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Glossary for Mucus membrane conditions

  • Acid reflux / heartburn:
  • Acquired angioedema: A rare disorder characterized by recurring episodes of swelling of parts of the skin or mucous membranes. Sometimes internal organs may be involved. The disorder occurs in patients with lymphoproliferative or autoimmune disorders which result in the dysfunction of a complex blood protein called C1 inhibitor.
  • Acquired angioedema, type 1: A rare disorder characterized by recurring episodes of swelling of parts of the skin or mucous membranes. Sometimes internal organs may be involved. The disorder occurs in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders which affects the function of a complex blood protein called C1 inhibitor.
  • Acquired angioedema, type 2: A rare disorder characterized by recurring episodes of swelling of parts of the skin or mucous membranes. Sometimes internal organs may be involved. Type 2 is an autoimmune disorder where patients develop autoantibodies which destroy the function of C1 esterase inhibitor.
  • Acral lentiginous melanoma: Acral lentigous melanoma is the most common variant of skin cancer seen in dark-skinned people. This form of melanoma appears on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, or on nails. Lesions are usually brown, black, or multicolored with irregular borders, and flat or nodular.
  • Acrodermatitis Enteropathica: A rare inherited malabsorption disorder where the body is unable to absorb zinc in adequate quantities.
  • Acute Bronchitis: Respiratory inflammation of the bronchi leading to the lungs
  • Acute Cholecystitis: Acute inflammation of the gall bladder, usually due to obstruction by a gall stone
  • Acute Gastritis: Sudden onset, generally short-lived infection of the gastrointestinal tract causing vomiting; may be due to infective causes (viruses, bacteria or protozoa), or due to drug toxicity and irritation
  • Acute Sinusitis: A condition which is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction affecting the sinuses
  • Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis: A rare form of bacterial oral infection which causes inflammation and ulceration of the gums. The infection results in an excess number of the bacteria which are normally found in healthy mouths. Certain viruses may be a factor in allowing the overgrowth of these bacteria. Factors such as smoking, stress, poor nutrition and poor oral hygiene may increase the risk of the infection.
  • Acute rhinitis: An acute condition which affects the nasal mucous caused by inflammation
  • Adenomatous Polyposis of the Colon, autosomal dominant: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous. The condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and occurs in a familial pattern. Most patients have at least one parent with the condition.
  • Adenoviridae Infections: Infection with a virus from the Adenoviridae family. The most common sites for infection are membrane linings such as the intestines, respiratory and urinary tract and the eyes. The infection may result in a range of symptoms depending on the particular virus involved. Transmission usually occurs through breathing in the germs or through fecal-oral contact. The infection is contagious.
  • Adenovirus infection in immunocompromised patients: Infection with a virus from the Adenoviridae family that occurs in a patient with a weakened immune system. The infection in these people is serious and can be fatal. The infection may result in a range of symptoms depending on the particular virus involved. Transmission usually occurs through breathing in the germs or through fecal-oral contact.
  • Adenovirus-related Cold: An Adenovirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Adenovirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Adenoviruses: Common viruses causing common cold and various other ailments.
  • Adult Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition characterized by the production of thick sticky mucus by the mucus glands in the lungs, intestines, liver and pancreas. The condition is most often diagnosed in children or young adults but occasionally, relatively mild symptoms may lead to frequent misdiagnosis or no diagnosis at all unless the symptoms become worse. The condition may be misdiagnosed as emphysema, asthma or chronic bronchitis. It is usually females with a mild form of the disease who tend to be diagnosed at a later age.
  • African Kaposi's sarcoma: Endemic Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurs in people living in Equatorial Africa and is sometimes called African KS. An aggressive form of African Kaposi's sarcoma can spread quickly to the bones. Another form found in African children does not affect the skin. Instead, it spreads through the lymph nodes and vital organs, and can quickly become fatal.
  • Allergic asthma: Allergic asthma is one of the most common forms of asthma and is triggered by exposure to an allergen. Upon exposure to the allergen, the airways become constricted and inflamed which affects breathing. The severity of symptoms is variable. This form of asthma is more common in children than adults.
  • Allergic conjunctivitis: Allergic conjunctivitis is an allergic reaction which causes inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye (thin clear lining covering the eye).
  • Allergic rhinitis: Allergic rhinitis involves inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, eyes, eustachian tubes, middle ear, sinuses, and pharynx.
  • Amyloidosis of gingiva and conjunctiva mental retardation: A rare disorder characterized by mental retardation and abnormal amyloid deposits in the gums and conjunctiva of the eye.
  • Analgesic asthma syndrome: Asthma caused by the use of pain-killing and anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin.
  • Anderson's triad: The association of cystic fibrosis, celiac disease and vitamin A deficiency.
  • Aphthous stomatitis: A rare condition characterized by recurring painful ulcers in the mouth.
  • Asthma: Repeated attacks of breathing difficulty.
  • Asthma in Adults:
  • Asthma in Children:
  • Asthma in pregnancy: Asthma in pregnancy refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is occurs during pregnancy. Women who are pregnancy may decide to stop taking their asthma medication in order to reduce the perceived risk of side effects to the developing fetus. The reality is that the potential harmful effects on the fetus are very small compared to the problems caused to mother and fetus if a severe asthma attack develops. Furthermore, uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy may also cause problems such as small birth weight or premature birth. Pregnant women should consult their physician in order to determine the optimal management of their condition. During pregnancy, asthma symptoms may become worse, improve or stay the same.
  • Asthma related cough: Cough-variant asthma is a type of asthma in which the main symptom is a dry, non-productive cough. Cough-variant asthma is sometimes called chronic cough to describe a cough that has lasted longer than six to eight weeks.
  • Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Breathing problems caused by exercise. Patients who suffer from asthma and allergic rhinitis are particularly prone to the condition. Factors such as reduced humidity, cold temperatures, high levels of pollen, poor physical fitness, respiratory infections and reduced air quality can all increase the risk of an attack.
  • Asthma-like cough symptoms: Asthma is a chronic disease causing airway constriction along with inflammation and excess collection of mucus in the airways leading to breathing difficulty.
  • Asthma-related traits, susceptibility to, 1: An increased risk of asthma-related traits such as wheezing and atopic dermatitis are linked to a defect on chromosome 14q22.1.
  • Asthma-related traits, susceptibility to, 2: An increased risk of asthma-related traits such as wheezing and atopic dermatitis are linked to a defect on chromosome 7p15-p14.
  • Asthma-related traits, susceptibility to, 3: An increased risk of asthma-related traits such as wheezing and atopic dermatitis are linked to a defect on chromosome 2p16.
  • Asthma-related traits, susceptibility to, 4: An increased risk of asthma-related traits such as wheezing and atopic dermatitis are linked to a defect on chromosome 1p31.
  • Asthma-related traits, susceptibility to, 5: An increased risk of asthma-related traits such as wheezing and atopic dermatitis are linked to a defect on chromosome 12q14.3.
  • Asthma-related traits, susceptibility to, 6: An increased risk of asthma-related traits such as wheezing and atopic dermatitis are linked to a defect on chromosome 17q21.
