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Diseases » Muscle cramps » Glossary
 

Glossary for Muscle cramps

  • Acanthosis nigricans muscle cramps acral enlargement: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by muscle cramps, dark velvety patches of skin and large hands and feet.
  • Acid-Base Imbalance: A disruption to the normal acid-base equilibrium in the body. There are four main groups of disorder involving an acid-base imbalance: respiratory acidosis or alkalosis and metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. Obviously the severity of symptoms is determined by the degree of imbalance.
  • Acidic dry cell batteries inhalation poisoning: Acidic dry cell batteries contain toxic chemicals which can cause symptoms if inhaled. The smoke emitted from burning batteries can also cause poisoning symptoms if sufficient quantities are inhaled. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved.
  • Albuterol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Albuterol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Alcoholic, reversible acute muscular: Muscle cramps associated with chronic alcohol abuse.
  • Alkalosis: Blood alkalinity levels too high (opposite of acidosis)
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A motor neuron disease involving progressive degeneration and eventual destruction of the function of nerves that control voluntary movement.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 3: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 3 is caused by a defect on chromosome 18q21.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4, juvenile: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 4 is caused by a defect on chromosome 9q34.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 5: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 5 is caused by a defect on chromosome 15q15.1-q21.1.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 6: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 16q12.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 7: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 7 is caused by a defect on chromosome 20p13.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 8: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 9 is caused by a defect on chromosome 20q13.3 and is a dominantly inherited, late-onset form.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1:
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 11: An inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 11 is differentiated by the origin of the genetic defect involved (6q21).
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 9: An inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 9 is differentiated by the origin of the genetic defect involved (14q11).
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial:
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 1: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 1 is characterized by adult onset and relatively fast progression of symptoms. It usually occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 2: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 2 is characterized by childhood or adolescent onset of symptoms which progress very slowly over decades. It occurs in an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 3: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 3 is characterized late adulthood onset of symptoms which progress slowly over 5 years. It occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 4: A generally fatal progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 4 is characterized by the onset of symptoms before the age of 25 and slow progression over the next few decades. It occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 5: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 6 is characterized adolescent onset of symptoms with progression varying between 1 and 20 years. It occurs in an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 6: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 6 is characterized adult onset of symptoms with progression varying between 1 and 20 years. It occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 7: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 7 is characterized adult onset of symptoms with progression varying between less than 5 years to several decades. It occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 8: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 8 is characterized by adult onset and relatively slow progression of symptoms. It occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, type 6: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 16q12.
  • Anchovy poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some anchovies contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the anchovy does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The anchovies are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Angiopathy, hereditary, with nephropathy, aneurysms and muscle cramps: An inherited disorder characterized by kidney disease, aneurysms, blood vessel disease and muscle cramps which can last from seconds to minutes.
  • Anterior pituitary hyperhormonotrophic syndrome: A syndrome characterized by the excessive production of various hormones (gonadotrophic, thyrotrophic, lactotrophic and pancreatrophic hormone).
  • Arctic bearded seal poisoning: The Arctic Bearded seal is often used as a food source by the arctic inhabitants. Eating the liver and kidneys of the arctic bearded seal can result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases. It is believed that eating more than 100-250 grams of the seal liver can result in human death.
  • Ativan withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when Ativan (Lorazepam) use is discontinued or reduced. Ativan is an anti-anxiety drug. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Australian Sea Lion poisoning: The Australian Sea Lion is sometimes used as a food source and is found in the South-Southwest waters of Australia. Eating the liver of the Australian Sea Lion can result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases.
  • Autoimmune thyroid disease associated Celiac Disease: Patients with autoimmune thyroid disease are more susceptible to developing celiac disease than the average population. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Bartter's syndrome, antenatal type 1: A rare genetic kidney disorder that causes hypokalemia. A defect in the NKCC2 gene impairs the functioning of the Na-Cl cotransporter and leads to electrolyte imbalance. The rate of death is high prior to diagnosis.
  • Bartters syndrome, antenatal , type 2: A rare genetic kidney disorder that causes hypokalemia. A defect in the ROMK gene impairs the ATP-regulated potassium channel functioning and leads to electrolyte imbalance.
  • Bone pain: Bone pain or tenderness is aching or other discomfort in one or more bones.
