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Diseases » Metastatic cancer » Glossary
 

Glossary for Metastatic cancer

  • Abdominal Neoplasms: A tumor that occurs in the abdomen.
  • Acanthoma: A rare type of skin tumor that may be benign or malignant. The symptoms are determined by the location, size and aggressiveness of the tumor.
  • Acinic cell carcinoma: A usually slow-growing malignant tumor that that can occur in various parts of the body but is most often found in the pancreas, salivary glands, palate and upper lip. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the growth.
  • Acral lentiginous melanoma: Acral lentigous melanoma is the most common variant of skin cancer seen in dark-skinned people. This form of melanoma appears on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, or on nails. Lesions are usually brown, black, or multicolored with irregular borders, and flat or nodular.
  • Adamantinoma: Adamantinoma is a rare tumor. The tumor occurs almost exclusively in the long bones; tumors in the tibia account for more than 80% of cases. The diaphyseal region is the area most commonly affected.
  • Adenocarcinoid tumor: A rare type of tumor that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and tends to metastasize. The symptoms are determined by the location of the tumors.
  • Adenocarcinoma of lung: A tumor that develops in the lining of the lung. The tumor is usually slow growing.
  • Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar: A form of lung cancer that develops in the bronchioles or alveoli.
  • Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: A type of cancer that occurs mainly in the genitourinary tract and the cells that make up the tumor are clear. It is very rare and most cases occur in females whose mothers used a drug called DES (synthetic estrogen) while pregnant.
  • Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: A type of cancer of the thyroid gland.
  • Adenosarcoma of the uterus: A tumor that develops from the glands that line the uterus.
  • Adrenal Cancer: A malignant cancer that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids. Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: A tumor that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma: A tumor of the adrenal gland that is discovered incidentally while performing an imaging examination for reasons other than an adrenal tumor. The tumor may be asymptomatic or can causes excessive secretion of adrenal hormones and resulting symptoms. The tumor may also be malignant or benign.
  • Adrenal medulla neoplasm: A tumor that develops in the part of the adrenal gland called the medulla which produces adrenalin and noradrenaline. The tumor is usually benign but can be malignant.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma: A condition which is characterized by malignancy which affects the adrenocortex.
  • Amyloidosis: A rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage and is potentially fatal. Symptoms depend on the organs involved. There are numerous forms of the condition: primary amyloidosis, secondary amyloidosis, hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis and familial amyloidosis.
  • Anal Cancer: Cancer (malignant) that develops in the tissues of the anus.
  • Anaplastic large cell lymphoma: A rare type of cancer where a tumor develops in lymph tissue and usually consists of white blood cells and null cells. It is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The tumors can develop in more than one lymph node and can also occur in the skin and various organs such as the liver, bones or lungs.
  • Anaplastic small cell lymphoma: A rare type of cancer where a tumor develops in lymph tissue and consists mainly of small cells. It is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The tumors can develop in more than one lymph node and can also occur in the skin and various organs such as the liver, bones or lungs.
  • Angiosarcoma: Angiosarcomas are a relatively rare type of malignant tumors that develop from blood vessel tissues. The cancer tends to occur mainly in the liver, skin, breasts and deep soft tissues. The cancer is prone to metastasis to the lymphatic system and is considered aggressive. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Angiosarcoma of the breast: A rare type of cancer that starts in the lining of blood vessels in the breast. It is generally an aggressive tumor which often metastasizes.
  • Angiosarcoma of the liver: A rare type of cancer that starts in the lining of blood vessels in the liver. It is generally an aggressive tumor which often metastasizes.
  • Angiosarcoma of the scalp: A rare type of cancer that starts in the lining of blood vessels in the scalp. It is generally an aggressive tumor which often metastasizes.
  • Appendiceal tumor: A tumor of the appendix. The condition is often misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis. The cancer usually metastasizes from other sites and rarely starts in the appendix.
  • Appendix cancer: Cancer of the appendix. The cancer usually metastasizes from other sites and rarely starts in the appendix.
  • B-cell lymphomas: A group cancers involving the proliferation of lymphocytic B-cells. Examples include small lymphocytic lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma and lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • Bard-Pic syndrome: The presence of jaundice, enlarged gallbladder and progressive wasting of the body which indicates a head or pancreatic cancer.
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma, Susceptibility to, 1: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing basal cell carcinoma. Type 1 is linked to a defective gene on chromosome 1p36.
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma, Susceptibility to, 2: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing basal cell carcinoma. Type 2 is linked to a defective gene on chromosome 1q42.
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma, Susceptibility to, 3: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing basal cell carcinoma. Type 3 is linked to a defective gene on chromosome 5p15.
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma, Susceptibility to, 4: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing basal cell carcinoma. Type 4 is linked to a defective gene on chromosome 12q13.
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma, Susceptibility to, 5: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing basal cell carcinoma. Type 5 is linked to a defective gene on chromosome 9p21.
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma, Susceptibility to, 6: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing basal cell carcinoma. Type 6 is linked to a defective gene on chromosome 7q32.
  • Basal cell carcinoma: Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer.
  • Bile duct cancer, extrahepatic: A rare cancer that develops in the part of the common bile duct that is outside the liver. The common bile duct channels bile from the gall bladder (which stores bile) and the liver (which makes bile) to the small intestine to assist digestion.
