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Diseases » Muscle spasm » Glossary
 

Glossary for Muscle spasm

  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm: A weakness and bulging of a section of an abdominal blood vessel called the abdominal aorta. It is usually associated with severe atherosclerosis in the blood vessel.
  • Adrenal Cancer: A malignant cancer that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids. Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: A tumor that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids.
  • Adrenal adenoma, familial: A benign tumor that develops in the adrenal gland and tends to run in families. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids . Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal gland hyperfunction: Excessive activity of the adrenal gland which causes excessive production of one or more adrenal hormones (aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine). The increased adrenal gland activity may be caused by an adrenal gland tumor or by excessive stimulation of the gland. Pituitary hormones stimulate adrenal gland activity.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma: A tumor of the adrenal gland that is discovered incidentally while performing an imaging examination for reasons other than an adrenal tumor. The tumor may be asymptomatic or can causes excessive secretion of adrenal hormones and resulting symptoms. The tumor may also be malignant or benign.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma: A condition which is characterized by malignancy which affects the adrenocortex.
  • Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The symptoms are variable depending on the disorder involved. Some of the disorders are: alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, alcohol intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, alcohol intoxication delirium, alcohol withdrawal delirium, alcohol-induced persisting dementia, alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder, alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, alcohol-induced mood disorder, alcohol-induced anxiety disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, alcohol-induced sleep disorder, liver damage, liver cancer and esophageal cancer.
  • Alcoholic intoxication: The excessive consumption of alcohol can have toxic effects on the body and can ultimately result in death in severe cases.
  • Alcoholism: Alcoholism is the compulsive urge to drink alcohol despite knowing the negative impact on one's health.
  • Alkalosis: Blood alkalinity levels too high (opposite of acidosis)
  • Alzheimer disease 10: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 10 is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 10p13.
  • Alzheimer disease 12: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 12 is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 8p12-q22.
  • Alzheimer disease 13: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q21. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 14: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q25. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 15: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 3q22-q24. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 5: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 5 has a late onset and is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 12p11.
  • Alzheimer disease 6: A genetic form of Alzheimer's. Type 6 has a late onset and is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 10q24.
  • Alzheimer disease 7: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 7 is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 10p13.
  • Alzheimer disease 8: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 8 is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 20p.
  • Alzheimer disease 9: A genetic form of Alzheimer's. Type 9 has a late onset and is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 19p13.2.
  • Alzheimer disease type 1: A degenerative brain disease characterized primarily by progressive dementia. Type 1 has an early onset (starts before the age of 65). It is caused by mutations in the APP gene which results in the production of a toxic protein (amyloid beta peptide) in the brain which collects into clumps (amyloid plaques) in the brain. These plaques cause damage to nerve cells in the brain.
  • Alzheimer disease type 4: A degenerative brain disease characterized primarily by progressive dementia. Type 4 has an early onset (starts before the age of 65). It is caused by mutations in the PSEN2 gene which results in the production of a toxic protein (amyloid beta peptide) in the brain which collects into clumps (amyloid plaques) in the brain. These plaques cause damage to nerve cells in the brain.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial: A degenerative brain disease characterized primarily by progressive dementia. The familial form is very rare and is completely inherited and has an early onset (usually in the 4th decade). It occurs when there is excessive production of a toxic protein (amyloid beta peptide) in the brain which collects into clumps (amyloid plaques) in the brain. These plaques cause damage to nerve cells in the brain.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial, 1: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 21q. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial, type 3: A degenerative brain disease characterized primarily by progressive dementia. Type 3 has an early onset (starts before the age of 65). It is caused by mutations in the PSEN1 gene which results in the production of a toxic protein (amyloid beta peptide) in the brain which collects into clumps (amyloid plaques) in the brain. These plaques cause damage to nerve cells in the brain.
  • Alzheimer's disease without Neurofibrillary tangles: A form of Alzheimer's that involves only plaques and no neurofibrillary tangles. This form tends to have an older age of onset and death and a shorter disease duration.