  • Bonefish poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some bonefish contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the bonefish does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The bonefish are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Box Jellyfish poisoning: A sting from the Box jellyfish contains a chemical which is toxic to the nerves, heart and skin. This jellyfish is mainly found in the waters of Northern Queensland in Australia. The tentacles should not be removed from the patient as it can cause further injection of poison.
  • Buerger's disease: Buergers's disease is a recurring inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of small and medium arteries and veins of the hands and feet
  • Bumetanide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Bumetanide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Calcium deficiency: Dietary deficiency of calcium.
  • Carukia barnesi sting: The Irukandji jellyfish is a very small type of box jellyfish found mainly in the northern tropical waters of Australia. Their sting is not particularly painful by the ensuing symptoms can be severe and life-threatening.
  • Celiac Disease: Digestive intolerance to gluten in the diet.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 1: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 6p21.3. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 10: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 3q25-q26. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 11: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 3q28. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 12: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 6q25.3. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 13: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect in the SH2B3 gene on chromosome 12q24. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 2: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 5q31-q33. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 3: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q33. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 4: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 19p13.1. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 5: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 15q11-q13. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 6: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 4q27. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 7: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 1q31. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 8: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q11-q12. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Celiac disease, susceptibility to 9: The susceptibility to developing celiac disease due to a genetic defect on chromosome 3p21. Celiac disease is a small intestine disorder where the ingestion of foods containing wheat gluten and similar proteins leads to the inflammation of the small intestine lining. This damage affects absorption of nutrients and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea. Growth in children due to malabsorption may also result. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Acetylene Dichloride: Acetylene Dichloride is a chemical used mainly in the production of perfumes, dyes and thermoplastics. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Acidic dry cell batteries: Acidic dry cell batteries contain toxic chemicals and eating the batteries can cause various symptoms if the chemical is released from the battery. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Chlorfenvinphos: Chlorfenvinphos is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Chlorpyrifos: Chlorpyrifos is a chemical used mainly in as an insecticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The chemical may be absorbed readily through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Coumaphos: Coumaphos is used as a pesticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The chemical may be absorbed readily through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Gasoline: Gasoline is a chemical used as a fuel for combustion engines. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Hexane: Hexane is a chemical used mainly in the manufacture of products such as glue, paint, shoes and furniture. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Methyl parathion: Methyl parathion is a chemical used mainly as an insecticide for various crops. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Monocrotophos: Monocrotophos is a chemical insecticide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Strychnine: Strychnine is used as a rodenticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Cholera: An acute bacterial disease transmitted through food or water contaminated with human faeces. The intestinal infection is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
  • Chronic renal insufficiency: Chronic lack of function of the renal system. Kidneys.
  • Clupeotoxism: A potentially fatal condition caused by eating fish such as herrings and anchovies from the Clupeidae family of fish. Severe poisoning can result in death within half an hour of ingestion. Outbreaks have been reported in the Caribbean Sea and the Indian-Pacific area.
  • Cocaine overdose: Cocaine is an illegal and highly addictive recreational drug. Excessive doses of the drug can result in various symptoms and even death in severe cases.
  • Collagenous celiac disease: Collagenous celiac disease is used to describe progressive celiac disease characterized by the presence of a layer of collagen (scarring) in the intestinal layers. This form of celiac disease usually fails to respond to treatments such as gluten-free diets. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The condition usually fails to respond to treatment and has a poor prognosis.
  • Conn's adenoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adrenal adenoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conn's syndrome: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adenoma, carcinoma or enlargement of the adrenal gland or glands. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conn-Louis Carcinoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition results from the presence of an adrenal carcinoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Cramp: The painful spasmodic muscular contraction
  • Cramp-fasciculations syndrome: A rare condition characterized by muscle pain, cramps, twitching, spasms and other abnormal sensations that occur mainly in the limbs.
  • Cyclosporin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Cyclosporin (an immunosuppressant drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Decreased serum phosphate: Decreased serum phosphate (or hypophosphatemia) refers to an electrolyte disturbance involving a lower than normal level of phosphate in the blood. This abnormality may in some cases be associated with increased levels of phosphate in the urine but this depends on the underlying cause. The nature and severity of symptoms can vary considerably depending on how low the serum phosphate level is.