  • Asthma-related traits, susceptibility to, 7: An increased risk of asthma-related traits such as wheezing and atopic dermatitis are linked to a defect on chromosome 1q32.1.
  • Asthmatic Bronchitis: A variant of asthma where cough, either chronic or during an exacerbation following a viral infection, is the main or only symptom
  • Atrophic rhinitis: Type of rhinitis caused by thinning nasal membranes
  • Attenuated familial polyposis: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous. The attenuated form of the condition is distinguished by the development of polyps in old age rather than during the first decades of life.
  • Autoimmune Interstitial Cystitis: Interstitial cystitis caused by an autoimmune reaction
  • Autoimmune thyroid disease associated Celiac Disease: Patients with autoimmune thyroid disease are more susceptible to developing celiac disease than the average population. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Bacterial conjunctivitis: Infection and inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by bacteria.
  • Benign mucosal pemphigoid: A rare chronic disease involving blistering and scarring of the mucous membranes especially in the mouth and conjunctiva of the eye.
  • Benign peptic ulcer: Benign ulcer is erosion in the lining of the stomach.
  • Bird flu (avian influenza): Bird flu refers to influenza A invection. Influenza A is a viral respiratory infection that can usually occurs in birds (especially poultry) but can be transmitted to humans and cause serious illness. The virus is contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Brodie pile: Inflammation of the mucous layer at the lower end of an anal fissure.
  • Bronchitis: Bronchitis is an inflammation of the air passages within the lungs. It occurs when the trachea and the large and small bronchi within the lungs become inflamed
  • Bullous Pemphigoid: A chronic skin disorder characterized blistering of the skin which usually occurs on the joints, abdomen, armpit and groin areas.
  • Candidiasis: Fungal infection of moist areas such as mouth or vagina
  • Candidiasis familial chronic mucocutaneous, autosomal dominant: A dominantly inherited condition characterized by poor immunity to fungal infections - particularly those caused by Candida albicans. Persistent fungal infections tend to affect the nails, skin or mucous membranes. The degree of severity is variable with some cases leading to fugal infection of the brain which is usually fatal.
  • Candidiasis familial chronic mucocutaneous, autosomal dominant, with thyroid disease: A dominantly inherited condition characterized by poor immunity to fungal infections (particularly those caused by Candida albicans) as will as thyroid disease. Persistent fungal infections tend to affect the nails, skin or mucous membranes. The degree of severity is variable with some cases leading to fugal infection of the brain which is usually fatal.
  • Candidiasis familial chronic mucocutaneous, autosomal recessive: A recessively inherited condition characterized by poor immunity to fungal infections - particularly those caused by Candida albicans. Persistent fungal infections tend to affect the nails, skin or mucous membranes. The degree of severity is variable with some cases leading to fugal infection of the brain which is usually fatal.
  • Canker sores: Ulcers of the mouth or nearby areas
  • Carbon Baby Syndrome: A rare condition characterized by progressive increase in pigmentation of mucosal lining and skin.
  • Cardiomegaly -- bronchitis -- emphysema syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of bronchitis, emphysema and an enlarged heart. The condition is often associated with long-term chronic alcoholism.
  • Catarrh: Nasal/sinus membrane inflammation
  • Celiac Disease: Digestive intolerance to gluten in the diet.
  • Celiac disease -- epilepsy -- occipital calcifications: A rare syndrome characterized by celiac disease and epilepsy with brain calcifications.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 1: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 6p21.3. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 10: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 3q25-q26. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 11: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 3q28. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 12: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 6q25.3. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 13: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect in the SH2B3 gene on chromosome 12q24. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 2: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 5q31-q33. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 3: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q33. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 4: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 19p13.1. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 5: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 15q11-q13. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 6: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 4q27. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 7: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 1q31. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 8: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q11-q12. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 9: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 3p21. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Cervical polyps: Benign polyps on the cervix of the uterus
  • Childhood asthma: Childhood asthma is a type of asthma that occurs during childhood. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways. The severity of symptoms is variable. The asthma may be triggered by allergens, pollution, viral infections and many other factors.
  • Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder which concentrates and stores bile. The condition may occur suddenly (acute) or persist over a longer period of time (chronic).
  • Chronic Bronchitis: Chronic bronchitis is a chronic inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs.
  • Chronic Sinusitis: Chronic form of sinusitis, inflammation of the sinus cavities.
  • Chronic bronchitis-like cough: Chronic bronchitis is bronchitis that lasts longer than 3 months and is usually associated with whitish sputum.
  • Chronic erosive gastritis: A rare disorder where inflamed lesions form on the stomach lining. The ulcers may occur over a long period of time or quickly.
  • Chronic interstitial cystitis:
  • Chronic lower respiratory diseases: General term for various chronic respiratory diseases including COPD, emphysema and chronic bronchitis
  • Chronic rhinitis: Rhinitis is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of some internal areas of the nose
  • Ciliary discoordination, due to random ciliary orientation: A rare disorder where abnormal function of cilia in the breathing passages causes frequent lung problems such as respiratory tract infections.
  • Ciliary dyskinesia, due to transposition of ciliary microtubules: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move adequately due to abnormal cilia structure. The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Ciliary dyskinesia-bronchiectasis: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. The lack of ciliary movement can cause a lung disease called bronchiectasis where a build up of mucus causes infections and airway damage. The airways then become enlarged. The condition can become progressively worse with time and can result in serious breathing problems.
  • Classic Kaposi's sarcoma: Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancerous tumor of the connective tissue, and is often associated with AIDS.
  • Cold & Flu:
  • Colitis: Inflammation of the colon
  • Colitis like hematochezia: Disorders which can cause rectal bleeding( hematochezia) similar to that in case of colitis.
  • Collagenous Colitis: A chronic disorder of the digestive system characterized by inflammation and thickening of the large intestine lining.
  • Collagenous celiac disease: Collagenous celiac disease is used to describe progressive celiac disease characterized by the presence of a layer of collagen (scarring) in the intestinal layers. This form of celiac disease usually fails to respond to treatments such as gluten-free diets. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The condition usually fails to respond to treatment and has a poor prognosis.
  • Colorectal Polyps: Polyp growths in the colon or rectum.
  • Colorectal adenomatous polyposis, dominant: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous. The condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and occurs in a familial pattern. Most patients have at least one parent with the condition.
  • Colorectal adenomatous polyposis, recessive: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous.
  • Common cold: A cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat that can be caused by a number of different viruses (e.g. rhinoviruses, coronaviruses). There are over 200 different viruses that have the potential to cause the common cold. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Conjunctival disorders: Diseases of the conjunctiva in the eye.
  • Conjunctivitis: Contagious eye infection
  • Conjunctivitis ligneous: A rare disorder characterized by the formation of thick, tough, woody (ligneous) lesions on mucous membranes.
  • Conjunctivitis with Pseudomembrane: A complication of conjunctivitis where the discharge from the inflammation coagulates and sticks to the conjunctiva to form what is called a pseudomembrane. This pseudomembrane can be removed usually without causing any bleeding.