  • Aminophyllin -- Teratogenic Agent: Experimental studies on rats indicate that the use of Aminophyllin during pregnancy may cause various harmful effects on the fetus. The likelihood and severity of symptoms may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at. The effect on human fetuses has not been conclusively determined.
  • Avascular necrosis: Bone death from lack of circulation.
  • Barakat syndrome: A rare condition characterized by deafness, kidney disease and insufficiency parathyroid hormone production.
  • Black jetbead poisoning: The Black jetbead is a deciduous shrub which bears single white flowers and small groups of shiny black fruit. The fruit contains amygdalin which is very toxic and can cause severe poisoning or even death if eaten.
  • Black widow spider envenomation: The black widow spider bite is toxic to the nerves and can cause serious symptoms. The black widow spider is most commonly found in North America.
  • Box Jellyfish poisoning: A sting from the Box jellyfish contains a chemical which is toxic to the nerves, heart and skin. This jellyfish is mainly found in the waters of Northern Queensland in Australia. The tentacles should not be removed from the patient as it can cause further injection of poison.
  • Bulimia nervosa: Eating disorder with binging (overeating) and purging (vomiting).
  • Calcium deficiency: Dietary deficiency of calcium.
  • Camurati Engelmann disease, type 2: A rare disorder (described in two patients) which has similar symptoms to the genetic condition called Camurati Engelmann disease but the genetic defect responsible for type 1 is not present in type 2. Type 2 has additional bone abnormalities which were noted on radiographs. Patients tend to suffer flare-ups of their condition which is accompanied by severe pain which may leave the patient incapacitated. Flare-ups can be triggered or made worse by stress, exhaustion, exercise, growth spurts, standing too long, walking too long, infection, illness, injury, surgery, cold weather and sudden changes in air pressure.
  • Carolina Cherry Laurel poisoning: The Carolina cherry laurel is an evergreen tree which bears small white flowers and small green fruit which turns black when ripe. Most parts of the plant contain cyanogenic glycoside and amygdalin which can cause symptoms if ingested. The plant is considered highly toxic and eating sufficient quantities can lead to death.
  • Central pontine myelinolysis: A rare condition where the protective layer around brainstem nerve cells is destroyed which prevents nerve signals being transmitted properly. It generally occurs in response to a rapid change in sodium levels in the body which can be caused by treatment of various conditions or by various conditions that cause rapid sodium level changes.
  • Chemical poisoning -- 1,1-Dichloroethene: 1,1-Dichloroethene is a chemical used in packaging, food wraps, carpet backing, adhesives and steel pipe coating. The main effects of an overdose of this chemical central nervous depression and central nervous system depression. However, some people can suffer an adverse reaction to the chemical. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- 2-Methyl-4-Chlorophenoxyacetic Acid: 2-Methyl-4-Chlorophenoxyacetic Acid is a chemical mainly used as a herbicide for field crops and turf. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- 5,-Methoxy-N,N-Diisopropyltryptamine: 5,-Methoxy-N,N-Diisopropyltryptamine is a chemical used as a designer drug for its hallucinogen and aphrodisiac effects. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Amitrole: Amitrole is a herbicide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Ammonium Bifluoride: Ammonium Bifluoride is a chemical used wheel cleaners, herbicides and in the manufacture of magnesium. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Baking soda: Baking soda is generally considered non toxic and is used in cooking. However, excessive doses can cause various symptoms.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Camphor: Camphor is a chemical used mainly in moth repellents, pharmaceuticals (preservative) cosmetics, explosives, varnishes and various therapeutic applications. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Chlorobenzene: Chlorobenzene is a chemical used mainly as a solvent and in the production of various other chemicals. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Fluoridated toothpaste: Fluoridated toothpaste contains fluoride and various other chemicals which can cause serious symptoms if sufficient quantities are swallowed. As little as half a tube of children's paste can cause death in a 2 year old child and a whole tube can cause death in a 9 year old child. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Metaldehyde: Metaldehyde is a chemical used mainly as a molluscicide, in heating fuel and in fire lighters. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Paramethoxyamphetamine: Paramethoxyamphetamine is used as a recreational hallucinogenic drug. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Selenious Acid: Selenious Acid is a chemical used mainly in gun bluing agents. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Trichlorfon: Trichlorfon is an insecticide used mostly in crops. It is considered motderately toxic to humans. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chorea: Any disorder causing involuntary movement or spasms.