  • Dehydration: Loss of fluids in the body
  • Deposition diseases related fibromyalgia: Deposition diseases related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with deposition diseases. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues. Deposition diseases involve the abnormal deposit of material in parts of the body such as the joints e.g. gout.
  • Diabetes: Failing or reduced ability of the body to handle sugars.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 1: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6p21.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 10: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 10 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10p15.1.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 11: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 11 is linked to a defect on chromosome 14q24.3-q31.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 12: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 12 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q33.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 13: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 13 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q34.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 15: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 15 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q21.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 17: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 17 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10q25.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 18: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 18 is linked to a defect on chromosome 5q31.1-q33.1.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 19: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 19 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q24.3.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 2: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 11p15.5.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 20: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 20 is linked to a defect on chromosome 12q24.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 21: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 21 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q25.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 22: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 22 is linked to a defect on chromosome 3p21.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 23: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 23 is linked to a defect on chromosome 4q27.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 24: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 24 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10q23.31.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 3: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 15q26.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 4: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 11q13.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 5: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q25.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 6: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 6 is linked to a defect on chromosome 18q21.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 7: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 7 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q31.
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Susceptibility to, 8: Insulin-dependent diabetes is a condition where the body is unable to produce its own insulin in sufficient quantities to regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers have discovered a number of genes which are linked to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The genetic anomaly alone is not enough to cause the disease but simply increases the risk. Type 81 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q25-q27.
  • Dihydroergotamine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dihydroergotamine (a migraine drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Dilaudid withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when Dilaudid use is discontinued or reduced. Dilaudid is a pain-killing drug. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence. Symptoms are usually peak during the second day and last about a week.
  • Dilutional hyponatremia: Low sodium levels due to excessive fluids.
  • Disequilibrium syndrome: A complication that can occur during or after dialysis and probably caused by abnormal water balance within the brain. Swelling of the brain causes a range of neurological symptoms.
  • Diuril -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Diuril ( a diuretic) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Dolobid -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dolobid (an NSAID drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Donepezil toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Down's syndrome associated Celiac Disease: Patients with Down's syndrome have a high degree of susceptibility to developing celiac disease. Up to 17% of Down's syndrome sufferers develop celiac disease but this rate varies amongst age groups and country of origin. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Dystonias: Muscle problems causing movement disorders
  • Ecstasy addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use ecstasy on a regular basis. Chronic ecstasy use can lead to dependency in as little as two weeks. Ecstasy is a synthetic psychoactive drug often used as a recreational drug. Street names for the drug includes: XTC, Adam, Clarity, Lover's Speed, Hug, Beans and Love Drug. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, classic type: A rare genetic connective tissue disorder characterized by hypermobile joints, joint dislocations and skin hyperextensibility and fragility - a combination of ED types I and II.
  • Epstein Barr virus related fibromyalgia: Epstein Barr virus related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with infection with the Epstein Barr virus. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues.
  • Etodolac -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Etodolac (used mainly for arthritis) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Familial hematuria, autosomal dominant -- retinal arteriolar tortuosity -- contractures: A rare inherited disorder characterized by blood in the urine, contractures and retinal anomalies.
  • Familial hypopituitarism: Impaired pituitary gland hormone-producing activity that tends to run in families. The failure of the pituitary gland in turn affects other hormone-producing glands which rely on the hormones from the pituitary gland for their activity. Symptoms are determined by the degree and type of hormone deficiency involved.
  • Familial hypothyroidism: Impaired thyroid activity that tends to run in families.
  • Gitelman syndrome: A rare, relatively mild, genetic kidney disorder that causes hypokalemia. The defective gene (NCCT) impairs the function of the Na-Cl cotransporter.
  • Glycogen Storage Disease XIV: A rare genetic disorder where the deficiency of a chemical called phosphoglucomutase-1 results in problems with glycogen storage within the body. The main symptoms tend to revolve around muscle problems.
  • Glycogen storage disease type 7: An inherited metabolic disorder where there is a deficiency of phosphofructokinase-1 in the muscle and a partial deficiency in red blood cells which prevents glucose being converted to energy during exercise.
  • Guam disease: A nerve degeneration disorder that occurs particularly in Guam and involves progressive dementia and parkinsonism which ultimately leads to death.
