts.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 1: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 1 is caused by a defect in chromosome 11q13.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 10: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 10 is caused by a defect in chromosome 12q.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 11: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 11 is caused by a defect in chromosome 9q33.1.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 12: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 12 is caused by a defect in chromosome 4q27.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 2 is caused by a defect in chromosome 16q21.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 3: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 3 is caused by a defect in chromosome 3p12-q13.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 4: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 4 is caused by a defect in chromosome 15q22.3.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 5: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 5 is caused by a defect in chromosome 2q31.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 6: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 6 is caused by a defect in chromosome 20p12.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 7: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 7 is caused by a defect in chromosome 4q27.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 8: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 8 is caused by a defect in chromosome 14q32.11.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 9: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 9 is caused by a defect in chromosome 7p14.
  • Bleeding symptoms: Any type of bleeding symptoms.
  • Bulimia nervosa: Eating disorder with binging (overeating) and purging (vomiting).
  • Calloso-genital dysplasia: A rare syndrome characterized by the total absence of the brain structure that connects the two halves of the brain (corpus callosum) as well as absent menstruation and coloboma.
  • Cephalothoracic progressive lipodystrophy: A rare acquired disorder that involves adipose tissue abnormalities and is characterized by loss of adipose tissue mainly in the trunk and arms.
  • Chapple syndrome: A rare birth disorder characterized by painful menstruation, knees bent back and a uterus that is tilted backwards (retroverted). It is believed to be caused by an abnormal fetal position inside the womb.
  • Chiari-Frommel syndrome: A rare condition where galactorrhea and amenorrhea continues for an abnormal length of time (generally longer than 6 months) after giving birth.
  • Cushing syndrome, familial: A hormonal disorder caused by high levels of the cortisol hormone due to the abnormal development of the adrenal gland.
  • Cushing's disease: A condition of hyperadrenocorticism which is secondary to excessive pituitary secretion of ACTH. Cushing's disease is different to Cushing's syndrome which refers to the effects of glucocorticoid excess from any cause.
  • Cushing's syndrome: A rare syndrome where excessive secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex leads to a variety of symptoms. Hormone-secreting adrenal or pituitary tumors are often the cause of the excessive corticosteroid secretion.
  • Decreased menses: oligomenorrhea is the term used to describe infrequent or very light menstruation in a woman with previously normal periods
  • Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: Uterus bleeding unrelated to periods
  • Dysmenorrhea: Pain, cramping, or discomfort due to menstruation
  • Endometrial conditions: Conditions that affect the female endometrium that is located in the uterus
  • Endometriosis: Misplaced uterus tissue causing scar tissue.
  • Excessive dieting: Excessive limitation of food intake can lead to problems and effects such as dizziness, depression, intestinal problems, edema and impaired growth.
  • Familial hypopituitarism: Impaired pituitary gland hormone-producing activity that tends to run in families. The failure of the pituitary gland in turn affects other hormone-producing glands which rely on the hormones from the pituitary gland for their activity. Symptoms are determined by the degree and type of hormone deficiency involved.
  • Female reproductive conditions: Medical conditions affecting the female reproductive system.
  • Female reproductive toxicity: There is mounting evidence which indicates that exposure to certain agents may produce adverse reproductive or fetal developmental effects. The possible range of effects includes reduced fertility, low birth weight, childhood cancer, spontaneous abortion and birth defects. Agents which may be implicated in these adverse effects includes anticancer drugs, carbon disulfide, carbon monoxide, lead, pesticides, organic solvents and tobacco smoke.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Dioxins: There is limited conflicting evidence which indicates that some women exposed to dioxins may suffer adverse effects as a result. Spontaneous abortion and menstrual disorders and birth defects are the possible adverse effects.
  • Fertility conditions: Medical conditions relating to fertility, including infertility.
  • Florid cystic endosalpingiosis of the uterus: Benign tumor-like uterine cysts.
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone deficiency, isolated: A genetic disorder characterized by the deficiency of follicle-stimulating hormone which primarily affects fertility.
  • Forbes-Albright syndrome: A rare condition where a hormone secreting pituitary or hypothalamic tumor causes galactorrhea and amenorrhea.
  • Gonadal dysgenesis Turner type: The abnormal development of gonads that occurs in Turner syndrome due to a chromosomal abnormality. It occurs when the there is only one fully functioning X chromosome instead of two which results in underdeveloped female characteristics. The severity of symptoms is determined by how much of the second sex chromosome is missing.
  • HAIR-AN Syndrome: A very rare syndrome that affects females only and is characterized mainly by insulin resistance, dark velvety patches of skin and increased male hormone production in females.
  • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Hashimoto thyroiditis is characterized by the destruction of thyroid cells by various cell- and antibody-mediated immune processes. Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis have antibodies to various thyroid antigens, the most frequently detected of which include antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg), and, to a lesser extent, TSH receptor-blocking antibodies.
  • Heavy periods: Excessive menstrual bleeding (called menorrhagia or hypermenorrhea)
  • Hereditary hypothyroidism: Hereditary hypothyroidism is a condition in which there is a defect in the thyroid gland which leads to increased production of TSH reduced production of thyroid hormone.
  • Hyperadrenalism: Excessive levels of adrenal hormones in the body. Symptoms depend on which hormone is involved and the degree of involvement. Adrenal hormones are aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Hypergonadotropic ovarian failure, familial or sporadic: A rare disorder where the ovaries fail to function prematurely. Ovarian failure can occur in the 20's or 30's. Normal ovarian failure occurs during menopause. Premature ovarian failure can be caused by a genetic mutation and can occur sporadically or in a familial pattern.