  • Coronavirus-related Cold: A Coronavirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Coronavirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition. Coronaviruses are a significant cause of common colds in adults.
  • Costello syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by papillomas which may become malignant.
  • Coxsackievirus-related Cold: A Coxsackievirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Coxsackievirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Crohn's disease: Crohn's disease causes inflammation of the digestive system. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease. The disease can affect any area from the mouth to the anus. It often affects the lower part of the small intestine called the ileum.
  • Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome: A familial polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract associated with ectodermal defects such as alopecia and onychodystrophy
  • Cronkhite-Canada disease: A rare condition characterized primarily by polyps in the digestive tract, hair loss and nail problems.
  • Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease affecting the exocrine (mucus) glands of the lungs, liver, pancreas, and intestines, causing progressive disability due to multisystem failure.
  • Cystic fibrosis -- gastritis -- megaloblastic anaemia: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by cystic fibrosis, metaloblastic anemia, mental retardation and gastritis due to helicobacter pylori.
  • Cystic fibrosis -- gastritis -- megaloblastic anemia: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by cystic fibrosis, anemia and gastritis.
  • Cystitis: Bladder infection or inflammation
  • Dermatostomatitis, Stevens Johnson type: A rare but serious condition involving inflammation and blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. It is believed to be an allergic reaction that can occur in response to some drugs or infectious diseases.
  • Dextrocardia-bronchiectasis-sinusitis: A genetic disorder characterized by sinusitis, bronchiectasis and situs inversus.
  • Down's syndrome associated Celiac Disease: Patients with Down's syndrome have a high degree of susceptibility to developing celiac disease. Up to 17% of Down's syndrome sufferers develop celiac disease but this rate varies amongst age groups and country of origin. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Duodenal conditions: Any condition that affects the duodenum
  • Duodenal ulcer: A peptic ulcer is erosion in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). The word "peptic" refers to pepsin, a stomach enzyme that breaks down proteins. If a peptic ulcer is located in the stomach it is called a gastric ulcer.
  • Duodenal ulcer due to antral G-cell hyperfunction: A rare disease where duodenal ulcers form due to the over-functioning antral G-cells. G-cells secrete gastrin which is a hormone that initiates gastric acid production in the stomach. Excessive stomach acid can lead to ulcers.
  • Dyschromatosis Universalis Hereditaria 1: Dyschromatosis universalis is an inherited skin condition characterized by the progressive development of mottled skin made up of small areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation. The trunk is the main area of skin affected but the limbs and sometimes the face may also be involved. Subtype 1 is the result of a defect on chromosome 6q24.2-q25.2.
  • Dyschromatosis Universalis Hereditaria 2: Dyschromatosis universalis is a skin condition characterized by the progressive development of mottled skin made up of small areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation. The trunk is the main area of skin affected but the limbs and sometimes the face may also be involved. Subtype 2 is the result of a defect on chromosome 12q21-q23.
  • Dyskeratosis Congenita: A rare genetic disorder characterized by sking pigmentation abnormalities, nail dystrophy and mucous membrane changes.
  • Dyskeratosis congenita of Zinsser-Cole-Engman: An inherited condition characterized by recurring painful mouth ulcers, skin pigmentation and nail abnormalities.
  • Echovirus-related Cold: An Echovirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Echovirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Ectodermal dysplasia -- hypohidrotic -- hypothyroidism -- ciliary dyskinesia: A rare syndrome characterized by alopecia (A), nail problems (N), eye problems (O - ophthalmic), thyroid dysfunction (T), reduced sweating (H - hypohidrosis), freckles (E-ephelides), intestinal disease (E - enteropathy) and respiratory tract infections (R).
  • Emotional stress related asthma: Emotional stress related asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is caused by emotional stress.
  • Enterocolitis: Serious type of intestinal infection
  • Enterovirus-related Cold: Enterovirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Enterovirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Eosinophilic cystitis: Eosinophilic cystitis is an unusual variant of cystitis that may be characterized by dysuria and hematuria. Biopsy is essential to establish the diagnosis. It usually causes irritative voiding symptoms and hematuria and in its rare tumor-like appearance the disease may mimic an invasive bladder neoplasm.
  • Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma: The most common type of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in the United States is epidemic or AIDS-related KS. This type of KS develops in people who are infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
  • Erythroplakia: A red patch in the mouth that is not attributable to any other condition.
  • Esophageal ulcer: An ulcer erosion of the mucous membrane located in the esophagus
  • Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophagus
  • Exercise-induced asthma: Exercise-induced asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is triggered by exercise. The severity of symptoms is variable. Exercise involving long periods of activity or is done in a cold environment is more likely to trigger asthmatic symptoms. Exercise can also exacerbate existing asthma symptoms.
  • Extrinsic asthma: Extrinsic asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by an exposure to an allergen. Extrinsic asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways in response to exposure to the allergen. Examples of possible allergens include dust mites, pollen and mould. The severity of symptoms and allergen involved is variable.
  • Familial Intestinal Polyposis: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous.
  • Familial Multiple Polyposis: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous.
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis, autosomal dominant: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous. The condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and occurs in a familial pattern. Most patients have at least one parent with the condition.
  • Familial nasal acilia: A rare birth defect where the cilia (hairs) in the nose are absent which leads to a build up of mucus and debris inside the nose. This accumulation of waste provides an ideal environment for bacterial infections.
  • Familial polyposis: Rare genetic disease causing multiple colorectal polyps
  • Familial polyposis -- classical: An inherited condition where polyps develop in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The polyps are initially benign but may become malignant if untreated.
  • Familial polyposis, autosomal recessive: An inherited condition where polyps develop in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The polyps are initially benign but may become malignant if untreated. The autosomal recessive form of this condition is characterized by fewer polyps than in other forms (less than 100) and is due to mutations in a different gene.
  • Fenwick ulcer: A chronic bladder ulcer. It is most often seen in young healthy males.
  • Flu: Very common viral respiratory infection.
  • Follicular hamartoma -- alopecia -- cystic fibrosis: A rare syndrome characterized by small benign growths that develop in hair follicles, alopecia and cystic fibrosis.
  • Food allergy related asthma: Food allergy related asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is caused by an allergic reaction to a particular food. This is a very uncommon cause of asthma.
  • Gardner syndrome: A rare inherited disorder involving polyps in the colon and tumors in various other parts of the body and other abnormalities such as extra teeth.
  • Gastresophageal reflux-related chronic cough: Gastroesophageal reflux (GER)-related chronic cough is the second most common cause of chronic cough and is defined as a cough that improves or is eliminated with GER-specific therapy.
  • Gastric Reflux: Condition where relaxation of the sphincter at the bottom of the oesophagus allows acidic stomach contents to enter the oesophagus, causing irritation (See also Gastro-oesophageal Reflex Disease (GORD))
  • Gastric Ulcer: A gastric ulcer is a break in the normal tissue that lines the stomach.