  • Gullner Syndrome: A rare, inherited kidney condition inherited in a familial manner.
  • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Hashimoto thyroiditis is characterized by the destruction of thyroid cells by various cell- and antibody-mediated immune processes. Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis have antibodies to various thyroid antigens, the most frequently detected of which include antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg), and, to a lesser extent, TSH receptor-blocking antibodies.
  • Heat cramps: Muscle cramps related to exertion
  • Heat exhaustion: Overheating of the body with exhaustion or collapse
  • Heat syndrome: A condition which is characterized by an elevated body temperature
  • Heatstroke: Heat exhaustion and collapse from heat exposure
  • Hemodialysis: A treatment used to remove toxic elements from the blood
  • Hereditary carnitine deficiency myopathy: An inherited deficiency of carnitine resulting primarily in muscle weakness.
  • Heroin withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when heroin use is discontinued or reduced. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Herring poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some herrings contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the herring does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The herrings are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Hyperkalemia: The excess of potassium in the blood
  • Hypermagnesemia: Increased blood plasma levels of magnesium above the normal upper limit (above 1.1mmol/L), see also Magnesium Overdose
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypoadrenocorticism -- hypoparathyroidism -- moniliasis: An autoimmune disorder where hormone production by various glands is reduced. The main features of the disorder are Addison disease and/or hypoparathyroidism and/or chronic candidiasis.
  • Hypocalcaemia: Decreased concentration of calcium in the blood.
  • Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar level
  • Hypokalaemia: Decreased concentration of potassium in the blood
  • Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: A rare inherited muscle condition characterized by periods of severe muscle weakness or paralysis which can last from hours to days. Episodes can occur as often as daily or only rarely.
  • Hyponatremia: An electrolyte disturbance involving low sodium levels in the blood. Symptoms are determined by the degree of imbalance. Very low sodium levels can cause water intoxication which can be very dangerous.
  • Hypoparathyroidism: A condition where the parathyroid glands don't produce enough parathyroid hormone for normal body functioning. The primary function of these hormones is to regulate body calcium levels.
  • Hypoparathyroidism familial isolated: A rare familial condition involving low levels of parathyroid hormone which upsets the body's ability to regulate calcium and phosphate. The severity of symptoms is determined by the how low the parathyroid hormone level is.
  • Hypophosphatemic rickets: A rare genetic type of rickets involving defective phosphate transport and vitamin D metabolism in the kidneys. Poor calcium absorption from the intestines leads to bone softening.
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Ichthyohepatotoxication: Ichthyohepatotoxication is a condition caused by eating the liver of certain fish. It is believed that the high vitamin A content of the liver leads to vitamin A overdose and the resulting symptoms. Tropical shark livers are associated with this condition.
  • Insulin-resistance syndrome, type A: A syndrome characterized by insulin resistance resulting in distinctive skin lesions called acanthosis nigricans. It is the least severe form of insulin resistance.
  • Isaacs syndrome: A rare disorder where muscles suffer from stiffness and cramping, particularly limb muscles.
  • Ketorolac -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ketorolac during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Klonopin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Klonopin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency type A: A rare genetic disorder where an enzyme deficiency (Lactate dehydrogenase type A) affects the conversion of carbohydrates to energy.
  • Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C: An autosomal recessive form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy where muscle weakness and atrophy is caused by mutations of the gamma-sarcoglycan gene. The severity of the condition is greatly variable from wheelchair confinement at the age of 9 years to asymptomatic adults. Most tend to live to their third decade.
  • Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D: An autosomal recessive form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy where muscle weakness and atrophy is caused by mutations of the alpha-sarcoglycan gene. The severity of the condition is greatly variable from wheelchair confinement at the age of 9 years to asymptomatic adults. Most tend to live to their third decade.
  • Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2E: An autosomal recessive form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy where muscle weakness and atrophy is caused by mutations of the beta-sarcoglycan gene. The severity of the condition is greatly variable from wheelchair confinement at the age of 9 years to asymptomatic adults. Most tend to live to their third decade.
  • Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2F: An autosomal recessive form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy where muscle weakness and atrophy is caused by mutations of the delta-sarcoglycan gene. The severity of the condition is greatly variable from wheelchair confinement at the age of 9 years to asymptomatic adults. Most tend to live to their third decade.
