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Diseases » Myoclonus » Glossary
 

Glossary for Myoclonus

  • Alcohol Withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when alcohol consumption is discontinued or reduced. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Alpers Syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by liver disease, seizures and progressive, episodic psychomotor retardation.
  • Alzheimer's Disease: Dementia-causing brain disease mostly in seniors and the elderly.
  • Anoxia: Lack of oxygen to the body's tissues.
  • Arizona Bark Scorpion poisoning: A bite from the Arizona Bark scorpion contains chemicals toxic to the nerve system and can cause serious, life-threatening symptoms.
  • Atlantic mussel food poisoning: Atlantic mussels contain a toxin called domoic acid which can affect nerve tissue. The mussels are found in the North Atlantic and Pacific coast and the Gulf of Mexico.
  • Bonnemann-Meinecke-Reich syndrome: A rare disorder characterized mainly by growth problems, vision problems and brain disease.
  • Brain -- bone -- fat: A rare inherited disease characterized by bone cysts and progressive presenile dementia.
  • Brain cancer: Cancer of the brain.
  • Brain conditions: Medical conditions that affect the brain
  • Buckeye poisoning: Buckeye is a shrub or small tree which contains a toxic compound called aesculin that can cause gastrointestinal or neuromuscular symptoms. Young leaves, flowers and bark are the most toxic parts of the plant. The plant is most common in parts of North America. Eating only one or two seeds may simply cause vomiting or diarrhea but repeated exposure or eating large amounts can cause more serious symptoms.
  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 1, infantile: A rare inherited biochemical disorder involving the progressive accumulation of certain chemicals (lipopigments) in body tissues due to deficiency of an enzyme (palmitoyl-protein thioesterase) needed to process it.
  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 4: A rare inherited biochemical disorder involving the progressive accumulation of certain chemicals (lipopigments) in body tissues due to deficiency of an enzyme (palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1) needed to process it.
  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 5: A rare metabolic disorder that affects the nerve cells of the body and is characterized by the deposits of lipopigments (lipofuscin). Type 5 is distinguished from other types by the origin of the genetic defect.
  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 6, late infantile: A rare metabolic disorder that affects the nerve cells of the body and is characterized by the deposits of lipopigments (lipofuscin). Type 6 usually occurs between the ages of 2 to 6 years. Type 6 is distinguished from other types by the origin of the genetic defect.
  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 8: A rare metabolic disorder that affects the nerve cells of the body and is characterized by the deposits of lipopigments (lipofuscin). Type 8 is distinguished from other types by the origin of the genetic defect.
  • Chemical poisoning: Morbid condition caused by chemical.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Aluminum: Aluminum is a chemical used mainly for metallurgical purposes and can be found in packaging, electrical parts, vehicles, cooking utensils, construction materials and building components. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Creosote: Creosote is a chemical used mainly as a disinfectant, laxative and cough treatment. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The chemical can be readily absorbed through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Ethylene Glycol: Ethylene Glycol is a chemical used mainly in antifreeze, coolants and as a solvent. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. Symptoms tend to occur in three phases: the first 12 hours involves inebriation, seizuresand brain swelling; the second and third day involves deterioration of lung and heart function and the third stage involves kidney damage and possibly failure. Death can occur during any of the stages.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Ethylene Oxide: Ethylene oxide is a chemical used mainly in detergents, plasticizers, fumigants, inks, cosmetics and brake fluid. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Gasoline: Gasoline is a chemical used as a fuel for combustion engines. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Phencyclidine: Phencyclidine is often used as an illegal recreational drug. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ10), deficiency: A rare inherited disorder characterized by the deficiency of Coenzyme Q 10. The range and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Coenzyme Q cytochrome c reductase deficiency of: A rare genetic defect where an enzyme deficiency (CoQ-Cytochrome C reductase) disrupts cellular processes. Any of a variety of the components of the enzyme may be missing or defective and hence the clinical presentation and severity may vary. The deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms and conditions of variable severity such as cardiomyopathy, fatal infant conditions and Leber's myopathy.
  • Corticobasal Degeneration: A rare progressive neurological disorder where parts of the brain deteriorate.
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A very rare degenerative brain disease that can be inherited, transmitted (eg in surgical transplants using infected tissue) or as a result of genetic mutations. The condition is fatal.
