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Diseases » Miscarriage » Glossary
 

Glossary for Miscarriage

  • Abdominal Pain: A condition which is characterized by the sensation of pain that is located in the abdomen
  • Abruptio Placentae: Placental bleeding usually late in a pregnancy.
  • Amphetamine abuse: Use of the stimulant drugs known as amphetamines or "speed"
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome: An autoimmune disorder characterized by blood clots and pregnancy losses.
  • Bilateral renal agenesis dominant type: A rare birth defect where both kidneys are absent. The disorder results in death within days of birth.
  • Celiac Disease: Digestive intolerance to gluten in the diet.
  • Choriocarcinoma: Rare cancer of the placenta
  • Chromosome 16q, partial duplication: A rare chromosomal disorder involving an extra copy of genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 16. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the duplicated genetic material. Severe cases often result in spontaneous abortion or infant death.
  • Classical Potter syndrome: A term that describes the physical appearance that occurs when kidney disease results in a reduced volume of amniotic fluid. In the classical type, both kidneys are absent.
  • Cocaine fetopathy: Cocaine use during pregnancy resulting in various birth defects and other abnormalities.
  • Complete Trisomy 18 syndrome: Complete Trisomy 18 syndrome is the most severe form of Edwards syndrome and involves an extra copy of chromosome 18 in all of the body cells. This severe form causes mental retardation and numerous physical defects that often cause death before birth or during infancy.
  • Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen
  • Diethylstilbestrol antenatal infection: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly caused by exposure to diethylstilbestrol (used to prevent complications during pregnancy such as miscarriage and prematurity) during pregnancy
  • Duplication 18: A rare genetic chromosomal syndrome where the child has an extra third copy of chromosome 18. Most fetuses are aborted before term, but a live birth with this condition occurs with a frequency around 1-in-3000. Duplication 18 syndrome is more severe than the more common Down syndrome. Duplication 18 syndrome causes mental retardation and numerous physical defects that often cause an early infant death. The condition has variable severity depending on how many of the body's cells have the extra chromosome and how much of the extra chromosome is duplicated. In severe forms all cells have an extra copy of the complete chromosome 18 whereas milder forms may have only some cells having the extra chromosome. Other mild forms may have an extra copy of only part of chromosome 18 in some or all of the body cells.
  • Ecstasy abuse: Use of the illicit drug called ecstasy
  • Edward Syndrome: A rare genetic chromosomal syndrome where the child has an extra third copy of chromosome 18. Most fetuses are aborted before term, but a live birth with this condition occurs with a frequency around 1-in-3000. Duplication 18 syndrome is more severe than the more common Down syndrome. Duplication 18 syndrome causes mental retardation and numerous physical defects that often cause an early infant death. The condition has variable severity depending on how many of the body's cells have the extra chromosome and how much of the extra chromosome is duplicated. In severe forms all cells have an extra copy of the complete chromosome 18 whereas milder forms may have only some cells having the extra chromosome. Other mild forms may have an extra copy of only part of chromosome 18 in some or all of the body cells.
  • Edwards Syndrome: A rare inherited genetic disorder where a portion of chromosome 18 is duplicated. Most affected individuals die during the fetal stage and surviving infants have serious defects and tend to live for only a short while.
  • Endometrial conditions: Conditions that affect the female endometrium that is located in the uterus
  • Endometriosis: Misplaced uterus tissue causing scar tissue.
  • Factor XIII Deficiency: A very rare inherited or acquired blood disorder caused by a deficiency of Factor XIII which is involved in stabilizing blood clot formation. The condition manifests as bleeding problems.
  • Factor XIII deficiency, congenital: A very rare inherited blood disorder caused by a deficiency of Factor XIII which is involved in stabilizing blood clot formation. The condition manifests as bleeding problems.
  • Factor XIII, A1 subunit Deficiency: A very rare inherited or acquired blood disorder caused by a deficiency of subunit A of Factor XIII which is involved in stabilizing blood clot formation. The condition manifests as bleeding problems.
  • Factor XIII, B subunit Deficiency: A very rare inherited or acquired blood disorder caused by a deficiency of subunit B of Factor XIII which is involved in stabilizing blood clot formation. The condition manifests as bleeding problems.