  • Limbic encephalitis -- neuromyotonia -- hyperhidrosis -- polyneuropathy: A rare autoimmune disorder involving excessive sweating, dysfunction central nervous system and neuromyotonia. The condition occurs when the body develops antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels.
  • Lion's mane jellyfish poisoning: The Lion's mane jellyfish is a large stinging jellyfish found in the colder waters of the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific Oceans. The jellyfish can deliver a painful sting with skin burning and blistering. Prolonged skin exposure can result in breathing problems, muscle cramps and even death.
  • Lipid storage myopathy: A rare condition where the abnormal accumulation of lipids in muscle tissue causes muscle weakness.
  • Lodine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lodine (used mainly for arthritis) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Magnesium wasting renal: A rare genetic syndrome characterized mainly by excessive loss of magnesium in the urine due to kidney problems.
  • Major depressive disorder related fibromyalgia: Major depressive disorder related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with major depression. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues.
  • Malignant hyperthermia: A very rare genetic disorder where sufferers suffer episodes of adverse reactions when certain anesthetics or muscle relaxants are administered.
  • Motor neuron diseases: Any of various disorders of the "motor neurons", nerves that control movement.
  • Motor neuropathy: A rare disorder involving progressive muscle weakness. The rate of progression, severity and age of onset is variable.
  • Multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block: A very rare disorder involving progressive destruction of the protective sheath around nerves. Usually arms are affected first and occasionally the legs are involved. It is believed to be an immune mediated disorder.
  • Muscle conditions: Any condition that affects the muscles of the body
  • Muscle spasm: A muscle spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice.
  • Muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, autosomal recessive, type 2E: An autosomal recessive form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy where muscle weakness and atrophy is caused by mutations of the beta-sarcoglycan gene. The severity of the condition is greatly variable from wheelchair confinement at the age of 9 years to asymptomatic adults. Most tend to live to their third decade.
  • Muscular phosphorylase kinase deficiency: A very rare genetic defect which affects muscles and causes rapid fatigue on exertion and muscle cramping and weakness.
  • Musculoskeletal conditions: Medical conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system of bones, muscles and related structures.
  • Myasthenia, Limb-Girdle, with Tubular Aggregates: A neuromuscular disease affecting the limb-girdle muscles primarily. The condition is distinguished by the presence of abnormal tubular aggregates in the muscle tissue and the absence of weakness in the eye and eyelid muscles which is a usually a symptom of myasthenia gravis.
  • Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, associated with acetylcholine receptor deficiency: A genetic, nonprogressive neuromuscular disorder causing muscle weakness. The severity of symptoms is variable and stress and illness can exacerbate symptoms.
  • Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency: A deficiency of myoadenylate deaminase which affects the process of energy conversion which in turn can cause muscle problems.
  • Myoglobinuria recurrent: Recurring episodes of high urine myoglobin levels due to muscle destruction. The episodes are triggered by prolong exercise or infection.
  • Myoglobinuria, dominant form: A dominantly inherited condition which causes high levels of myoglobin in the urine due to destruction of muscle tissue. Episodes of muscle destruction was usually preceded by fever, virus, alcohol us end excessive exercise.
  • Nabumetone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Nabumetone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Naproxen -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Naproxen during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Neuromyotonia: A condition which is characterized by myotonia caused by electrical activity of the peripheral nerve
  • Nifedipine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Nifedipine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Novo-Clopate -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Novo-Clopate during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Pain conditions: Diseases characterized by pain and pain-like symptoms.
  • Parkinson's Disease: Degenerative brain condition characterised by tremor.
  • Peripheral neuropathy: Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness.
  • Peripheral vascular disease: Disease of arteries supplying the legs or sometimes arms
  • Pfiesteria piscicida infection: Pfiesteria piscicida is a tiny marine organism called a dinoflagellate that is found in waters where fresh and salt water mix e.g. at river mouths. It is believed to be responsible for killing fish as well as health problems in humans.
  • Phosphoglucomutase deficiency type 1: A rare genetic disorder where the deficiency of a chemical called phosphoglucomutase-1 results in problems with glycogen storage within the body. The main symptoms tend to revolve around muscle problems.