  • Colpocephaly: A rare brain malformation that is present at birth. The cavities present at the back of the brain are larger than normal as the brain tissue has failed to develop normally to fill some of the space. Severity of symptoms are variable depending on the degree of abnormality.
  • Conn's syndrome: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adenoma, carcinoma or enlargement of the adrenal gland or glands. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Corn Lily poisoning: Corn Lily is a poisonous plant native to the Sierra Nevada mountains. It's appearance is similar to the corn grown as a crop. The plant poison primarily affects the nervous system.
  • Corpus callosum dysgenesis cleft spasm: A rare condition characterized by the association of abnormal development of the part of the brain called the corpus callosum, cleft lip or palate and spasms. Variable other symptoms may also be present.
  • Cramp-fasciculations syndrome: A rare condition characterized by muscle pain, cramps, twitching, spasms and other abnormal sensations that occur mainly in the limbs.
  • Cytochrome c oxydase deficiency, French-Canadian type: A rare, progressive, inherited metabolic disorder where a deficiency of the enzyme cytochrome C oxidase affects skeletal muscles, connective tissue, brain and liver.
  • Dehydration: Loss of fluids in the body
  • Demerol withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when Demerol use is discontinued or reduced. Demerol is a pain-killing drug. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Deposition diseases related fibromyalgia: Deposition diseases related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with deposition diseases. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues. Deposition diseases involve the abnormal deposit of material in parts of the body such as the joints e.g. gout.
  • Dilaudid withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when Dilaudid use is discontinued or reduced. Dilaudid is a pain-killing drug. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence. Symptoms are usually peak during the second day and last about a week.
  • Dilor -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dilor (a bronchodilator) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Dilutional hyponatremia: Low sodium levels due to excessive fluids.
  • Diuril -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Diuril ( a diuretic) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Dyphylline -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dyphylline (a bronchodilator) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Dystonia 12: A very rare syndrome involving the early start of symptoms of dystonia and parkinsonism. The onset of the symptoms usually occurs suddenly over weeks or even hours and then progresses slowly.
  • Dystonia 4, Torsion, Autosomal Dominant: An inherited movement disorder where the muscles contract and contort uncontrollably due to neurological dysfunction. Usually speech is affected first.
  • Dystonia 6, torsion: A rare inherited movement disorder where the patient suffers involuntary muscle contractions and distortion of body position. Symptoms usually start in one limb and then spread to other limbs.
  • Dystonia musculorum deformans type 1: A rare movement disorder where the patient suffers involuntary muscle contractions and distortion of body position. The trunk, neck and limbs are usually involved first.
  • Dystonia musculorum deformans type 2: A rare recessively inherited movement disorder where the patient suffers involuntary muscle contractions and distortion of body position. The hands and feet are usually involved first.
  • Electrolyte abnormality: An imbalance in the level of any of a number of chemicals (electrolytes) in the blood stream e.g. chloride, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphate and bicarbonate. Symptoms can vary depending on which electrolyte is involved and the severity of the imbalance - severe cases can readily lead to death. An electrolyte abnormality can be caused by such things excessive loss of body fluid through vomiting or diarrhea, kidney conditions, malabsorption and various drugs such as diuretics and chemotherapy drugs.
  • English Laurel poisoning: The English Laurel is an evergreen shrub with elongated spikes of flowers and white fruit with a black stone. The seeds, twigs and wilted leaves of the plant contain chemicals (cyanogenic glycoside, amygdalin) which are very poisonous and can cause death if eaten. The chemicals result in cyanide poisoning.
  • Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome: A rare condition that occurs in some people who take the antidepressant L-tryptophan.
  • Eosinophilic cystitis: Eosinophilic cystitis is an unusual variant of cystitis that may be characterized by dysuria and hematuria. Biopsy is essential to establish the diagnosis. It usually causes irritative voiding symptoms and hematuria and in its rare tumor-like appearance the disease may mimic an invasive bladder neoplasm.