  • Female infertility: Infertility that affects the female
  • Female reproductive conditions: Medical conditions affecting the female reproductive system.
  • Female reproductive toxicity: There is mounting evidence which indicates that exposure to certain agents may produce adverse reproductive or fetal developmental effects. The possible range of effects includes reduced fertility, low birth weight, childhood cancer, spontaneous abortion and birth defects. Agents which may be implicated in these adverse effects includes anticancer drugs, carbon disulfide, carbon monoxide, lead, pesticides, organic solvents and tobacco smoke.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Dioxins: There is limited conflicting evidence which indicates that some women exposed to dioxins may suffer adverse effects as a result. Spontaneous abortion and menstrual disorders and birth defects are the possible adverse effects.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Ethylene Oxide: Exposure to Ethylene Oxide, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Ethylene Oxide is used in pesticides as well as disinfectants. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Pesticides: There is limited evidence which indicates that some women exposed to pesticides may suffer adverse effects as a result. Spontaneous abortion, infertility, menstrual disorders and birth defects are possible adverse effects. Generally, adverse effects are only likely to occur with chronic exposure such as occurs in occupational settings e.g. farm workers.
  • Fetal death: The death of a fetus
  • Food poisoning: Poisoning from a substance or microbe in food.
  • Graves Disease: is an autoimmune disease characterized by hyperthyroidism due to circulating autoantibodies. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs) bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors, causing the thyroid gland to grow and the thyroid follicles to increase synthesis of thyroid hormone.
  • Habitual abortion: The occurrence of two or more spontaneous abortions in a row. The condition may result from severe fetal abnormality, endocrine disorders, severe kidney problems, structural defects of the cervix or uterus or immune problems.
  • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Hashimoto thyroiditis is characterized by the destruction of thyroid cells by various cell- and antibody-mediated immune processes. Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis have antibodies to various thyroid antigens, the most frequently detected of which include antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg), and, to a lesser extent, TSH receptor-blocking antibodies.
  • Hereditary hypothyroidism: Hereditary hypothyroidism is a condition in which there is a defect in the thyroid gland which leads to increased production of TSH reduced production of thyroid hormone.
  • High fever: Where a patient has an elevated temperature
  • Human parvovirus B19 infection -- fetal: Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19.
  • Hyperthermia induced defects: A rare disorder where hypothermia during pregnancy results in infant abnormalities involving growth, development and brain dysfunction.
  • Intrauterine infections: Infection of the fetus while still inside the womb. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the type of infection and at what stage of pregnancy it occurs. Some cases are mild enough to be asymptomatic and others are severe enough to cause a miscarriage.
  • Lead poisoning: A type of heavy metal poisoning caused by excessive exposure to lead.
  • Limb-body wall complex: A rare condition where disruption of the amniotic band system can result in head, heart, lung, diaphragm, kidney or gonad abnormalities .
  • Listeriosis -- granulomatous infantiseptica: Listeria monocytogenes infection that is transmitted from a pregnant woman to the fetus.
  • Lower abdominal pain: The occurrence of pain located in the lower abdominal region
  • Lupus: Autoimmune disease with numerous effects on various organs and linings.
  • Lyme disease: Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia.
  • Male reproductive toxicity -- Benzene: Exposure to Benzene, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the male reproductive system. Benzene is a widely used chemical - in pesticides and as a solvent in industries such as pesticide manufacturing, laboratory chemicals, printing, paper and pulp manufacture and pharmaceuticals manufacture. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the male reproductive system can include such things as altered sexual behavior, altered fertility and problems with sperm shape or count.
  • Maternal hyperphenylalaninemia: A rare disorder where a mother suffering from phenylketonuria during pregnancy can result in various birth abnormalities.
  • Menstrual cramps: A condition caused by menstruation in females which results in a cramp like pain
  • Midline field defects: Congenital problems that occur along the vertical axis of the body. Defects can involve the brain, spine, heart, genitals and midline of the head and face.
  • Nondisjunction: Failure of chromosomes to separate during the cell cycle, causing one daughter cell to receive 2 chromosomes and the other daughter cell to receive no chromosomes.