  • Phosphoglycerate Kinase Deficiency: A condition which is characterized by a deficiency in the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase
  • Piroxicam -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Piroxicam during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Plant poisoning -- Solanine: Solanine is a toxin found naturally in plants from the nightshade family - potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant and capsicum. However, the content is usually quite low except for potatoes which have turned green on light exposure.
  • Polar bear poisoning: Polar bears are often used as a food source by the arctic inhabitants. Eating the liver and kidneys of the polar bear is believed to result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases. Eating more than 200 grams of Polar bear liver can result in human death however death is considered rare.
  • Porphyria: A group of disorders characterized by excess production of porphyrin or its precursors which affects the skin and/or nervous system.
  • Postpartum hyperthyroidism: Postpartum thyroiditis is a postpartum condition that results in temporary hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism.
  • Postpartum hypothyroidism: Postpartum hypothyroidism is a relatively common disorder that has previously been unrecognized and untreated. Although symptoms are temporary and usually mild, most women are relieved to learn that their symptoms are not all in their heads, that they are not "losing their minds," that they don't have a life-threatening disease, and that there are inexpensive, effective treatments to relieve their discomfort.
  • Postpartum thyroiditis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of the thyroid after a pregnancy
  • Pregnancy: The condition of supporting a fetus from conception till birth.
  • Primary Aldosteronism: Primary aldosteronism is a condition which the body's adrenal glands produce too much of the hormone aldosterone, causing retention sodium and loss of potassium.
  • Primary Fibromyalgia: Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues. Primary fibromyalgia is a term given to fibromyalgia that occurs for no apparent reason whereas secondary fibromyalgia has an identifiable cause. The primary form is more common than the secondary form.
  • Psychiatric disorders associated Celiac Disease: Patients with Psychiatric disorders are more susceptible to developing celiac disease than the average population. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Puss caterpillar poisoning: The puss caterpillar has hollow, poison-filled spines amongst the hairs along its body. It is found mainly in the southern states of the United states. It is often found feeding on trees such as elm, oak and sycamore. Contact with the poisonous spines can result in various symptoms. The puss caterpillar is one of the more poisonous stinging caterpillars. Children tend to be more severely affected than adults.
  • Pyridostigmine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Pyridostigmine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Refractory Celiac Disease: Refractory Celiac Disease is celiac disease that fails to respond to treatment which involves a gluten-free diet. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The condition is quite uncommon and often the resulting poor absorption of nutrients from the intestines leads to a poor prognosis.
  • Renal rickets: A bone disease where kidney dysfunction causes bone resorption and results in weak, soft bones.
  • Respiratory alkalosis: An acid-base imbalance disorder involving the blood gases. It is characterized by decreased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood and is caused by an increase in the breathing rate or volume. The severity of symptoms is determined by the degree of imbalance.
  • Restless leg syndrome: Restless leg syndrome is a condition that is characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs, but can also affect the arms or torso.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis related fibromyalgia: Rheumatoid arthritis related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory form of arthritis and is an autoimmune disease.
  • Ringed seal poisoning: The Ringed seal is often used as a food source by the arctic inhabitants. Eating the liver of the ringed seal can result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases.
  • Rippling muscle disease: A rare dominantly inherited disorder involving skeletal muscle contractions which produces a visible rippling affect.
  • Rippling muscle disease, 1: A rare dominantly inherited disorder involving skeletal muscle contractions which produces a visible rippling affect. Type 1 involves a defect on chromosome 1q41.
  • Rippling muscle disease, 2: A rare dominantly inherited disorder involving skeletal muscle contractions which produces a visible rippling affect. Type 2 involves a defect on chromosome 3p25.
  • SLE related fibromyalgia: SLE related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues. SLE is an autoimmune disease that can affect virtually any body system e.g. blood vessels and organs.
  • Sarcoglycanopathy: A form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy involving abnormalities of the sarcoglycan protein which results in progressive muscle weakness. The severity is greatly variably from wheelchair confinement at the age of 9 years to asymptomatic adults. Most tend to live to their third decade.
  • Sardine poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some sardines contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the sardines does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The sardines are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Sea nettle sting: The Sea Nettle is a poisonous jellyfish found in coastal parts of the Atlantic and Gulf areas - especially eastern US. The jellyfish usually only causes a relatively minor skin rash but prolonged exposure can result in muscle cramps and breathing problems. The severity of the sting depends on the level of exposure.