  • Epilepsy: Brain condition causing seizures or spasms.
  • Epstein Barr virus related fibromyalgia: Epstein Barr virus related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with infection with the Epstein Barr virus. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues.
  • Fibromyalgia: A difficult to diagnose condition affecting the muscles and/or joints
  • Filefish poisoning (Palytoxin): Palytoxin is a marine toxin found in some filefish from the Philippines and Singapore region. The toxin is extremely potent and death is common in patients who ingest contaminated filefish.
  • Fire cherry poisoning: Fire cherry is a tree found mainly in the US. Ti bears round clusters of flowers and fruit with a large pit. The wilted leaves, stems and seeds contain cyanogenic glycoside and amygdalin which can be very poisonous if eaten. Severe cases of poisoning can result in death.
  • Flax poisoning: Flax is slender-stemmed herb which bears blue flowers and capsulated fruit containing smooth brown seeds. The plant originated in Europe but is found in many parts of the world growing wild. The plant contains a chemical called linomarin (a cyanogenic glycoside) which can cause symptoms if eaten in large quantities. Skin irritation can also result from skin exposure.
  • Flurazepam -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Flurazepam during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Graeck-Imerslund disease:
  • Grasbeck-Imerslund Disease: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Head injury: An injury to the head
  • Herbal Agent adverse reaction -- Rue: Rue can be used to induce abortion, as a topical insect repellant or to treat spasms and delayed menstruation. The herbal agent contains chemicals (alkaloids, arborine, arborinine) which can cause an adverse reaction in some people.
  • Herbal Agent overdose -- Golden Seal: Golden seal can be used as a herbal agent to treat a variety of conditions - bleeding after birth, mucosal inflammation, constipation, hemorrhoids. The herbal agent contains chemicals (alkaloid hydrastine, berberine) which can cause various symptoms if excessive quantities are taken.
  • Hyacinth bean poisoning: Hyacinth bean is a vine which bears elongated spikes of purple, white or pink flowers. The plant originated in Africa and is often used as an ornamental plant. The seeds and seed pod contain cyanogenic glycoside which can cause poisoning if large quantities are eaten. The seeds can be eaten if they are boiled for a long period of time with frequent water changes.
  • Hyperadrenalism: Excessive levels of adrenal hormones in the body. Symptoms depend on which hormone is involved and the degree of involvement. Adrenal hormones are aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Hypocalcemia, autosomal dominant: A dominantly inherited disorder of phosphate and calcium metabolism which results in low blood calcium levels. The severity of the condition is highly variable with some patients being asymptomatic.
  • Hypomagnesemia caused by selective magnesium malabsorption: A rare genetic disorder which causes low blood magnesium and results in low calcium levels also. Death can occur if left untreated. The condition is believed to results from abnormal intestinal absorption of magnesium rather than the excessive secretion of magnesium via malfunctioning kidneys.
  • Hypoparathyroidism X-linked: Low parathyroid levels inherited in a X-linked manner and hence only males are symptomatic and females are asymptomatic carriers.
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Incontinentia Pigmenti: A rare genetic skin pigmentation disorder characterized by eye, teeth, bone, nail and hair malformations as well as central nervous abnormalities and mental deficiency.
  • Infectious meningitis: Infectious meningitis is meningitis caused by bacterial, viral, or protozoan infection. Most of the agents known to cause meningitis are infectious, but very few people exposed to them will get meningitis. Those at greatest danger include people with AIDS, infants, transplant patients, and others whose immune systems may be compromised.
  • Insect sting allergies: When a person has an allergic reaction at the site of an insect sting
  • Jessamine poisoning: Jessamine is an evergreen shrub which bears aromatic flowers and small white or purplish berries. It is often utilized as a houseplant or grown in gardens. The unripe berries contain various alkaloids which can be toxic if large quantities of the berries are eaten.
  • Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis: A very rare genetic disorder characterized by increasing weakness and stiffness of the muscles in the arms, legs and face due to damage to nerve cells that control motor movement.