  • Biliary tract cancer: Cancer that develops in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
  • Blastoma: A type of tumor that originates from precursor cells or blasts (immature or embryonic tissue). The symptoms can vary greatly and are determined by the part of the body that is affected. Blastomas can occur in parts of the body such as the brain, liver, kidneys, nervous system, bones and the retina.
  • Bone cancer: Malignancy that occurs in the bone
  • Bone dysplasia with medullary fibrosarcoma: A rare inherited bone disorder characterized by aggressive bone tumors and defective bone development. The tumors metastasized readily.
  • Brain cancer: Cancer of the brain.
  • Brain tumor, adult: A growth or tumor that develops in the tissues of the brain in adults. The tumor can be benign or malignant.
  • Breast Cancer: Cancer of the breast.
  • Bronchial adenomata syndrome: A type of bronchial tumor that causes various respiratory symptoms.
  • CDK4 linked melanoma: A mutation in the CDK4 gene can cause an increased susceptibility to melanomas.
  • Cachexia: physical wasting with loss of weight and muscle mass caused by disease
  • Cancer: Abnormal overgrowth of body cells.
  • Cancer of Unknown Primary Site: Metastatic cancer whose original source is unknown.
  • Carcinoma of the vocal tract: Cancer of the vocal cords in the larynx.
  • Carcinoma, squamous cell of head and neck: A type of cancer that occurs in the mucosal lining of parts of the head and neck e.g. esophagus, sinuses, nasal cavity, pharynx, mouth and lips. Symptoms will vary depending on the exact location of the cancer.
  • Carotid Paraganglioma: A rare, usually benign tumor found in the carotid artery in the neck. The tumor develops from glomus cells which are located along blood vessels involved in automatic body activities such as regulation of blood pressure and blood flow.
  • Cartilaginous neoplasms: Tumors made up of cartilage tissue. The tumors may be benign or malignant and the symptoms will depend on the location and size of the tumors. The tumors can form on parts of the body such as the arm and leg bones or even in the pharynx. The tumors may cause no symptoms in some cases and are only discovered incidentally.
  • Cerebral ventricle neoplasm: A tumor that occurs in the fluid-filled spaces of the brain called the ventricles. Symptoms vary depending on the size and exact location of the tumor and whether it is cancerous or not.
  • Childhood liver cancer, primary: Cancer that develops in the tissue of the liver in children.
  • Chromophil renal cell carcinoma: A type of kidney tumor where the cells that make up the tumor take up dye readily during pathology testing.
  • Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: A rare type of kidney tumor. The cells that make up the tumor tend to be clear and do not readily take up dye during pathology analysis. Metastasis often only occurs late in the course of the disease and surgical removal usually leads to a good prognosis.
  • Classical Hodgkin disease: Hodgkin's disease is a type of cancer characterized by the abnormal proliferation of a type of white blood cell called lymphocyte. Hodgkin's lymphoma is classified into classical types and nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The nodular form tends to be more localized than the classical form. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is further subdivided into four subgroups depending on the cell composition of the lymphoma: nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte rich and lymphocyte depleted.
  • Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: A type of kidney tumor where the cells that make up the tumor are clear.
  • Collecting duct carcinoma: A rare, aggressive type of kidney cancer that arises from the kidney collecting ducts. The cancer cells can form irregular tubes.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 1: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 9.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 10: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 10 is linked to a defect on chromosome 19q.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 11: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 11 is linked to a defect on chromosome 20p.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 2: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 8q24.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 3: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 16.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 4: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 15.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 5: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10p14.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 6: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 6 is linked to a defect on chromosome 8q23.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 7: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 7 is linked to a defect on chromosome 11.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 8: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 8 is linked to a defect on chromosome 14q.
  • Colorectal Cancer, Susceptibility to, 9: Colorectal cancer refers to cancer of the colon (bowel) or cancer of the rectum, depending on the region affected. It is an under-diagnosed condition because it has no early symptoms. Even when symptoms occur, both the symptoms and the diagnostic tests required are considered embarrassing by many, leading to delayed diagnosis. However, early diagnosis is crucial as colon cancer is a leading cause of death. There are various genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Not all patients with the genetic defect will develop colorectal cancer but the presence of additional triggering factors such as alcohol may trigger the development in those genetically susceptible. Type 9 is linked to a defect on chromosome 16q.
  • Colorectal cancer: Cancer of the colon (bowel) or rectum.
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: A malignancy of the T-cells which make up part of the body's immune system. The cancer is characterized by the excessive proliferation of T-cells which are a type of white blood cell. The degree of skin involvement is variable.
  • Dental tissue neoplasm: A tumor that develops from tissues inside the mouth that form the teeth. There are a number of types of tumors that can develop from tooth forming tissues: ameloblastoma, Pindorg tumor, cementoblastoma and many others. The tumor may be benign or malignant but can cause dental problems even if it is benign.
  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor: A rare aggressive tumor that usually develops in soft tissue and tends to grow to a large size. It usually occurs in the abdomen but may also in other parts of the body such as abdominal organs, brain, testicles, ovaries, spinal cord and skull.
  • Digestive tract cancer:
  • Dysgerminoma: A rare form of cancer of the germ cells in the ovary. It is generally asymptomatic in the early stages. Prognosis with treatment is generally quite good.
  • Endocrine system cancer: Cancer that affects any gland in the endocrine system
  • Endometrial stromal sarcoma: A rare type of cancer that develops from the endometrial layer of the uterus. The cancer may be slow-growing or aggressive and may metastasize.