  • Delirium tremens: Delirium from alcohol withdrawal
  • Difficulty talking: Where ones has a problem with communicating through speech
  • Difficulty walking: Where ones has a problem with mobilizing on ones feet
  • Drug poisoning: The poisoning of an individual with a noxious substance
  • Eating symptoms: Symptoms related to eating.
  • Encephalitis: Dangerous infection of the brain
  • Epilepsy: Brain condition causing seizures or spasms.
  • Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 3: A genetic form of epilepsy which is severe and starts during infancy. This form of the condition is caused by a defect on the SLC25A22 gene on chromosome 11p15.5.
  • Fatal familial insomnia: A very rare inherited brain disease that severely affects sleep and causes progressive deterioration of mental and movement functions.
  • Feline spongiform encephalopathy: A prion disease believed to affect felines in a similar fashion to bovine spongiform encephalitis
  • Hashimoto's encephalitis: A rare but serious condition that can occur when thyroid antibodies, such as those present in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, involve the brain tissue and cause neurological symptoms.
  • Head injury: An injury to the head
  • Hydranencephaly: A very rare condition where fluid replaces a portion of the brain.
  • Hyperexplexia: A rare condition where the startle reflex is exaggerated. Triggers include sudden noise, movement or touch.
  • Immunosuppressive Measles Encephalitis: A rare complication of the measles virus. Some patients with a history of measles before the age of two develop progressive brain inflammation. The condition is rare and tends to only occur only in immunosuppressed children e.g. those who have acute lymphocytic leukemia. Symptoms may develop suddenly and tends to occur from weeks to months after the measles has resolved.
  • Infection: Infections as a symptom.
  • Kidney failure: Total failure of the kidneys to filter waste
  • Kuf Disease:
  • Lafora body disease: A condition characterized by attacks of intermittent or continuous clonus of muscle groups
  • Lathosterolosis: A very rare disorder where an enzyme (sterol C5-desaturase) deficiency prevents the normal synthesis of cholesterol in the body. The deficiency causes various malformations, mental retardation and liver disease.
  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: A form of epilepsy that occurs mostly in preschool-aged children and is characterized mainly by absences.
  • Liver failure: Acute liver failure (ALF) is an uncommon condition in which the rapid deterioration of liver function results in coagulopathy and alteration in the mental status of a previously healthy individual.
  • Measles Encephalitis in Children with Immunosuppression: A rare complication of the measles virus. Some patients with a history of measles before the age of two develop progressive brain inflammation. The condition is rare and tends to only occur only in immunosuppressed children e.g. those who have acute lymphocytic leukemia. Symptoms may develop suddenly and tends to occur from weeks to months after the measles has resolved.
  • Meningitis: Dangerous infection of the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Micrencephaly olivopontocerebellar hypoplasia: A rare fatal condition characterized by brain disease and a small underdeveloped brain.
  • Movement disorders: Medical conditions affecting the movement systems, such as walking or tremor.
  • Multiple Sclerosis: Autoimmune attack on spinal nerves causing diverse and varying neural problems.
  • Muscle conditions: Any condition that affects the muscles of the body
  • Muscle twitch: Small muscle spasms
  • Muscle-eye-brain syndrome: A genetic disease characterized by muscle weakness, congenital brain abnormalities and eye problems as well as other defects.
  • Musculoskeletal conditions: Medical conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system of bones, muscles and related structures.
  • Myoclonic dystonia: A very rare inherited syndrome characterized mainly by mild dystonia and myoclonic jerks that occur mainly in the arms, neck and trunk. Alcohol makes the condition worse. Psychiatric disorders are also often present.
  • Myoclonic epilepsy benign, adult, familial: A rare familial disorder characterized by muscle jerking and seizures in adults. The disorder is not progressive and is fairly harmless with only minor fine motor control problems.
  • Myoclonic progressive familial epilepsy: A progressive familial disorder involving the central nervous system and manifesting as epilepsy and myoclonus (muscle contractions) that worsen over time.
  • Myoclonus with epilepsy with ragged red fibers: A rare disorder of mitochondrial metabolism characterized by myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red muscle fibers. Mitochondria are the part of the body cells that produce energy.
  • Myoclonus-ataxia: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by myoclonus and loss of movement coordination.