  • Kidney failure: Total failure of the kidneys to filter waste
  • Lamictal -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lamictal during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Lamotrigine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lamotrigine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Leigh syndrome: A rare, progressive, neurological disorder characterized by the degeneration of the brain and impaired function of various body organs. The condition is caused by a systemic deficiency of the cytochrome C oxidase enzyme.
  • Leigh syndrome, French Canadian type: A rare, progressive, inherited metabolic disorder where a deficiency of the enzyme cytochrome C oxidase affects skeletal muscles, connective tissue, brain and liver.
  • Leigh syndrome, Saguenay-Lac-St. Jean type: A rare, progressive, inherited metabolic disorder where a deficiency of the enzyme cytochrome C oxidase affects skeletal muscles, connective tissue, brain and liver.
  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: A form of epilepsy that occurs mostly in preschool-aged children and is characterized mainly by absences.
  • Leptomeningitis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of the leptomeninges
  • Limb dystonia: A nerve disorder which affects muscles. It causes prolonged muscle spasms (contractions) which results in repeated twisting motions or abnormal limb postures.
  • Lissencephaly, type 1, X-linked: Abnormal brain development characterized by an abnormally smooth brain. This form of the disorder is inherited in a X-linked manner (defect on the DCX gene) and the corpus callosum fails to develop. Males tend to be affected more severely than females.
  • Loquat poisoning: Loquat is a shrubby plant which bears clusters of small white flowers and largish yellow fleshy fruit. The plant is often used in gardens as an ornamental plant. The kernel from inside the seeds contains a chemical called cyanogenic glycoside which can be poisonous if eaten in large quantities. The fruit from the plant is actually safe to eat but the seeds should be avoided.
  • Lufyllin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lufyllin (a bronchodilator) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Magnesium deficiency: A deficiency in the magnesium stores of the body
  • Major depressive disorder related fibromyalgia: Major depressive disorder related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with major depression. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues.
  • Maternally Inherited Leigh Syndrome: A rare condition where Leigh syndrome is inherited from the mother. Leigh syndrome is characterized by degeneration of the brain and impaired function of various organs.
  • Megaloblastic Anemia 1: A rare genetic blood disorder where a defect in the vitamin B12 receptor means that it can't be absorbed from food during digestion. As a result of the low vitamin B12 levels, the body produces increased numbers of abnormal enlarged red blood cells (megaloblasts).
  • Megaloblastic anemia: A rare blood disorder where insufficient vitamin B12 absorption results in reduced production of red blood cells and increased levels of abnormal, enlarged red blood cells (megaloblasts). Vitamin B12 insufficiency can result from absorption problems or lack of dietary intake of the vitamin or folic acid.
  • Milkweed poisoning: The milkweed is a flowering herb which bears clusters of red, orange or yellow flowers. The plant contains chemicals (resinoids, cardiac glycosides) which are toxic if large quantities are ingested.
  • Movement disorders: Medical conditions affecting the movement systems, such as walking or tremor.
  • Muscle conditions: Any condition that affects the muscles of the body
  • Muscle cramps: A condition which is characterized by the uncontrolled contractions of muscles
  • Muscle weakness: A condition which is characterized by an inability of the muscles to function at their full strenght
  • Musculoskeletal conditions: Medical conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system of bones, muscles and related structures.
  • Myelitis: Spinal cord inflammation.
  • Neonatal tetanus: Muscle tetanus of the very young infant
  • Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy: A group of diseases progressive degeneration occurs in a particular area of the brain (olivopontocerebellar area) which results in various neurological symptoms.
  • Opsoclonus Myoclonus: Condition with involuntary muscle and eye movement.
  • Osteomyelitis: A bone inflammation caused by bacteria. The inflammation usually originates in another part of the body and is transported to the bone via the blood.
  • Pain: A feeling of suffering, agony, distress caused by the stimulation of pain fibres in the nervous system
  • Palytoxin poisoning: Palytoxin is a marine toxin found in sea anemones and certain crabs and fish (e.g. triggerfish). The toxin is extremely potent and death is common in patients who ingest contaminated fish.