  • Gastric erosion: Inflammation of the stomach lining
  • Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining
  • Gastritis, familial giant hypertrophic: A rare inherited chronic disorder characterized by overgrowth of the stomach lining resulting in excessive folds.
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Repeated reflux of stomach acid into the throat.
  • Giant papillary conjunctivitis: An inflammatory immune reaction to wearing contact lenses or other ocular prostheses.
  • Gonorrhea: Common sexually transmitted disease often without symptoms.
  • Grass pollen allergy: A grass pollen allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by various grasses. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Growth-hormone secreting pituitary adenoma, colonic polyposis, lipomatosis, lentigines and renal carcinoma: An inherited cancer syndrome involving kidney cancer, polyposis of the colon and a pituitary tumor.
  • H1N1 Flu:
  • Hay fever: An allergy which causes sneezing, runny nose or blocked nose for part of the year.
  • Hay fever-like sneezing symptoms: Allergy causes runny nose, sneezing and headache.
  • Hemophilus influenzae B: Bacterial respiratory infection with dangerous complications.
  • Hemorrhagic proctocolitis: Inflammation of the rectum and colon that results in bleeding.
  • Hereditary Polyposis Coli: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous.
  • Hereditary angioedema: An inherited disorder where a blockage in a lymphatic vessel or blood vein causes temporary swelling of affected parts of the body which sometimes includes organs.
  • Herpes stomatitis: Mouth infection with ulcers/blisters due to the herpes virus
  • Herpes, Neonatal -- Mucocutaneous and Ocular Infection: Mucocutaneous herpes infection in neonates is a herpes infection of the mucous membranes within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions.
  • Human Papillomavirus: Very common sexually transmitted disease causing genital warts and associated with certain cancers.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 35: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 35 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 39: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 39 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 45: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 45 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 51: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 51 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 52: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 52 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 56: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 56 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 58: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 58 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 59: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 59 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 66: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 66 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Hypersensitivity to pollen: Plants produce the microscopic round or oval grains called pollen which lead to allergy in a few individuals
  • Immotile cilia syndrome, due to excessively long cilia: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move adequately due to abnormally long cilia. The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Inclusion conjunctivitis: Inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis which is a sexually transmitted pathogen. The infection can occur in newborns while passing through an infected birth canal. Adult infections tend to be transmitted to the eye from the infected genitals via the hands. Infected swimming ppols or hot tubs may also be a source of infection.
  • Influenza A: A type of virus affecting the respiratory tract
  • Influenza B: A type of virus affecting the respiratory tract
  • Interstitial cystitis: A rare condition involving inflammatory disease of the bladder which progresses slowly.
  • Intestinal polyp:
  • Intrinsic asthma: Intrinsic asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is not caused by exposure to an allergen. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Invasive candidiasis: Severe fungal infection usually in immunocompromised persons
  • Jadassohn-Lewandowsky syndrome: A rare, inherited disorder characterized by thickening of nails, white patches on mouth and anus(leukoplakia) and thickened hard skin on soles and palms.
  • Juvenile polyposis of infancy: A genetic inherited risk of developing gastrointestinal tumors. The condition is characterized by gastrointestinal polyps which have a high risk of eventually becoming malignant. The polyps can cause gastrointestinal symptoms even if they aren't malignant.
  • Juvenile polyposis syndrome: An inherited or sporadic condition characterized by the development of multiple noncancerous polyps in the digestive tract usually by the second decade of life. The polyps are generally noncancerous but there may be an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer. The number and size of polyps and the risk of cancer is variable.
  • Juvenile polyposis syndrome, infantile form: A genetic inherited risk of developing gastrointestinal tumors. The condition is characterized by gastrointestinal polyps which have a high risk of eventually becoming malignant. The polyps can cause gastrointestinal symptoms even if they aren't malignant.
  • Kaposi sarcoma: A form of cancer caused by a type of herpesvirus that occurs mainly in the skin but may also affect the lymph nodes, internal organs and mucosal areas. There are four forms of the condition: Classical Indolent form, Endemic African KS, iatrogenic KS and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated KS. Symptoms depend on the extent of internal organ and lymphatic system involvement.
  • Kaposi sarcoma, Endemic African form: A form of cancer caused by a type of herpesvirus that occurs mainly in the skin but may also occur in lymph nodes, internal organs and mucosal areas. The classic type tends to occur mainly on the extremities and internal organ involvement is common in adults. An aggressive form of the condition occurs in children and also involves the lymph nodes. The condition is aggressive in children but fairly benign in adults. Symptoms depend on the extent of internal organ and lymphatic system involvement.
  • Kaposi sarcoma, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated form: A form of cancer caused by a type of herpesvirus that occurs mainly in the skin but may also occur in lymph nodes, internal organs and mucosal areas. The AIDS-associated form is aggressive and tends to occur mainly on the face, genitals and lower extremities with internal organs often being involved as well. Symptoms depend on the extent of internal organ involvement.
  • Kaposi sarcoma, classical indolent form: A form of cancer caused by a type of herpesvirus that occurs mainly in the skin but may also occur in lymph nodes, internal organs and mucosal areas. The classic type tends to occur mainly on the lower legs but the lymph nodes and internal organs may rarely be involved. Symptoms depend on the extent of internal organ involvement.
  • Kaposi sarcoma, iatrogenic form: A form of cancer caused by a type of herpesvirus that occurs mainly in the skin but may also occur in lymph nodes, internal organs and mucosal areas. The iatrogenic form tends to occur mainly on the lower legs but the internal organs are often involved as well. It generally affects immunosuppressed patients and can be aggressive or fairly benign. Symptoms depend on the extent of internal organ involvement.
  • Kaposi's Sarcoma: Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancerous tumor of the connective tissue, and is often associated with AIDS.
  • Kaposiform hemangio-endothelioma: A rare blood vessel tumor that occur primarily in children. It causes localized damage but is not metastatic. Main sites affected are the retroperitoneum and skin but can also occur in the head and neck area, mediastinum and deep soft tissue of the trunk and limbs. Symptoms and prognosis is determined by the size and location of the tumors.
  • Kawasaki disease: A childhood illness that generally affects the skin, mouth and lymph nodes.
  • Laryngopharyngeal reflux: A gastrointestinal disorder where acid reflux affects the throat and causes irritation.
  • Leprosy: A chronic, progressive infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae which causes skin sores and also affects the eyes, mucous membranes and peripheral nerves.
  • Leprosy, susceptibility to, 1: A chronic, progressive infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae which causes skin sores and also affects the eyes, mucous membranes and peripheral nerves. The range of manifestations and severity of symptoms is quite variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic mutations linked to an increased susceptibility to leprosy. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10p13.
  • Leprosy, susceptibility to, 2: A chronic, progressive infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae which causes skin sores and also affects the eyes, mucous membranes and peripheral nerves. The range of manifestations and severity of symptoms is quite variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic mutations linked to an increased susceptibility to leprosy. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q25.2-q27.