  • Enteropathy type T-cell lymphoma: A rare subtype of gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Uncontrolled celiac disease appears to be a risk factor for developing this type of lymphoma.
  • Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma: A rare slow-growing type of cancer that occurs in the salivary duct - usually the parotid gland. The cancer tends to occur in older patients. The cancer tends to reoccur readily and can metastasize.
  • Esophageal carcinoma: A cancer of the esophagus.
  • Esophagus Cancer: Cancer of the esophagus in the throat.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma: A rare type of tumor that occurs in the upper nasal cavity. The tumor may obstruct one or both nostrils.
  • Ewing's family of tumors: A rare condition where tumors develop in bone or soft tissue. Usually teenagers are affected.
  • Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor: A rare form of cancer that originates in germ cells that are found in areas such as the brain, chest, tailbone or abdomen rather than the ovaries or testicles. Germ cells are the precursors for male sperm and female eggs. The symptoms are determined by the location and size of the tumor.
  • Fallopian tube cancer: A cancer that originates in the fallopian tubes which form part of the female reproductive organs. This type of cancer is relatively uncommon.
  • Familial Colorectal Cancer: An inherited disorder in which affected individuals have a higher-than-normal chance of developing colorectal cancer and certain other types of cancer, often before the age of 50.
  • Familial Wilms tumor 2: A familial form malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children. Type 2 differs from other forms of Wilms tumor by the origin of the genetic defect (chromosome 19q13.4).
  • Familial renal cell carcinoma: A genetic form of kidney cancer that develops in the lining of the tubules in the kidney and tends to run in families.
  • Follicular Lymphoma, Susceptibility to, 1: Follicular lymphoma is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by an abnormal proliferation of B-lymphocytes. It is a cancer of the B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) which, if untreated, can spread to other parts of the body such as the bones and the liver. It differs from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in that it is a low-grade lymphoma that usually develops slowly. Follicular lymphoma often transforms into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Susceptibility type 1 means that a genetic defect on chromosome 6p21.33 makes a person more susceptible to developing follicular lymphoma.
  • Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: A rare form of malignant cancer involving follicular dendritic cells - it usually occurs in the lymph nodes but can also occur in other parts of the body involved with the immune system. Symptoms will vary depending on which part of the body the cancer occurs. The main symptoms is usually a painless mass that grows slowly.
  • Follicular dendritic cell tumor: A rare form of malignant tumor. Follicular dendritic cells are immune system cells found in lymph follicles. The tumor tends to be low grade and tends to reoccur after removal and occasionally metastasizes. The symptoms are determined by the location and size of the tumor. The tumor can occur on various parts of the body such as lymph nodes, tonsils, armpits and mediastinum but is most common in the neck lymph nodes.
  • Ganglioglioma: A type of tumor that develops in the central nervous system. The tumor originates from glial and nerve cells. The tumor may grow rapidly and symptom will vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Gastric cancer, borrmann 4: A form of malignant gastric tumor which results in the stomach tissue becoming thick and rigid.
  • Gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: A rare form of gastrointestinal tumor. It includes two main groups of cancer called carcinoid and endocrine pancreatic tumors. Some of the tumors consist of hormone secreting cells which results in excessive secretion of certain hormones.
  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Cancer that develops from stroma cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The primary locations are the small intestine, esophagus and esophagus with symptoms being determined by the location, stage and size of the tumor.
  • Gastrointestinal neoplasm: A growth or excessive proliferation of cells in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract which includes the esophagus, intestine, pharynx and stomach. The growth may be benign or malignant. The symptoms are determined by the size, location and stage of the tumor.
  • Gastrointestinal tumors: Any tumor of the gastrointestinal (digestive) system, including cancers and benign tumors.
  • Gestational trophoblastic tumor: A rare tumor that develops in the uterus from cells formed after an abnormal conception (abnormal union of sperm and egg cell). Gestational trophoblastic tumors can also develop from a normal placenta. There are two type of gestational trophoblastic tumors: choriocarcinoma and hydatidiform mole.
  • Glioma: A rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Glioma Susceptibility: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. There have been at least 8 genetic defects linked to an increased glioma susceptibility.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 1: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 3p25.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 2: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 10q23.31.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 3: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 13q12.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 4: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 15q23-q26.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 5: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 9p21.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 6: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 20q13.33.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 7: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 7 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 8q24.21.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 8: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 8 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 5p15.33.
  • Gliosarcoma: A type of brain tumor that originates from glial cells. The tumor may grow rapidly and symptom will vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: A rare type of ovarian tumor which can cause excess estrogen hormone production. The tumor is a low grade malignant tumor.
  • Gynecomastia: Enlarged male breasts
  • Hemangioendothelioma: A rare type of blood vessel tumor that can occur anywhere in the body but is most often found in the skin, liver and spleen. Symptoms vary according to the exact location.
  • Hepatoma: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver.
  • Hodgkin's Disease: A form of cancer that affects the lymphatic system.
  • Hodgkin's disease, nodular sclerosis: Hodgkin's disease is a type of cancer characterized by the abnormal proliferation of a type of white blood cell called lymphocyte. Hodgkin's lymphoma is classified into classical types and nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The nodular form tends to be more localized than the classical form. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is further subdivided into four subgroups depending on the cell composition of the lymphoma: nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte rich and lymphocyte depleted. The nodular sclerosing form is the most common subtype of classical Hodgkin's disease.
  • Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura: Reduced blood platelets causing visible skin blemishes from bleeding or bruising.