  • Hyperprolactinemia: High levels of prolactin in the blood.
  • Hypothalamic amenorrhea: A condition which is characterized by amenorrhea caused by a an abnormality of the hypothalamus
  • Hypothyroid goitre: Goitre is the enlargement of the thyroid gland and hypothyroid state is characterized by increased TSH levels and decreased T3 and T4 levels circulating in the body.
  • IBS associated with endometriosis: IBS is a functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits in the presence of endometriosiis which is characterised by the ectopic presence of endometrial tissue in various parts of the body.
  • Klotz syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by absent menstruation, infantile genitals and other sexual organ abnormalities in females who are genetically male.
  • Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, deficiency of, with ataxia: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by insufficient sex hormone production and impaired balance and coordination due to nervous system dysfunction.
  • Male reproductive toxicity -- Benzene: Exposure to Benzene, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the male reproductive system. Benzene is a widely used chemical - in pesticides and as a solvent in industries such as pesticide manufacturing, laboratory chemicals, printing, paper and pulp manufacture and pharmaceuticals manufacture. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the male reproductive system can include such things as altered sexual behavior, altered fertility and problems with sperm shape or count.
  • Malouf syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart disease as well as abnormal ovaries.
  • Masculinisation: Increased male physical appearance in females
  • Menarche: The beginning of a females menstrual function
  • Menopause: The end of female menstruation and fertility.
  • Menorrhagia: Excessive menstrual bleeding
  • Menstrual cramps: A condition caused by menstruation in females which results in a cramp like pain
  • Menstrual irregularities: Any condition that is associated with the female menstrual cycle
  • Menstruation: The passage of blood and uterine tissue through the vagina cyclically
  • Metrorrhagia: Uterine bleeding that does not occur during the normal menstrual cycle. It can be caused by such things as hormonal abnormalities and tumors.
  • Misoprostol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Misoprostol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Mullerian aplasia: A birth defect involving the absence of the uterus, cervix and top part of the vagina but normal external genitals and ovarian function. Secondary sexual characteristics generally develop normally but menstruation is absent.
  • Nathalie syndrome: A very rare condition described in four children of one family. The condition is characterized by wasting of the spine muscles, abnormal heart electrical activity, cataracts, hypogonadism and hearing impairment.
  • Oligomenorrhea: A medical term that refers to light or infrequent menstrual periods. The condition can be caused by a number of disorders including Graves disease, thyrotoxicosis or a pituitary tumor.
  • Ovary conditions: Any condition that affects a female ovary
  • Partial androgen insensitivity:
  • Pelvic conditions: Any medical condition affecting the pelvic region.
  • Perimenopause: The start of onset of menopause
  • Polyneuropathy -- mental retardation -- acromicria -- premature menopause: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by premature menopause, sensory impairment, mental retardation and small, delicate facial bones.
  • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a diagnosis used to indicate serious premenstrual distress with associated deterioration in functioning.
  • Premenstrual syndrome: Condition with cyclic symptoms related to menstruation.
  • Primary Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation which is not associated with pelvic pathology
  • Primary amenorrhea: Never starting menstruation at puberty
  • Primary hypothyroidism: Primary hypothyroidism is a condition in which a defect in the thyroid gland leads to reduced production of thyroid hormone.
  • Prolactinoma: Benign cancer of the pituitary gland producing prolactin.
  • Reproductive conditions: Medical conditions of the reproductive system in men or women.
  • Reproductive toxicity -- Xylene (mixed isomers): Xylene (mixed isomers) is a suspected reproductive toxicant and exposure to it has the potential to negatively affect the human reproductive system. Xylene (mixed isomers) is used mainly as an industrial solvent and is used in the manufacture paints, lacquers, resins, inks and also in the manufacture of dyes, plastics and pharmaceuticals. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as sex, level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome. Effects on the male reproductive system can include such things as altered sexual behavior, altered fertility and problems with sperm shape or count.
  • Satoyoshi syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by alopecia, diarrhea, skeletal abnormalities and painful leg cramps caused by physical exercise or emotional stress.
  • Schroeder syndrome 1: High blood pressure and reduced salt concentration in sweat associated with an overactive adrenal cortex which is involved with hormone production.
  • Secondary Dysmenorrhea: Menstrual-like cramping (dysmenorrhea) from an underlying condition.
  • Secondary hypothyroidism: Secondary hypothyroidism is a condition in which the activity of the thyroid gland is decreased, due to failure of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus
  • Sexual Conditions: Any condition that affects sexual function
  • Stampe-Sorensen syndrome: A rare uterine abnormality which affects fertility in women.
  • Stress: Emotional stress (sometimes refers to physical stress)
  • Tertiary hypothyroidism: Tertiary hypothyroidism results from a malfunction of the hypothalamus, the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system.
  • Troell-Junet syndrome: A disorder involving enlarged extremities, diabetes, skull abnormalities and excessive thyroid hormone production.
  • Tubal ligation syndrome: A complication that can occur after sterilization using tubal ligation in females.
  • Uterus conditions: Any condition that affects the female uterus
  • Vagina conditions: Any condition that affects the female vagina
  • Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome: A condition involving premature menstruation and abnormal milk production in children who suffer from severe hypothyroidism.
  • Winkelman Bethfe Pfeiffer syndrome: A syndrome that is characterised by sensorineural deafness and pituitary dwarfism
  • Women-only conditions: Conditions affecting women (females), but not males.
  • Womens health conditions: Medical conditions related to women's health.
  • Yusho disease: A condition that affects the menstrual cycle of female as well as having effects on the immune system

 

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