  • Leprosy, susceptibility to, 3: A chronic, progressive infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae which causes skin sores and also affects the eyes, mucous membranes and peripheral nerves. The range of manifestations and severity of symptoms is quite variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic mutations linked to an increased susceptibility to leprosy. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 4q32 and 4p14.
  • Leprosy, susceptibility to, 4: A chronic, progressive infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae which causes skin sores and also affects the eyes, mucous membranes and peripheral nerves. The range of manifestations and severity of symptoms is quite variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic mutations linked to an increased susceptibility to leprosy. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6p21.3.
  • Leukoencephalopathy, arthritis, colitis and hypogammaglobulinemia: A rare syndrome characterized by brain disease, arthritis, colitis and immune system problems.
  • Leukoencephalopathy, arthritis, colitis, and hypogammaglobulinema: A rare condition characterized by the association of arthritis, colitis, low blood gammaglobulin levels and brain anomalies.
  • Lipogranulomatosis: A condition where abnormal lipid metabolism results in the development of yellow liquid-filled nodules in the skin and mucosal linings. The tissue surrounding the nodules can become inflamed as a result of these abnormal deposits. Symptoms are variable depending on the number and location of the nodules.
  • Logic syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by chronic skin ulceration, nail destruction, eye problems and mucosal nodules that can affect the voice and even impair breathing in severe cases.
  • Lower esophageal ulcer: An esophageal ulcer is a hole in the lining of the esophagus corroded by the acidic digestive juices secreted by the stomach cells. An esophageal ulcer is usually located in the lower section of the esophagus. It is often associated with GERD.
  • Lymphocytic colitis: Inflammation of the colon which is only visible through a microscope.
  • Lymphoma, Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue: Malignancies that occur in the lymphoid tissue found in mucosal linings (MALT) e.g. gastrointestinal tract, skin and lungs. Symptoms may vary considerably depending on which organs are involved but usually the stomach is involved. A significant portion of patients suffering from MALTomas also have autoimmune diseases.
  • Major Ulcerative Stomatitis: A mouth condition characterized by large recurring mouth ulcers which can be very painful. There may be one or more ulcers and they can occur on the cheek, tongue, lips or base of gums. The ulcers tend to be 1cm in diameter or larger.
  • Malignant peptic ulcer: Malignant ulcers are the complications of an untreated chronic gastric ulcers. A peptic ulcer is erosion in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine.
  • Median cleft, corpus callosum, lipoma, and cutaneous polyps:
  • Microscopic collagenous colitis: Microscopic collagenous colitis refers to inflammation of the colon that is only visible when the colon's lining is examined under a microscope. The appearance of the inner colon lining in microscopic colitis is normal by visual inspection during colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy.
  • Microscopic lymphocytic colitis: Microscopic lymphocytic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon that is only visible when the colon's lining is examined under a microscope. The appearance of the inner colon lining in microscopic colitis is normal by visual inspection during colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy.
  • Microscopic ulcerative colitis: Microscopic ulcerative colitis refers to inflammation of the colon that is only visible when the colon's lining is examined under a microscope. The appearance of the inner colon lining in microscopic colitis is normal by visual inspection during colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy.
  • Mixed asthma: Mixed asthma is a type of asthma that can be caused by an exposure to an allergen as well as other intrinsic triggers such as exposure to cold air or cigarette smoke. Mixed asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways that may or may not involve an allergic reaction.
  • Mixed granulocytic asthma: Mixed granulocytic asthma is a type of asthma that is characterized by increased levels of eosinophils and neutrophils (types of white blood cell) in the airways. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Mouth ulcers: Ulcers in the mouth membranes or oral areas
  • Mucinous carcinoma: Mucinous carcinoma is a type of invasive ductal carcinoma. Its distinguishing feature is mucous production. Within the mucous are cancerous cells that are often poorly differentiated, which means that the cells look less like normal cells than well-defined ones.
  • Mucoepidermoid: A mucoepidermoid is a type of cancer which is found primarily in the salivary glands (major and minor) but can be found in other glands such as the tear glands, breast gland and thyroid. The cancer develops from squamous, mucus-secreting and intermediate cells.
  • Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma: A mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a type of cancer which is found primarily in the salivary glands (major and minor) but can be found in other glands such as the tear glands, breast gland and thyroid. The cancer develops from squamous, mucus-secreting and intermediate cells.
  • Mucoepithelial dysplasia, Witkop type: A rare inherited disorder primarily involving mucosal lesions throughout the body as well as skin, hair and lung problems.
  • Mucosal leishmaniasis (espundia): A rare infectious disease caused by any of a number of parasitic Leishmania species. Infection can cause any of three different manifestations: cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucosal leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis. Mucosal leishmaniasis tends to affect the mucosal areas of the mouth, nose and pharynx which can cause disfiguration.
  • Mucositis: Inflammation of the mucous membranes in the digestive tract.
  • Mucus membrane symptoms: Symptoms affecting the mucus membranes.
  • Nasal polyp: A polyp that is found in the nasal passage
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis: A rare disease that is tends to occur in premature infants and involves inflammation and destruction of gastrointestinal tissue. It usually occurs within weeks of birth - often after the start of milk feeding. The condition can be extremely serious and even fatal.
  • Neonatal Conjunctivitis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye of a neonate
  • Nocturnal asthma: Nocturnal asthma is a type of asthma that tends to only produce symptoms at night. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable. Factors such as airconditioning, gastroesophageal reflux and sleeping in a reclining positing may increase the incidence of this form of asthma in susceptible patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Aesculus pollen: An aesculus pollen allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by aesculus trees. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Ash juniper tree pollen: An ash juniper tree pollen allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by ash juniper trees. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Bluegrass: A bluegrass pollen allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by bluegrass. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Canary grass: A canary grass allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by canary grass. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- European Ash tree: A European ash tree allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by the European Ash tree. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Monteroy pine tree: A Monteroy pine tree allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by Monteroy pine tree. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Olea tree pollen: An Olea treepollen allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by Olea trees. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Ryegrass pollen: A ryegrass allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by ryegrass. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Sunflower pollen: A sunflower pollen allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by sunflowers. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Velvet grass: A velvet grass allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by velvet grass. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- White cedar tree: A white cedar tree allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by the white cedar tree. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- dandelion pollen: A dandelion allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by dandelions. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- plantago pollen: A plantago pollen allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by plantago which is a type of weed. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- poplar tree pollen: A poplar tree pollen allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by poplar trees. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- tilia tree pollen: A tilia tree pollen allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by tilia tree. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- tree pollen: A tree pollen allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by trees. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- willow tree pollen: A willow tree pollen allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by willow trees. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-allergic asthma: Non-allergic asthma is a type of asthma that is not triggered by exposure to an allergen. Non-allergic asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways that can be caused by such things as exercise, cold air, cigarette smoke and inhalation of chemicals.
  • Non-atopic asthma: Non-atopic asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is not caused by exposure to an allergen. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Nose polyposis, familial: A familial condition characterized by the development of nasal polyps.