  • Inflammatory breast cancer: Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare and aggressive form of invasive breast cancer, where the skin of the breast becomes red, inflamed and pitted in appearance.
  • Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A slow growing malignant cancer that occurs in the bile ducts in the liver.
  • Intraocular melanoma: A type of cancer that develops from pigment producing cells in the eye. The cancer can occur in the iris, choroids or ciliary body. The melanoma may metastasize in some cases. The condition is often asymptomatic.
  • Keratosis palmoplantaris -- adenocarcinoma of the colon: A rare disorder characterized by cancer of the secretory lining of the colon as well as thickening of the skin on the palms and soles. The colon cancer tends to grow slowly.
  • Kidney Cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the kidneys
  • Liposarcoma: A form of malignant mesenchymal tumour usually occurring in the thigh
  • Liver cancer: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver.
  • Lung Cancer Susceptibility 1: Researchers have linked a number of genes to an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The genetic predisposition plus environmental factors and lifestyle factors such as smoking translate to an increased risk of cancer. The genetic predisposition is believed to be insufficient on its own and appears to require the presence of environmental and lifestyle factors such as smoking in order to result in the development of lung cancer. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q23-q25.
  • Lung Cancer Susceptibility 2: Researchers have linked a number of genes to an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The genetic predisposition plus environmental factors and lifestyle factors such as smoking translate to an increased risk of cancer. The genetic predisposition is believed to be insufficient on its own and appears to require the presence of environmental and lifestyle factors such as smoking in order to result in the development of lung cancer. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 15q25.1.
  • Lung Cancer Susceptibility 3: Researchers have linked a number of genes to an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The genetic predisposition plus environmental factors and lifestyle factors such as smoking translate to an increased risk of cancer. The genetic predisposition is believed to be insufficient on its own and appears to require the presence of environmental and lifestyle factors such as smoking in order to result in the development of lung cancer. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 15p15.33.
  • Lung Cancer Susceptibility 4: Researchers have linked a number of genes to an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The genetic predisposition plus environmental factors and lifestyle factors such as smoking translate to an increased risk of cancer. The genetic predisposition is believed to be insufficient on its own and appears to require the presence of environmental and lifestyle factors such as smoking in order to result in the development of lung cancer. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6p21.33.
  • Lung cancer: Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis, which is the invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs. Most lung tumors are malignant.
  • Lymphatic neoplasm: A tumor that develops in lymphatic tissue. The tumor may be cancerous or benign.
  • Lymphatic system cancer: Any type of cancer affecting the lymphatic system, including lymphomas.
  • Lymphatic system tumors: Any type of tumor affecting the lymphatic system, whether cancerous or benign.
  • Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkin's disease: Hodgkin's disease is a type of cancer characterized by the abnormal proliferation of a type of white blood cell called lymphocyte. Hodgkin's lymphoma is classified into classical types and nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The nodular form tends to be more localized than the classical form. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is further subdivided into four subgroups depending on the cell composition of the lymphoma: nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte rich and lymphocyte depleted. The lymphocyte depleted form is the least common form of Hodgkin's disease.
  • Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Follicular: A cancer of cells in the immune system. The cancer is comprised of large cells and tends to be aggressive and metastasizes readily.
  • Lymphoma, large-cell: A cancer of cells in the immune system. The cancer is comprised of large cells and tends to be aggressive and metastasizes readily.
  • Lymphoma, large-cell, immunoblastic: A cancer of the immune system characterized by the presence of immunoblasts. Immunoblasts are T cells which have been transformed due to stimulation by an antigen.
  • Lymphoma, small cleaved-cell, diffuse: A slow-growing cancer of the lymph system that involves small cells. The diffuse form has no distinguishable pattern of progression through the lymph node.
  • Lymphoma, small cleaved-cell, follicular: A slow-growing cancer of the lymph system consisting of small cells that can circulate readily in the blood. The cancer occurs in a follicular pattern. Despite it's ability to spread, the cancer tends to be less aggressive than the large cell variety.
  • Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis: A rare, progressive blood vessel disease where nodular lesions destroy blood vessels - lungs, skin and nervous system are mainly involved.
  • Malignant Teratocarcinosarcoma: A rare type of cancer that involves connective (bone, cartilage, fat) and epithelial (skin and lining of internal organs) tissue and tends to be of a large size. It often tends to occur in the nose, pharynx and sinus areas. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor.
  • Malignant fibrous histiocytoma: A type of malignant cancers that develops in fibrous support tissue or bone. Symptoms will depend on the exact location of the tumor. Tumors most often occur in the extremities but can occur in just about any part of the body.
  • Malignant germ cell tumor: Malignant tumors that are made up of germ cells which are immature cells that eventually become reproductive system tissues in males and females. The symptoms depend on the location of the tumor which may occur in the ovaries, testes or anywhere along the body's midline such as the chest, head, abdomen, pelvis and lower back.
  • Malignant mesenchymal tumor: A malignant tumor that arises from soft tissue. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor. It is a usually aggressive tumor that can occur muscle, fat, bone and blood vessels.
  • Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor: A rare malignant cancer that develops in the uterus, ovary or fallopian tubes. The tumor contains epithelial and stromal cells. The cancer may be slow-growing or aggressive and may metastasize.