  • Parrotfish poisoning (Palytoxin): Palytoxin is a marine toxin found in some parrotfish from the Philippines and Singapore region. The toxin is extremely potent and death is common in patients who ingest contaminated parrotfish.
  • Pernicious anemia: Pernicious anemia is a blood disorder where the body is unable to use it properly use Vitamin B12 to make red blood cells.
  • Plant poisoning -- Amygdalin: Amygdalin is a chemical found naturally in various plants e.g. stone fruit kernels and raw almonds. Eating these parts of the plant that contain the chemical can cause symptoms of cyanide poisoning as the amygdalin is converted to cyanide by the digestive process. Obviously, the concentration of the chemical varies amongst species of plant and often, significant quantities are needed to produce symptoms. Nevertheless, severe poisoning can result in death. Amygdalin is believed by some to inhibit cancers but there has been no conclusive proof of this.
  • Plant poisoning -- Cyanogenic glycoside: Cyanogenic glycoside is a toxin found naturally in various plants e.g. cherries, plums, almonds, peaches, apricots, apples and cassava. The chemical is usually concentrated in the seeds, kernels or wilted leaves. Eating these parts of the plant that contain the chemical can cause symptoms of cyanide poisoning as the cyanogenic glycoside is converted to cyanide by the digestive process. Even chewing the leaves can result in conversion to cyanide due to the presence of digestive enzymes in the mouth. Obviously, the concentration of the chemical varies amongst species of plant and often, significant quantities are needed to produce symptoms. Nevertheless, severe poisoning can result in death.
  • Pregnancy: The condition of supporting a fetus from conception till birth.
  • Primary Fibromyalgia: Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues. Primary fibromyalgia is a term given to fibromyalgia that occurs for no apparent reason whereas secondary fibromyalgia has an identifiable cause. The primary form is more common than the secondary form.
  • Primary Hyperaldosteronism: A condition characterised by the excessive production and release into the circulation of aldosterone
  • Probable human carcinogen -- Cisplatin: Cisplatin (a chemotherapy drug) is a substance deemed to be a probable carcinogen to humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Promethazine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Promethazine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Ramsay Hunt Syndrome type I: A rare condition involving progressive neurological degeneration. It tends to start in adulthood and progresses over a number of years before ultimately ending in death.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis related fibromyalgia: Rheumatoid arthritis related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory form of arthritis and is an autoimmune disease.
  • SLE related fibromyalgia: SLE related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues. SLE is an autoimmune disease that can affect virtually any body system e.g. blood vessels and organs.
  • Satoyoshi syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by alopecia, diarrhea, skeletal abnormalities and painful leg cramps caused by physical exercise or emotional stress.
  • Secondary Fibromyalgia: Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues. Primary fibromyalgia is a term given to fibromyalgia that occurs for no apparent reason whereas secondary fibromyalgia has an identifiable cause. The primary form is more common than the secondary form.
  • Selective Vitamin B12 malabsorption with Proteinuria: A rare genetic blood disorder where a defect in the vitamin B12 receptor means that it can't be absorbed from food during digestion. As a result of the low vitamin B12 levels, the body produces increased numbers of abnormal enlarged red blood cells (megaloblasts).
  • Sleep disturbance related fibromyalgia: Sleep disturbance related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with sleep disturbance. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues.
  • Spastic disorders: Brain disorders leading to sustained spasms, stiffness and rigidity
  • Spasticity: Continuous contraction or stiffness of muscles.
  • Spinal bulbar motor neuropathy: A rare inherited disease that affects the nerves in the spine and in the bulbous (bulbar) part of the brain stem. The main signs are muscle weakness and wasting.
  • Spinal cord injury: Spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord as a result of a direct trauma to the spinal cord itself or as a result of indirect damage to the bones and soft tissues and vessels surrounding the spinal cord.
  • Spinal cord neoplasm: A growth (tumor) that arises from the spinal cord. The tumor may be benign or malignant.
  • Spotted water hemlock poisoning: Spotted water hemlock is a flowering plant that bears clusters of small, white flowers and tends to grow in wetland areas. The plant contains toxic chemicals (cicutoxin, cicutol) is considered very poisonous. The ingestion of even a bite of the root can result in rapid death in children.