  • Obesity -- colitis -- hypothyroidism -- cardiac hypertrophy -- developmental delay: A rare syndrome characterized by obesity, colitis, hypothyroidism, enlarged heart and developmental delay. The two reported cases involved maternal HELLP syndrome during pregnancy. Both infants died within months of birth.
  • Obesity associated asthma: Obesity associated asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is associated with obesity. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Obesity, hypothyroidism, craniosynostosis, cardial hypertrophy, colitis and intellectual deficiency: A rare syndrome characterized by a variety of features including obesity, hypothyroidism, premature fusion of skull bones, enlarged heart, colitis and mental retardation. The two reported cases both involved the development of HELLP syndrome during the mother's pregnancy.
  • Odynophagia as in case of esophagitis: Difficulty in swallowing. Odynophagia often results in weight loss. It can be caused by many conditions, including very hot or cold food or drink, drugs, ulcers and mucosal destruction.
  • Oral Ulcer: An open sore inside the mouth.
  • Oral thrush: Candida fungal infection of the mouth.
  • Orthomyxovirus-related Cold: An Orthomyxovirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Orthomyxovirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Osler-Rendu-Weber syndrome 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by nosebleeds and multiple telangiectases that can occur on the skin, mucosal lining and internal organs. Type 2 tends to have a later onset than type 1 and there is a greater degree of liver involvement. It has a different genetic origin to type 1 and 3 (defect on chromosome 12q11-q14).
  • Osler-Rendu-Weber syndrome 3: A rare genetic disorder characterized by nosebleeds and multiple telangiectases that can occur on the skin, mucosal lining and internal organs. The occurrence of pulmonary arteriovenus fistulas in type 3 is greater than type 2 but less than in type 1. It has a different genetic origin to type 1 and 3 (defect on chromosome 5q31.3-q32).
  • Pancolitis: Pancolitis is also known as ulcerative colitis which is an idiopathic chronicinflammatory disorder of the colon and rectum and involves the entire thickness of the colon.
  • Parainfluenza: Milder influenza-like infection
  • Parainfluenza virus type 1: Parainfluenza is an influenza-like viral disease that can cause croup, upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Type 1 virus occurs during autumn every second year and tends to primarily cause croup as well as respiratory tract infection.
  • Parainfluenza virus type 2: Parainfluenza is an influenza-like viral disease that can cause croup, upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Type 2 virus occurs during autumn every second year and tends to primarily cause respiratory tract illness but is milder and less frequent than type 1.
  • Parainfluenza virus type 3: Parainfluenza is an influenza-like viral disease that can cause croup, upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Type 3 virus occurs during spring and summer in temperate climates but can continue into autumn.
  • Parainfluenza virus type 4: Parainfluenza is an influenza-like viral disease that can cause croup, upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Type 4 virus causes mild sporadic illness.
  • Paramyxovirus -related Cold: A Paramyxovirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Paramyxovirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Paucigranulocytic asthma: Paucigranulocytic asthma is a type of asthma that is characterized by normal levels of eosinophils and neutrophils (types of white blood cell) in the airways. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease: Gastroesophageal reflux is defined as the retrograde movement of gastric contents into the esophagus; it is a physiologic process that occurs in everyone, young and old, particularly after meals. Researchers have found that 10 percent of infants (younger than 12 months) with GER develop significant complications. The diseases associated with reflux are known collectively as Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).
  • Pemphigus: A rare group of autoimmune skin disorders where blisters or raw sores develop on the skin and mucous membranes. The bodies immune system destroys proteins the hold skin cells together resulting in blistering. The condition can be life-threatening if untreated.
  • Pemphigus Foliaceus: A relatively milder form of the autoimmune skin disorder called pemphigus. Blisters occur on the skin but usually the mucous membranes are unaffected.
  • Pemphigus Vulgaris: A severe autoimmune skin disease characterized by blistering of the skin including the mucous membranes inside the mouth and esophagus.
  • Pemphigus vulgaris, familial: A very rare skin blistering disorder caused by an autoimmune reaction. The mucous membranes as well as the skin is affected. Soft fragile blisters usually start in the mouth and on the scalp. Healed blisters leave no scarring.
  • Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer on the lining of the stomach or duodenum
  • Peptic ulcer / duodenal ulcer:
  • Peptic-ulcer like symptoms: Diseases which can cause symptoms leading to gastric and duodenal ulcers.
  • Perennial allergic rhinitis: A condition which is characterized by a constant allergic reaction of the nasal mucousa
  • Perennial rhinitis: A condition which is characterized by a constant inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane
  • Periadenitis Mucosa Necrotica, Recurrent Type II: A mouth condition characterized by large recurring mouth ulcers which can be very painful. There may be one or more ulcers and they can occur on the cheek, tongue, lips or base of gums. The ulcers tend to be 1cm in diameter or larger.
  • Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mouth ulcers, periodic fevers, pharyngeal inflammation and infection of neck lymph nodes.
  • Pharyngoconjunctival fever: An infectious disease usually caused by adenovirus type 3. The infection may be acute, epidemic or sporadic and is more common in children. Infection can be transmitted through swimming pools. The incubation period is 5-9 days.
  • Pollen allergy: An allergic reaction that occurs due to exposure to pollen
  • Pollen food allergy syndrome: A significant number of people with an allergy to pollen also have allergic responses to certain plant foods (usually fruit) which have similar proteins to that found in pollens. Examples of these includes pineapple, avocado, chestnuts, apples, raw carrot, raw celery, melon, peach, pear, plum, kiwi fruit, mango, passionfruit, strawberries, tomato, potato, bell pepper and soy. Symptoms usually only involve the mouth and throat.
  • Polyp: An growth or protrusion that extends from a mucous membrane
  • Polyposis, Adenomatous Intestinal, autosomal dominant: A genetic condition characterized by the development of adenomatous polyps mainly in the colon and rectum. There may be hundreds or thousands of polyps and these polyps have a predisposition for becoming cancerous. The condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and occurs in a familial pattern. Most patients have at least one parent with the condition.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Human papillomavirus genus beta: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Human papillomavirus genus beta has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans The carcinogenicity of the virus may be influenced by the duration of the exposure as well as other individual factors. Not everyone who has the virus will develop cancer but having the virus will increase the risk of developing certain cancers.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the virus may be influenced by the duration of the exposure as well as other individual factors. The virus can be spread through skin contact or during sex. Not everyone who has the virus will develop cancer but having the virus will increase the risk of developing certain cancers.
  • Postnasal drip: Draining of nasal secretions down the back of the throat
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 2: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 2 differs from the other forms of primary ciliar dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (19q13.3qter). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 3: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 3 differs from the other forms of primary ciliar dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (5p). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 4: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 4 differs from the other forms of primary ciliar dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (15q13.1-q15.1). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 5: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 5 differs from the other forms of primary ciliar dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (16p12.2-p12.1). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia, 6: A very rare disorder where the cilia fail to move. Type 6 differs from the other forms of primary ciliar dyskinesia in the location of the genetic defect (7p14-p13). The cilia are tiny, hair-like structures found in the respiratory and ear passages and help to clear debris and mucus. This results in increases risk of respiratory infections, sinusitis, ear infections and male infertility. The infertility results as the tails of sperm is basically cilia.