  • Malignant rhabdoid tumors: An aggressive malignant tumor that occurs in children. Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor. The tumors often form in the kidneys and then tend to metastasize to the brain and sometimes the lungs. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Mediastinal endodermal sinus tumors: A rare yolk sac tumor that occurs in the mediastinal area (the area that separates the lungs). It is a type of cancer that originates from immature cells (germ cells) that evolve into gonadal tissue but can also be found in other parts of the body such as the chest. The tumors tend to be quite aggressive and often metastasize.
  • Melanoma: Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. It is the leading cause of death from skin disease. It involves cells called melanocytes, which produce a skin pigment called melanin. Melanin is responsible for skin and hair color.
  • Melanoma -- astrocytoma syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of a melanoma with a type of brain tumor called an astrocytoma. The exact symptoms may vary depending on the exact location of the brain tumor.
  • Melanoma of the choroid: A type of eye cancer that occurs in the pigment-producing cells of the choroid which is a layer beneath the retina consisting mainly of blood vessels.
  • Melanoma of the ciliary body: A type of eye cancer that occurs in the pigment-producing cells of the ciliary body which is located between the iris and the choroid.
  • Melanoma of the iris: A cancer that develops in pigment-producing cells in the iris (colored part) of the eye. This type of melanoma usually grows slowly and rarely spreads to other parts of the eye.
  • Melanoma, familial: Melanoma that occurs in a familial pattern. Melanoma is a cancer of pigment-producing cells and can occur in a number of parts of the body such as the skin and eyes.
  • Merkel cell cancer: A rapidly growing, aggressive form of skin cancer that occur on or just under the skin.
  • Metastatic adrenal cancer: The adrenal gland is a common site of metastatic disease. The adrenal gland is the fourth most common site of metastasis, after the lung, liver, and bone.
  • Metastatic blood cancer: Cancer cells can "break away" from a primary tumor, enter lymphatic and blood vessels, circulate through the bloodstream, and settle down to grow within normal tissues elsewhere in the body.
  • Metastatic bone cancer: Cancer cells that break off from a primary tumor and enter the bloodstream can reach nearly all tissues of the body. Bones are a common place for these cancer cells to settle in and start growing.
  • Metastatic breast cancer: Metastatic breast cancer is the term used to describe cancer that has spread from the original site in the breast to other organs or tissues in the body.
  • Metastatic lymph cancer: Metastasis is a complex series of steps in which cancer cells leave the original tumor site and migrate to other parts of the body via the lymphatic system.
  • Metastatic nervous system cancer: CNS metastases are traditionally viewed as a late complication of systemic disease, for which few effective treatment options exist.
  • Metastatic skin cancer: Cutaneous metastases from carcinoma are relatively uncommon in clinical practice, but they are very important to recognize. Cutaneous metastasis may herald the diagnosis of internal malignancy.
  • Metastatic soft tissue cancer: Soft tissue sarcomas, the fifth most common solid tumors in children, are relatively rare and account forabout 6-7% of all childhood malignancies.
  • Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary: A type of cancer that occurs in the neck and has spread (metastasized) to the lymph nodes from a primary source that has not been able to be determined. Squamous cells are cells that line hollow organs as well as the skin and throat.
  • Mixed cellularity Hodgkin's disease: Hodgkin's disease is a type of cancer characterized by the abnormal proliferation of a type of white blood cell called lymphocyte. Hodgkin's lymphoma is classified into classical types and nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The nodular form tends to be more localized than the classical form. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is further subdivided into four subgroups depending on the cell composition of the lymphoma: nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte rich and lymphocyte depleted. The mixed cellularity type if often associated with infection with HIV or Epstein Barr virus.
  • Myelofibrosis: A rare condition where progressive scarring or fibrosis of the bone marrow impairs it's ability to make blood cells causing symptoms such as anemia and liver and spleen enlargement.
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A malignant cancer that occurs in the nasopharynx area which is the upper part of the throat. Often there are no symptoms until the cancer has metastasized to other parts of the body such as the neck.
  • Nasopharynx cancer: A condition which is characterized a malignancy located in the nasopharynx
  • Neck Cancer: Any cancer that occurs in the neck
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblstoma.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 1: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1p36.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 2: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 4p12.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 3: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 2p23.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 4: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 6p.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 5: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q35.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 6: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1q21.
  • Neurocysticercosis: Brain/CNS infection with the tapeworm Cysticercosis
  • Neuroectodermal tumors primitive: A type of brain tumor that consists of small round cells and is believed to originate from primitive nerve cells in the brain. Symptoms are determined by the exact location of the tumor.
  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: A rare form of cervical cancer which tends to be quite aggressive.
  • Neurofibromatosis, familial intestinal: A rare type of familial tumor that arises from intestinal nerves.
  • Neurofibrosarcoma: A rare type of tumor that develops from cells that provide a protective layer around nerves (nerve sheath). Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor. The arms and legs are most commonly affected.
  • Nodular melanoma: Nodular melanoma is the most aggressive form of melanoma. It grows in vertical direction from the outset and grows very fast (months). Nodular melanoma has no known precursor. It is a small black, or if amelanotic, pink nodule that simply enlarges. The lesions tend to bleed.
  • Nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's lymphoma: Hodgkin's disease is a type of cancer characterized by the abnormal proliferation of a type of white blood cell called lymphocyte. Hodgkin's lymphoma is classified into classical types and nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The nodular form tends to be more localized than the classical form. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is further subdivided into four subgroups depending on the cell composition of the lymphoma: nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte rich and lymphocyte depleted.
  • Non functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor: A tumor of the pancreas that does not result in an increased hormone production but can cause symptoms when the tumor becomes big enough to push against other structures. The tumor may be malignant or benign.
  • Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A type of lymphoma, a cancer affecting lymph nodes and the immune system.
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: It is any type of lung cancer other than small cell carcinoma (SCLC). As a class, NSCLCs are relatively insensitive to chemotherapy, compared to small cell carcinoma
  • Occupational Cancer -- Bladder cancer: Occupational exposure to naphthylamine can increase the risk of developing bladder cancer.
  • Occupational Cancer -- Hodgkin's lymphoma: Occupational exposure to wood dust can increase the risk of developing Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Occupational Cancer -- Laryngeal cancer: Occupational exposure to organic solvents can increase the risk of developing laryngeal cancer.
  • Occupational Cancer -- Larynx cancer: Occupational exposure to mustard gas can increase the risk of developing larynx cancer.
  • Occupational Cancer -- Liver cancer: Occupational exposure to vinyl chloride can increase the risk of developing liver cancer.
  • Occupational Cancer -- Lung cancer: Occupational exposure to arsenic can increase the risk of developing lung cancer.
  • Occupational Cancer -- Lymphatic cancer: Occupational exposure to X-radiation can increase the risk of developing lymphatic cancer.
  • Occupational Cancer -- Mesothelioma: Occupational exposure to asbestos can increase the risk of developing mesothelioma.
  • Occupational Cancer -- Nasal Cavity and Sinus cancer: Occupational exposure to wood dust can increase the risk of developing nasal cavity and sinus cancer.
  • Occupational Cancer -- Respiratory tract cancer: People employed in occupations which involves chronic exposure to arsenic, asbestos, cadmium, beryllium, chromium, diesel exhaust, silica and nickel can lead to an increased risk of developed respiratory tract cancers such as bronchial cancer, lung cancer and tracheal cancer.
  • Ocular melanoma: A type of cancer that develops in the eye. The cancer develops from pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. This cancer becomes more common with increasing age.
  • Optic pathway glioma: A type of tumor that arises in the optic nerve which sends messages from the eye to the brain. These tumors tend to occur mainly in children under the age of 10. The tumor may affect the hormone center of the brain and hence can affect such things as growth and weight.
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma: A type of cancer that develops in the mouth. Smoking and alcohol can increase the risk of this cancer. The cancer can develop in any part of the mouth including the tonsils, pharynx, tongue, lip and palate. The tumor tends to invade and tissue nearby.
  • Orbit tumor: A condition which is characterized by the occurrence of a tumour in the eye
  • Orbital lymphoma: A tumor that develops in the soft tissue of the eye socket and can push against the eye causing problems with vision and eye movement.
  • Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a chronic condition characterised by mechanical disrturbances due to degradation of joints. It is the most common form of arthritis, and the leading cause of chronic disability.
  • Osteomalacia: A condition where the bones gradually soften and bend due to poor calcification stemming from a lack or impaired metabolism of vitamin D.
  • Osteomyelitis: A bone inflammation caused by bacteria. The inflammation usually originates in another part of the body and is transported to the bone via the blood.
  • Osteoporosis: Bone thinning and weakening from bone calcium depletion.
  • Ovarian carcinosarcoma: A type of ovarian cancer.
  • Paget's Disease: Breast carcinoma involving nipple and areola.
  • Paget's disease of bone: A chronic, slowly progressing bone disorder where the bone is destroyed rapidly and replaced by abnormal bone which is dense and fragile.
  • Pancreatic cancer: Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas
  • Pancreatic cancer, adult: Cancer that develops in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas produces digestive juices and certain hormones such as insulin that regulate sugar levels in the body and tumors can in some cases causes excessive hormone secretion.
  • Pancreatic carcinoma, familial: Cancer (malignant) that develops in the pancreas and tends to run in families. The pancreas produces digestive juices and certain hormones such as insulin that regulate sugar levels in the body.
  • Pancreatic islet cell tumors (non-functioning tumor): A tumor that arises from the pancreatic islet cells and may involve cells that produce excess pancreatic hormones.
  • Papillary renal cell carcinoma: A type of kidney tumor characterized by the development of finger-like projections in at least some of the tumor. It can be inherited in a familial pattern or occur sporadically.
  • Paraganglioma: A rare, usually benign tumor most often found in the abdomen, chest, head and neck areas. The tumor develops from glomus cells which are located along blood vessels involved in automatic body activities such as regulation of blood pressure and blood flow. Symptoms may vary depending on the exact location of the tumor.
  • Paranasal sinus cancer, adult: Cancer that develops in the paranasal sinus which are spaces behind the cheeks and nose.
  • Pathological fracture: The occurrence of a fracture a bone of the body caused by a disease state
  • Peripheral neuroectodermal tumor: A type of tumor that consists of small round cells and occurs in bone or soft tissue in the extremities of the body such as the arms, legs, pelvis or chest wall. Symptoms are determined by the location of the tumor. The tumor may be malignant or benign.
  • Pheochromocytoma as part of Neurofibromatosis: A tumor that develops in the part of the adrenal gland called the medulla which produces adrenalin and noradrenaline. This tumor is often associated with a condition called neurofibromatosis. The tumor affects automatic body activities such as regulating breathing rate and heartbeat.
  • Phyllodes tumor of the prostate: A rare type of tumor that occurs in the prostate. The tumor is usually benign but may become malignant and tends to have a leaf-like appearance.
  • Pineal Teratoma: A type of brain tumor that occurs mainly in the pineal region of the brain.