  • Sea wasp poisoning: The sea wasp can deliver a serious sting and can be found in the waters of Northern Australia and the Philippines. Death can occur in as little as a few minutes if a person is severely stung.
  • Sea wasp poisoning (Chiropsalmus quadrigatus): The Chiropsalmus quadrigatus jellyfish can deliver a serious sting and can be found in the waters of Northern Australia and the Philippines. Death can occur in as little as a few minutes if a person is severely stung.
  • Sea wasp poisoning -- Chironex fleckeri: The Chironex fleckeri jellyfish is one of the deadliest jellyfish in the world. It can deliver a serious sting and can be found mainly in the waters of Northern Australia and the Philippines. Death can occur in as little as a few minutes if a person is severely stung.
  • Secondary Fibromyalgia: Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues. Primary fibromyalgia is a term given to fibromyalgia that occurs for no apparent reason whereas secondary fibromyalgia has an identifiable cause. The primary form is more common than the secondary form.
  • Sleep disturbance related fibromyalgia: Sleep disturbance related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with sleep disturbance. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues.
  • Slickhead poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some slickhead contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the slickhead does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The slickhead are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Spastic paraparesis: A rare disorder where parts of the body develop spasticity and weakness. Usually the limbs are involved. The disorder is usually an inherited condition.
  • Spinal Cord Disorders: Any condition that affects the spinal cord
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 1: Susceptibility to celiac disease 1 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 6p21.3) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 10: Susceptibility to celiac disease 10 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 3q25-q26) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 11: Susceptibility to celiac disease 11 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 3q28) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 12: Susceptibility to celiac disease 12 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 6q25) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 13: Susceptibility to celiac disease 13 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 12q24) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 2: Susceptibility to celiac disease 2 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 5q31-q33) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 3: Susceptibility to celiac disease 3 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 2q33) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 4: Susceptibility to celiac disease 4 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 19p13.1) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 5: Susceptibility to celiac disease 5 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 15q11-q13) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 6: Susceptibility to celiac disease 6 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 4q27) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 7: Susceptibility to celiac disease 7 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 1q133) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 8: Susceptibility to celiac disease 8 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 2q11-q12) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Susceptibility to Celiac Disease 9: Susceptibility to celiac disease 9 is a term allocated to a genetic defect on a particular chromosome (chromosome 3p21) which makes a patient more susceptible to developing celiac disease. However, it is important to note that having the genetic anomaly does not mean a person will definitely develop celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Tacrine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Tarpon poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some tarpon contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the tarpon does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The tarpon are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Tension myositis related fibromyalgia: Tension myositis related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with tension myositis. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues. Tension myositis is a chronic pain syndrome that tends to mainly affect the back, neck, arm and pelvis.
  • Timme syndrome: A syndrome involving insufficiency of the thymus, adrenal and pituitary glands. The disorder has involves three phases, each of which has varying symptoms: phase 1 is before puberty, phase 2 occurs after puberty and phase 3 tends to occur in the third decade.
  • Tranxene -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Tranxene during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Troell-Junet syndrome: A disorder involving enlarged extremities, diabetes, skull abnormalities and excessive thyroid hormone production.
  • Turner syndrome associated Celiac Disease: Females with Turner syndrome are more susceptible to developing celiac disease than the average population. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Type 1 diabetes: Severe insulin-treated diabetes typically occurring in young people.
  • Type 1 diabetes related Celiac Disease: Patients with Type 1 diabetes are more susceptible to developing celiac disease than the average population. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Type 2 diabetes: Most common diabetes in adults, usually progressing slowly, mostly treated without insulin at diagnosis.
  • Uremia: Excessive urea and waste products in the blood
  • Voltaren -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Voltaren (an NSAID drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Walrus poisoning: The walrus is used as a food source in some parts of the world. Eating the liver of the walrus can result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases.
  • Water Intoxication: Excessive water intake can lead to water intoxication and ultimately death.
  • William's syndrome associated Celiac Disease: Patients with William's syndrome are more susceptible to developing celiac disease than the average population. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Young Simpson syndrome: A condition that is characterised by mainly mental retardation and physical signs of hypothyroidism
  • Zadik Barak Levin syndrome: A condition that affects the endocrine system as well as some facial characteristics

 

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