  • Sprains and strains: A joint injury in which some of the supporting tissues are damaged
  • St. Anthony's fire: Very painful burning sensation in the arms and legs caused by excessive exposure to ergotamines. Ergotamines are produced by particular fungi. It is also a drug used for such things as migraine controls and to induce abortions. Ergotamines result in the constriction of blood vessels which can result in tissue death (gangrene) and is also toxic to nerves.
  • Status epilepticus: A condition which is characterized by a continuous series of generalized tonic clonic seizures
  • Stiff-Person Syndrome: A very rare progressive neurological disorder involving muscle tightness and painful muscle spasms.
  • Strain: Muscle or tendon injury; compare sprain
  • Tacrolimus -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Tacrolimus during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Tansy poisoning: Tansy is a herbaceous plant which bears clusters of small yellow flowers. It can be found growing in the wild as well as in gardens. The leaves and flowers contain a chemical called thujone which can cause symptoms if large quantities are eaten. Small quantities are considered safely edible.
  • Tapioca poisoning: Tapioca is a shrubby plant which bears inconspicuous flowers. The tubers contain chemicals (cyanogenic glycosides) which are turned into cyanide by the digestive process. Ingestion of the raw roots of this plant can result in death if sufficient quantities are eaten. The tubers are edible if they are boiled first. Toxicity varies within the species depending on growing conditions and other factors.
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy: A condition which is characterized by complex partial seizures
  • Tension myositis related fibromyalgia: Tension myositis related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with tension myositis. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues. Tension myositis is a chronic pain syndrome that tends to mainly affect the back, neck, arm and pelvis.
  • Torsion dystonia 7: A rare inherited movement disorder where the patient suffers involuntary muscle contractions and distortion of body position. Usually the onset of symptoms is focused on one part of the body, usually the neck, eyes or hands.
  • Torsion dystonia with onset in infancy: A rare inherited movement disorder where the patient suffers involuntary muscle contractions and distortion of body position. The disorder occurs during infancy and tends to affect the legs severely and the face and arms to a lesser degree.
  • Toxic mushrooms -- Monomethylhydrazine: Some mushrooms contain a toxic chemical called gyromitrin which is converted to monomethylhydrazine after digestion. Mushroom species from this group include certain species of Gyromitra, Helvella, Sarcosphaera and Peziza. Poisoning may occur from inhaling fumes from cooking mushrooms. The amount of toxin varies amongst and within species but some are toxic enough to cause death. Urgent medical attention should be sought if mushroom poisoning is suspected.
  • Transverse myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord which results in various neurological and muscle symptoms. The inflammation can occur for no obvious reason or may result from a virus, bacterial infection, autoimmune disease or vaccination. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the location and degree of inflammation.
  • Triggerfish poisoning (Palytoxin): Palytoxin is a marine toxin found in some triggerfish from the Philippines region. The toxin is extremely potent and death is common in patients who ingest contaminated triggerfish.
  • Variant CJD: New human CJD subtype linked to mad cow disease (BSE).
  • Whiplash pain: Whiplash is when the soft tissues of the neck are injured by a sudden jerking or "whipping" of the head. This type of motion strains the muscles and ligaments of the neck beyond their normal range of motion.
  • Wild Lima bean poisoning: Wild Lima beans are a legume similar to the common lima beans which are considered safe to eat. The wild lima contains much higher levels of a chemical called cyanogen than the common lima bean. The cyanogen can cause symptoms and if sufficient quantities are eaten, death can result. Some people are so sensitive to cyanogen that eating even the relatively safe common lima bean may result in symptoms though usually they are not severe. Cooking destroys the toxic chemical in lima beans. Raw lima bean sprouts should be avoided.
  • Xanthid crab poisoning (Palytoxin): Palytoxin is a marine toxin found in some xanthid crabs from the Philippines and Singapore region. The toxin is extremely potent and death is common in patients who ingest contaminated xanthid crabs.
  • Yager-Young syndrome: The false belief by a patient that they have low blood sugar because of the symptoms they are experiencing.

 

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