  • Proctitis: A chronic inflammatory disease of the rectum which causes bloody diarrhea.
  • Progressive black carbon hyperpigmentation of infancy: A rare condition characterized by progressive increase in pigmentation of mucosal lining and skin.
  • Pseudomembranous Colitis: Diarrhoeal illness caused by the bacteria Clostridium difficile, usually following a recent course of antibiotics and disruption of normal bowel bacteria
  • Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: A rare type of cancer where mucous-producing cancer cells in the abdomen produce excessive mucous.
  • Psoriasis on Mucous Membranes: Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition characterized by scaling and inflammation of the skin which can occur on virtually any part of the body. Psoriasis can occur on mucous membranes but it is not as common as occurrence on the skin. Most commonly affected mucous membranes are the genitals and mouth. Lesions on mucous membranes are usually accompanied by lesions on other parts of the body.
  • Psychiatric disorders associated Celiac Disease: Patients with Psychiatric disorders are more susceptible to developing celiac disease than the average population. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Pterygium of the conjunctiva: A very rare disorder where an abnormal membrane of tissue grows from the conjunctiva of the eye. The membrane can cover a part of the eye and impair vision.
  • Recurring scarring aphthae: A mouth condition characterized by large recurring mouth ulcers which can be very painful. There may be one or more ulcers and they can occur on the cheek, tongue, lips or base of gums. The ulcers tend to be 1cm in diameter or larger.
  • Reflux: Rising stomach acid up the esophagus
  • Reflux laryngitis: A voice disorder caused by the backflow of stomach contents into the voice box area which causes swelling and irritation.
  • Refractory Celiac Disease: Refractory Celiac Disease is celiac disease that fails to respond to treatment which involves a gluten-free diet. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The condition is quite uncommon and often the resulting poor absorption of nutrients from the intestines leads to a poor prognosis.
  • Respiratory syncytial virus-related Cold: A Respiratory syncytial virus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Respiratory syncytial virus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Rhinitis: Nasal lining inflammation leading to runny/blocked nose
  • Rhinosporidiosis: An infectious disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi which occurs mainly in the nasal cavity or nearby mucosa-lined structures such as the conjunctiva. On rare occasions other parts of the body may be infected e.g. genital, rectum, ear and skin. The infection tends to persist for long periods of time (sometimes decades) and occasionally secondary bacterial infection can occur. Infection usually occurs through exposure to stagnant water contaminated with the infectious agent.
  • Rhinovirus-related Cold: A Rhinovirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Rhinovirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition. About a third of all common colds in adults are caused by one of the rhinoviruses.
  • Ritter syndrome: A rare infantile skin disorder involving severe redness, inflammation, blistering and peeling of skin and mucous membranes which can result from a variety of infections, malignancies and drugs.
  • Rostan asthma: Shortness of breath caused by fluid accumulation in the lungs associated with congestive heart failure. Symptoms usually occur at night.
  • Salicylate-sensitive asthma: Salicylate-sensitive asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by salicylates which can be found in medications such as aspirin as well as many foods. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Schafer syndrome: A disorder characterized mainly by thickened skin on the palms and soles, white patches in mouth, mental and growth retardation and hair, nail and eye abnormalities.
  • Seasonal allergic rhinitis: A condition characterized by an allergic inflammatory response in the mucosa of the sinuses which is related to the seasons
  • Secondary Reflux: A urological abnormality where some of the urine flows from the bladder back into the kidneys. Vesicoureteral reflux may result from secondary causes such as a urinary tract blockage but primary vesicoureteral reflex results from a genetic defect which affects the development of the ureterovesical junction.
  • Secondary syphilis: A condition which is characterized by fever, multiform skin eruptions, iritis, alopecia, mucous patches and severe pain in the head and joints
  • Severe asthma:
  • Sinusitis: Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
  • Sjogren syndrome, primary: An autoimmune disease where the body's immune system attacks parts of the body that produce moisture such as the eyes, mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Sjogren syndrome can occur on its own (primary) or with another connective tissue disease (secondary) such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, systemic sclerosis and polymyositis/dermatomyositis. The condition can be mild or severe.
  • Sjogren syndrome, secondary: An autoimmune disease where the body's immune system attacks parts of the body that produce moisture such as the eyes, mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Sjogren syndrome can occur on its own (primary) or with another connective tissue disease (secondary) such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, systemic sclerosis and polymyositis/dermatomyositis. The condition can be mild or severe.
  • Sjogren's Syndrome: Autoimmune disease damaging the eye tear ducts and other glands.
  • Sjogren's syndrome, juvenile, secondary to autoimmune disease: An autoimmune disorder that affects the glands involved in tear and saliva production as well as gastrointestinal tract moisture. It can occur as a secondary condition associated with other autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Spring catarrh: An allergic eye condition where an abnormal immune system reaction to an allergen results in inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye (thin clear lining covering the eye and lining the inside of the eyelids). Symptoms tend to be more common in spring and summer due to the increased presence of potential airborne allergens.
  • Sprue: Malabsorption digestive syndrome
  • Steroid-dependant asthma: Steroid-dependant asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that can be managed only through regular use of oral steroids. Excessive use of steroids can lead to side effects so other therapies are often advised e.g. immunoglobulin therapy. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Steroid-resistant asthma, type I: Steroid-resistant asthma is a type of asthma that doesn't respond to steroid treatment. Steroids work by attaching to a particular part of the T-cells which make up the immune system. In type I, the T-cells have sufficient attachment points for the steroids but they are ineffective. In type II, there are insufficient attachment points for the steroids. Steroid-resistant asthma (like other forms of asthma) involves rapid constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult.
  • Steroid-resistant asthma, type II: Steroid-resistant asthma is a type of asthma that doesn't respond to steroid treatment. Steroids work by attaching to a particular part of the T-cells which make up the immune system. In type I, the T-cells have sufficient attachment points for the steroids but they are ineffective. In type II, there are insufficient attachment points for the steroids which make them less effective or completely ineffective. Steroid-resistant asthma (like other forms of asthma) involves rapid constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult.
  • Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: A rare but serious condition involving inflammation and blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. It is believed to be an allergic reaction that can occur in response to some drugs or infectious diseases.
  • Stomal ulcer: Stomal ulcer is a serious complication of gastrogastric fistula following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for obesity..