  • Oligohydramnios: A deficiency in the amount of amniotic fluid in the gestational sac during pregnancy
  • Partial Trisomy 18 Syndrome: A rare genetic chromosomal syndrome where the child has an extra third copy of only part of chromosome 18 in the body's cells. It is a less severe form of Edwards syndrome - the most severe form involves and extra copy of the whole of chromosome 18 in all of the body's cells. The severity of the condition is highly variable depending on how many of the body's cells are involved and how much of the chromosome is involved.
  • Phenylketonuria: A metabolic disorder where there is a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase which leads to a harmful buildup of the phenylalanine in the body. Normally the phenylalanine is converted into tyrosine. The severity of the symptoms can range from severe enough to cause mental retardation to mild enough not to require treatment. Severity is determined by the level of impairment of enzyme activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase.
  • Placenta conditions: Any condition that affects the placenta
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder that affects approximately 5% of all women.
  • Polyploidy: When body cells contains more than 2 copies of each chromosome.
  • Pregnancy: The condition of supporting a fetus from conception till birth.
  • Pregnancy-related conditions: Any condition that is related to or caused by pregnancy
  • Primary hypothyroidism: Primary hypothyroidism is a condition in which a defect in the thyroid gland leads to reduced production of thyroid hormone.
  • Reproductive conditions: Medical conditions of the reproductive system in men or women.
  • Reproductive toxicity -- Vinyl Chloride: Vinyl Chloride is a suspected reproductive toxicant and exposure to it has the potential to negatively affect the human reproductive system. Vinyl Chloride is used mainly to make PVC products. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as sex, level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome. Effects on the male reproductive system can include such things as altered sexual behavior, altered fertility and problems with sperm shape or count.
  • Reproductive toxicity -- Xylene (mixed isomers): Xylene (mixed isomers) is a suspected reproductive toxicant and exposure to it has the potential to negatively affect the human reproductive system. Xylene (mixed isomers) is used mainly as an industrial solvent and is used in the manufacture paints, lacquers, resins, inks and also in the manufacture of dyes, plastics and pharmaceuticals. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as sex, level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome. Effects on the male reproductive system can include such things as altered sexual behavior, altered fertility and problems with sperm shape or count.
  • Rubella: A contagious viral infection caused by the Rubella virus which produces a rash and lymph node swelling. It can have serious implication in pregnant women as the virus can be transmitted through the placenta and cause serious fetal defects or even fetal death.
  • Schisis association: A medical term used to describe any condition involving two or more malformations of certain types. Malformations can include such things as oral clefts, neural tube defects, diaphragmatic hernias and omphaloceles.
  • Septic abortion: An abortion associated with a uterine infection. The infection can occur during or just before or after an abortion. The infection can result from factors such as Chlamydia, IUD's or attempted abortion using infected tools.
  • Septicemia: A systemic inflammatory response to an infection.
  • Smoking: The smoking of cigarettes
  • Stillbirth: Where a woman delivers a child who is dead
  • Toxoplasmosis: Infection often caught from cats and their feces.
  • Triploid syndrome: A complete extra set of chromosomes.
  • Trisomy 18 Syndrome: A rare genetic chromosomal syndrome where the child has an extra third copy of chromosome 18. Most fetuses are aborted before term, but a live birth with this condition occurs with a frequency around 1-in-3000. Edwards syndrome is more severe than the more common Down syndrome. Edwards syndrome causes mental retardation and numerous physical defects that often cause an early infant death. The condition has variable severity depending on how many of the body's cells have the extra chromosome and how much of the extra chromosome is duplicated. In severe forms all cells have an extra copy of the complete chromosome 18 whereas milder forms may have only some cells having the extra chromosome. Other mild forms may have an extra copy of only part of chromosome 18 in some or all of the body cells.
  • Trisomy 18 mosaicism: A rare genetic chromosomal syndrome where the child has an extra third copy of chromosome 18 in only some of the body's cells. It is a less severe form of Edwards syndrome - the most severe form involves and extra copy of chromosome 18 in all of the body's cells. The severity of the condition is highly variable depending on how many of the body's cells are involved.
  • Uterus conditions: Any condition that affects the female uterus
  • Vaginal bleeding: Bleeding in or from the vagina.
  • Vitamin A embryopathy: A morbid condition of the embryo caused by the consumption of excess Vitamin A during pregnancy
  • Women-only conditions: Conditions affecting women (females), but not males.
  • Womens health conditions: Medical conditions related to women's health.

 

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