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Multiple endocrine neoplasia in Wikipedia

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Multiple endocrine neoplasia". (Source - Retrieved 2006-09-07 14:21:06 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_endocrine_neoplasia)

Introduction

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) (or "multiple endocrine adenomas", or "multiple endocrine adenomatosis" -- "MEA") consists of three syndromes featuring tumors of endocrine glands, each with its own characteristic pattern. The presence of any one tumor type does not automatically have a patient labelled as MEN, but a search of the other at-risk areas is usually undertaken, especially when there are suggestive clinical signs.

MEN syndromes are inherited as autosomal dominant disorders. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid may occur as an autosomal dominant in the absence of other features.

MEN type 1

Main article: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 Wermer's syndrome
ICD-10 D44.8
ICD-9 258.0
ICD-O: 8360/1
OMIM 131100
DiseasesDB 7971
MedlinePlus 000398
eMedicine med/2404

Type 1 is also known as Wermer's syndrome after Dr Paul Wermer, who described it in 1954:

  1. Parathyroid hyperplasia/tumour causing hyperparathyroidism.
  2. Pancreatic islet cell tumours causing hypoglycaemia (insulinoma) and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma).
  3. Pituitary adenoma which may cause pituitary hormone excess.

The causative mutation is in the menin gene which encodes a nuclear protein that is believed to act as a tumor suppressor. Most cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.

MEN type 2

MEN syndrome types 2 and 3 have their basis in molecular genetics. Individuals can be tested for this genetic disorder reliably even when asymptomatic. The mutation is in the RET oncogene. Most cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2 and 3 are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.

Main article: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 Sipple syndrome
ICD-10 D44.8
ICD-9 193
OMIM 171400
DiseasesDB 7984
MedlinePlus 000399
eMedicine med/1520

Type 2 is also known as Sipple syndrome (after the American Dr John H. Sipple, who described it in 1961) and used to be called type 2A:

  1. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid which is associated with increased calcitonin secretion. A test for elevated calcitonin should be done after pentagastrin injection and/or calcium infusion, to ensure that all affected patients are detected.
  2. Pheochromocytoma
  3. Parathyroid hyperplasia/tumour causing hyperparathyroidism.

MEN type 3

Main article: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 3 MEN type 2B
ICD-10 D44.8
OMIM 162300
DiseasesDB 7991
eMedicine med/1520

This syndrome has no eponym; it was described by Schimke et al in 1968. Originally thought to be a third MEN, then considered a variant of II (especially after linkage to RET was confirmed), it is now considered its own syndrome.

  1. Pheochromocytoma
  2. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid which is associated with increased calcitonin secretion. A test for elevated calcitonin should be done after pentagastrin injection and/or calcium infusion, to ensure that all affected patients are detected.
  3. Mucosal neuromas which are usually situated in the gastrointestinal tract.
  4. Marfanoid habitus

References

  • Carney JA. Familial multiple endocrine neoplasia: the first 100 years. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005 Feb;29(2):254-74. PMID 15644784
  • Wermer P. Genetic aspect of adenomatosis of endocrine glands. Am J Med 1954;16:363-371. PMID 13138607.
  • Schimke RN, Hartmann WH, Prout TE, Rimoin DL. Syndrome of bilateral pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma and multiple neuromas. A possible regulatory defect in the differentiation of chromaffin tissue. N Engl J Med 1968;279:1-7. PMID 4968712
  • Sipple JH. The association of pheochromocytoma with carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Am J Med 1961;31:163-166.
 

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