  • Stomatitis: Mouth lining inflammation or infection
  • Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis: A condition involving the surface of the eye and characterized by periods of inflammation of the conjunctiva - especially the part of the conjunctiva that forms the outermost layer of the whites of the eyes. The exact cause of the condition is unknown. It is important to note that roughly half of patients with this eye condition have and underlying thyroid problem.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 1: Susceptibility to celiac disease 1 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 6p21.3) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 10: Susceptibility to celiac disease 10 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 3q25-q26) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 11: Susceptibility to celiac disease 11 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 3q28) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 12: Susceptibility to celiac disease 12 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 6q25) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 13: Susceptibility to celiac disease 13 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 12q24) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 2: Susceptibility to celiac disease 2 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 5q31-q33) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 3: Susceptibility to celiac disease 3 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 2q33) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 4: Susceptibility to celiac disease 4 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 19p13.1) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 5: Susceptibility to celiac disease 5 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 15q11-q13) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 6: Susceptibility to celiac disease 6 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 4q27) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 7: Susceptibility to celiac disease 7 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 1q133) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 8: Susceptibility to celiac disease 8 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 2q11-q12) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 9: Susceptibility to celiac disease 9 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 3p21) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Sutton Disease:
  • Sutton Disease II: A mouth condition characterized by large recurring mouth ulcers which can be very painful. There may be one or more ulcers and they can occur on the cheek, tongue, lips or base of gums. Sutton disease is differentiated from other aphthous ulcers by size - larger than 1 cm.
  • Sutton disease 2: A rare condition characterized by recurring periods of painful inflamed mouth ulcers.
  • Swine flu: The Swine Flu is a respiratory viral disease which is usually found in pigs but can sometimes be transmitted to humans and cause epidemics or even pandemics. The viral strain involved is type A H1N1. The virus can be spread amongst humans from direct contact which can occur through coughing, sneezing or contamination of hands and surfaces. The severity of symptoms is highly variable, although with most people suffering only relatively mild symptoms. Patients are considered contagious for up to a week after the onset of symptoms but children may be contagious for longer periods of time.
  • Systemic candidiasis: A candida infection that spreads throughout the body. If it invades major organs such as the brain and heart, death may result. It is rare in healthy individuals and tends to occur in immunocompromised individuals. The disorder is difficult to diagnose as it can invade almost any organ of the body and hence the symptoms are hugely variable.
  • Takahara syndrome: A congenital deficiency of the catalase enzyme which often causes recurring ulcers of the gums and other oral problems.
  • The clap: A sexually transmitted infection by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
  • Thrush: Thrush is a fungal infection which is caused by a fungus from the Candida species. It usually affects the mucus membranes of the mouth and vagina. Occasionally the infection can spread throughout the body and cause severe illness.
  • Tobacco smoke associated asthma: Tobacco smoke associated asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is caused by exposure to tobacco smoke. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Traumatic ulcer: Break in the lining skin or mucous membrane caused due to trauma.
  • Treatment-related Kaposi's sarcoma: Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancerous tumor of the connective tissue, and is often associated with AIDS.
  • Tropical sprue: A rare digestive disease where the small intestine can't absorb nutrients properly.
  • Turner syndrome associated Celiac Disease: Females with Turner syndrome are more susceptible to developing celiac disease than the average population. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Type 1 diabetes related Celiac Disease: Patients with Type 1 diabetes are more susceptible to developing celiac disease than the average population. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Type A Influenza: Type A influenza is a subtype of the influenza virus that can cause cause serious illness and result in pandemics. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Type A influenza subtype H1: The H1 subtype of influenza is a strain of the type A influenza virus that can cause cause serious illness and result in pandemics. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Type A influenza subtype H10N7: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H10N7 is a subtype of influenza which rarely causes infection in human - only two cases of infectin have been reported.
  • Type A influenza subtype H1N1: The H1N1 subtype of influenza is a strain of the type A influenza virus that can cause illness in humans. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The H1N1 subtype caused a pandemic called the Spanish Flu in 1918 and resulted in millions of deaths.
  • Type A influenza subtype H1N2: The H1N2 subtype of influenza is a strain of the type A influenza virus that can cause cause illness in humans. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Type A influenza subtype H2N2: The H2N2 subtype of influenza is a strain of the type A influenza virus that can cause cause illness in humans. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Type A influenza subtype H3N2: The H3N2 subtype of influenza is a strain of the type A influenza virus that can cause cause illness in humans. Subtype H3N2 has caused a number of pandemics (e.g. Hong Kong Flu) and tends to occur in a seasonal pattern in many parts of the world. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Type A influenza subtype H5: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H5 is a subtype of influenza which can be further divided into subtypes e.g. H5N1.
  • Type A influenza subtype H5N1: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H5N1 is a subtype of influenza that mainly infects birds but can be transmitted to humans. Infections were reported in Hong Kong in 1997 and in various parts of the world in 2003 - 2007.
  • Type A influenza subtype H7: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H7 is a subtype of influenza which usually infects animals but can be transmitted to humans.
  • Type A influenza subtype H7N2: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H7N2 is a subtype of influenza which has rarely infected humans. Infections were reported in New York in 2003 and in the UK in 2007.
  • Type A influenza subtype H7N3: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H7N3 is a subtype of influenza which rarely infects humans. Infections were reported were reported in Canada in 2004.
  • Type A influenza subtype H7N7: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H7N7 is a subtype of influenza which rarely infects humans. Infections were reported in the UK in 1996 and in the Netherlands in 2003.
  • Type A influenza subtype H9: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H9 is a subtype of influenza which rarely causes infection in humans and tends to only cause mild illness.
  • Type A influenza subtype H9N2: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H9N2 is a subtype of influenza which rarely causes infection in humans. A small number of cases occurred in China and Hong Kong in 1999 and 2003 and 2007.
  • Type B Influenza: Type B influenza is a subtype of the influenza virus that tends to occur sporadically - can cause epidemics but not pandemics. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Type C Influenza: Type C influenza is a subtype of the influenza virus that only rarely infects people and tends to only cause mild illness. It is not known to cause epidemics or pandemics. Influenza is viral respiratory infection.
  • Ulcer: A local defect in the mucosa
  • Ulcerative colitis: Ulcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis is a form of colitis, a disease of the intestine, specifically the large intestine or colon, that includes characteristic ulcers, or open sores, in the colon.
  • Ulcerative proctosigmoiditis: Ulcerative proctosigmoiditisis an idiopathic chronicinflammatory disorder limited to the sigmoid colon and the rectum.
  • Urban Schosser Spohn syndrome: A condition which is characterised by hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia
  • Vaginal candidiasis: Fungal infection of the vagina, sometimes called thrush.
  • Vasomotor rhinitis: Type of rhinitis related to dry air
  • Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: A rare allergic type of conjunctivitis (inflammation of the lining of the eyelid and most of the eye) which occurs seasonally in warm weather
  • Vulvovaginal gingival syndrome: A skin disease that affects the mucous membranes as well as the skin. It is a severe form of erosive lichen planus that causes peeling or erosion of the mucous membranes of the vulva, vagina and gums. Not all of these sites are necessarily involved.
  • White sponge naevus of cannon: A benign inherited disorder that is characterised by a soft fissured grey white lesion located on the mucous membranes
  • White sponge nevus of Cannon: A condition characterized by the presence of white plaques in the mouth and sometimes in the anal and vaginal lining.
  • William's syndrome associated Celiac Disease: Patients with William's syndrome are more susceptible to developing celiac disease than the average population. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: A lipid laden foam cell tumour of the gallbladder resulting in inflammation
  • Xerostomia: A medical term for a dry mouth due to insufficient saliva. There are numerous causes of a dry mouth including medications and nerve damage.

 

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