  • Pinealoma: A slow-growing type of brain tumor that occurs in the pineal gland. The pineal gland produces a hormone called melatonin which is involved in regulating sleep patterns.
  • Pineoblastoma, adult: A rare type of highly malignant brain tumor that usually occurs in children. The tumor develops in the pineal region of the brain.
  • Pituitary cancer, childhood: Cancer (malignant) of the pituitary gland in children. The pituitary gland produces various hormones and some pituitary tumors (functioning tumors) can affect the secretion of one or more of these hormones resulting in a range of symptoms depending on the exact location of the tumor. Some pituitary tumors do not affect hormone production (nonfunctioning tumors).
  • Pituitary tumors, adult: A benign or cancer tumor that develops in the tissue of the pituitary gland in adults. The pituitary gland produces various hormones and some pituitary tumors (functioning tumors) can affect the secretion of one or more of these hormones resulting in a range of symptoms depending on the exact location of the tumor. Some pituitary tumors do not affect hormone production (nonfunctioning tumors).
  • Pleuropulmonary blastoma: A type of tumor that originates from precursor cells or blasts (immature or embryonic tissue) in the lungs or covering of the lungs.
  • Plexosarcoma: A rare type of tumor that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and retroperitoneum.
  • Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: A rare type of tumor of the salivary gland that occurs mainly on the roof of the mouth.
  • Primary Fallopian Tube Cancer: A cancer that originates in the fallopian tubes which form part of the female reproductive organs. This type of cancer is relatively uncommon.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma: A cancerous proliferation of lymphocytic B-cells caused by the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus). It is more prevalent in immunodeficient people such as AIDS patients. The cancer tends to occur in the lining of body cavities such as the pericardium and peritoneum. The cancerous cells are detected in the fluid secreted from the lining of the cavity.
  • Primary malignant lymphoma: The excessive proliferation of lymphocytes which forms part of the immune system. Primary cancers refer to the fact that the cancer originated in the lymph cells rather than having metastasized.
  • Primary malignant melanoma of the cervix: A form of cervical cancer where the tumor consists of pigment containing cells.
  • Prostate Cancer: Cancer of the prostate.
  • Radiation induced angiosarcoma of the breast: A rare form of malignant breast tumor that occurs after exposure to radiation. Radiation is used to treat a variety of conditions such as cancer. The tumor can develop years or even decades after the exposure.
  • Radiation related neoplasm: Tumors caused by exposure to radiation which is often used to treat various conditions. Usually the tumor develops many years or even decades after the exposure and the tumors tend to occur in the part of the body exposed to the radiation. The tumor can develop in virtually any part of the body and thus the symptoms are highly variable.
  • Rectal cancer: A growth or excessive proliferation of cells in the rectum which is the final portion of the digestive system before the anus. The growth may be benign or malignant.
  • Rectosigmoid neoplasm: A tumor that originates in the upper rectal area or sigmoid colon. The tumor may be benign or cancerous.
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma 2: A genetic form of kidney cancer.
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma 3: A dominantly inherited form of kidney cancer which is linked to chromosome 5q.
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma 4: A genetic form of kidney cancer.
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Neuroblastoma: A cancer of the kidney associated with a neuroblastoma (cancer of the nerve cells) which is a relatively common childhood cancer. The kidney cancer tends to develop in long-term survivors of this childhood cancer. It is unclear as to whether the treatment therapies for the neuroblastoma increase the risk of the kidney cancer or whether there is a susceptibility gene involved. Usually only one kidney is affected but it can occur in both kidneys.
  • Renal cancer, familial: A genetic form of kidney cancer that tends to run in families.
  • Renal cell carcinoma, papillary, familial: A type of kidney tumor inherited in a familial manner and characterized by the development of finger-like projections in at least some of the tumor.
  • Renal cell carcinoma, papillary, hereditary: A type of kidney tumor characterized by the development of finger-like projections in at least some of the tumor. The cancer can occur in a sporadic manner as well as a familial manner.
  • Renal cell carcinoma, papillary, sporadic: A type of kidney tumor characterized by the development of finger-like projections in at least some of the tumor. The cancer can occur in a sporadic manner as well as a familial manner.
  • Renal pelvis and ureter, transitional cell cancer: Cancer that develops in certain cells that make up the ureter and renal pelvis. The ureter is a tube that connects the kidney to the bladder and the renal pelvis is a part of the kidney. Transitional cells line the inside of the renal pelvis and the ureter.
  • Retinoblastoma: A very rare malignant tumor that originates in the retina.
  • Retroperitoneal liposarcoma: A rare, slow growing tumor that develops in the retroperitoneal cavity of the abdomen and tends to displace organs rather than destroy them. The tumor generally contains fat and soft tissue.
  • Rhabdoid tumor: An aggressive malignant tumor that occurs in children. Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor. The tumors often form in the kidneys and then tend to metastasize to the brain and sometimes the lungs.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit: A type of tumor found around the eye area (orbit). The tumor is usually malignant.
  • Rickets: A rare condition where a lack of Vitamin D results in bone disease as it is essential for the process of bone calcification.
  • Sarcoma botryoides: An aggressive form of cancer that arises from embryonic muscle cells. The tumor resembles a bunch of grapes and tends to occur in the genitourinary tract. Common locations are the cervix, vagina and bladder and very rare cases can occur in the bile duct or the soft tissues of the head and neck. It occurs most often in female infants and young children. Symptoms will vary depending on the exact location of the tumor.
  • Sebaceous gland carcinoma: This uncommon and aggressive cancer originates in the oil glands in the skin.
  • Secretory breast carcinoma: A slow-growing type of breast cancer that can occur in males and females as well as children.
  • Sertoli-leydig cell tumors: A rare form of ovarian cancer where excessive male sex hormones are produced by the cancerous cells.
  • Shoulder Pain: A pain that occurs in the shoulder. There is often other associated symptoms depending on the cause of the shoulder pain. For example, swelling may indicate a broken bone.
  • Sinus cancer: Cancer that originates from the mucosal tissue lining the sinus cavities or rarely from the bone itself.
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer: Small cell lung cancer is a cancer of the small cells which make up some of the lung tissue. It tends to be a more aggressive cancer than large cell lung cancer and can metastasize to other parts of the body. This type of cancer nearly always occurs in a people with a history of smoking.
  • Small cell lung cancer, adult: Small cell lung cancer is a cancer of the lung tissue which is made up of small cells. It tends to be a more aggressive cancer than large cell lung cancer and can metastasize to other parts of the body.
  • Small intestine cancer, adult: Cancer (malignant) that develops in the small intestine of adults.
  • Spinal cord neoplasm: A growth (tumor) that arises from the spinal cord. The tumor may be benign or malignant.
  • Spleen neoplasm: A tumor that originates in the spleen.
  • Stomach cancer: Stomach or gastric cancer can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs
  • Stomach cancer, familial: Cancer of the stomach that tends to run in families.
  • Superficial spreading melanoma: Superficial spreading melanoma is usually characterized as the most common form of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasians.
  • Supraglottic laryngeal cancer: Cancer that arises in the tissue above the vocal cords.
  • Synovial cancer: Cancer (malignant) that develops in synovial tissue in joints. Synovial tissue can be found in the lining of cavities in joints, tendons and bursae.
  • Thymic epithelial tumor: A tumor that develops in the outer layers (epithelial) layers of the thymus. The tumor may be malignant or benign. The thymus produces white blood cells.
  • Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell: A rare form of cancer that originates in the thyroid gland. This cancer is characterized by the abnormal presence of Hurthle cells which may signify benign or malignant thyroid cancer. The cancer usually responds well to treatment if detected in the earlier stages.
  • Thyroid cancer, anaplastic: A thyroid gland cancer that is quite aggressive and metastasizes to other parts of the body.
  • Thyroid cancer, follicular: A usually slow-growing cancer of the thyroid gland which is rarely fatal. The cancer develops from cells in the thyroid that produce iodine-containing hormones. This type of cancer usually responds well to treatment.
  • Thyroid cancer, medullary: Cancer of the thyroid gland. The cancer develops from the parafollicular cells or in the thyroid gland which produced calcitonin. This type of cancer does not respond to treatment as well as papillary or follicular thyroid cancer. This form of thyroid cancer may be inherited.
  • Thyroid cancer, papillary: A usually slow-growing cancer of the thyroid gland which is rarely fatal. The cancer develops from cells in the thyroid that produce iodine-containing hormones. This type of cancer usually responds well to treatment.
  • Transitional cell carcinoma: A type of cancer that occurs in the lining of the urinary system organs (renal pelvis, bladder or ureter).
  • Urachal cancer: A very rare cancer that occurs in the top of the urinary bladder. The urachus is a tube which joins the belly button to the top of the bladder. After birth, this tube gradually disappears and the amount remaining varies from person to person.
  • Urethral cancer: A rare cancer that develops in the urethra which carries urine from the bladder to be excreted.
  • Urinary tract neoplasm: A tumor that develops anywhere along the urinary tract. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, urethra and ureters. The tumor may be malignant or benign.
  • Uterine sarcoma: A rare type of cancer that occurs in the uterus or associated tissues. A sarcoma is a cancer that involves soft tissue and connective tissue such as bone, cartilage, fat, muscle and blood vessels.
  • Vagal Paraganglioma: A rare, usually benign tumor found in the neck. The tumor develops from glomus cells which are located along blood vessels involved in automatic body activities such as regulation of blood pressure and blood flow.
  • Virilizing ovarian tumor: An ovarian tumor made up of hormone secreting cells which results in excessive male hormone (androgen) production.
  • Vocal cord carcinoma: A cancer that occurs in the vocal cords. Predisposing factors for this type of cancer include smoking, chemicals, environmental irritants and metabolic problems.
  • Vulvar cancer: Cancer (malignant) that develops in the tissue of the vulva.
  • Vulvar neoplasms: A tumor that develops in the tissue of the vulva.
  • Wilms tumor 2: A familial form malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children. Type 2 differs from other forms of Wilms tumor by the origin of the genetic defect (chromosome 11p15.5).
  • Wilms tumor 3: A dominantly inherited form malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children. Type 3 differs from other forms of Wilms tumor by the origin of the genetic defect (chromosome 16q).
  • Wilms tumor 4: A familial form malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children. Type 4 differs from other forms of Wilms tumor by the origin of the genetic defect (chromosome 17q12-q21).
  • Wilms tumor and radial bilateral aplasia: A condition that is characterised by bilateral aplasia of the kidneys and wilms tumor
  • Wilms tumour and radial bilateral aplasia: A conditions that is characterized by the absence of one of the two forearm bones (radius) as well as the development of a type of kidney tumor called Wilm's tumor.
  • Wilms' tumor: A malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children.

 

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