  • Narcotic withdrawal: The withdrawal syndrome from narcotics generally includes signs and symptoms opposite of the drug's intended medical effects
  • Nervous system conditions: Diseases affecting the nerves and the nervous system.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblstoma.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 1: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1p36.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 2: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 4p12.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 3: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 2p23.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 4: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 6p.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 5: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q35.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 6: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1q21.
  • Niemann-Pick disease, type C1: Niemann-Pick disease is an inherited metabolic disorder where lipids are not able to be metabolized adequately and hence build up and cause damage in various parts of the body such as the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow and brain. The different types of the disease are due to different genetic mutations. Type C is a juvenile or subacute form of the condition which usually starts during childhood and survival into adulthood is possible.
  • Nipah virus encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain caused by the Nipah virus which can infect pigs and humans so transmission usually occurs through contact with pigs.
  • Ohtahara Syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by epilepsy that starts within a month of birth.
  • Opsoclonus Myoclonus: Condition with involuntary muscle and eye movement.
  • Orofaciodigital syndrome, type 3: A rare genetic disorder characterized by oral frenula, oral clefts, underdeveloped nose flaps and finger, teeth and eye abnormalities.
  • Parkinson's Disease: Degenerative brain condition characterised by tremor.
  • Poisoning: The condition produced by poison
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Phenytoin: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Phenytoin (an anticonvulsant medication) has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Primidone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Primidone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Prion diseases: Various diseases caused by abnormal proteins (prions) in the brain.
  • Progressive Rubella Panencephalitis: A very rare complication of rubella infection where neurological symptoms develop following a congenital rubella infection and very rarely with childhood rubella. It is believed that the condition is the result of persistent rubella virus infection.
  • Pyridoxamine 5-prime-phosphate oxidase deficiency: A metabolic disorder involving a deficiency of an enzyme called 5-prime-phosphate oxidase. Symptoms start soon after birth and involves seizures and other anomalies.
  • Ramsay Hunt syndrome Type II: A condition caused by a reactivation of the herpes simplex virus and resulting in facial paralysis, ear pain and skin blistering.
  • Respiratory depression: Also known as bradyapnea is the decreased rate of breathing.
  • Restless Legs Syndrome: A neurological disorder where legs develop and crawling, aching skin sensation which is relived by moving the legs.
  • Reye's Syndrome: A syndrome in children recovering from infection and associated with aspirin.
  • Rubella panencephalitis: A very rare complication of rubella infection where neurological symptoms develop following a congenital rubella infection and very rarely with childhood rubella. It is believed that the condition is the result of persistent rubella virus infection.
  • Sandhoff Disease: An inherited biochemical disorder involving a deficiency of the enzyme called hexosaminidase A&B which results in the harmful accumulation of chemicals in the central nervous system and other body tissues.
  • Schindler disease: Schindler disease is a rare congenital metabolic disorder involving a deficiency of a particular enzyme (alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase) which results in a buildup of glycoproteins in the body. The condition originates from a genetic mutation and is an inherited disorder. There are three main types of this condition, each with varying severity. The most severe form usually results in death within a few years of birth whereas the mild form doesn't cause symptoms until after the age of 30. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on which form of the disease is involved.
  • Serotonin Syndrome: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Serotoninergic syndrome: A disorder involves high levels of serotonin which can result from use of medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
  • Shallow Breathing: Small breathes (usually with rapid breathing)
  • Shingles: Infectious viral infection occuring years after chickenpox infection.
  • Sialidosis: A condition also known as cherry red spot myoclonus syndrome
  • Sialidosis type 1: A rare inherited condition where deficiency of an enzyme called neuraminidase results in epilepsy, ataxia and vision problems as well as characteristic cherry red spots in the macula of the eye. Symptoms may be exacerbated by factors such as smoking and menstrual cycles.
  • Sialidosis type 1 and 3: A rare inherited biochemical disorder involving the deficiency of an enzyme (alpha-N-acetylneuraminidase) which results in the harmful accumulation of certain chemicals (sialyloligosaccharides and sialylglycopeptides) in various body tissues.
  • Sialidosis type 2: A very rare inherited metabolic disorder where a defect in the enzyme alpha-neuraminidase prevents glycoproteins being metabolized - a severe form of Sialidosis type I.
  • Spinal cord injury: Spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord as a result of a direct trauma to the spinal cord itself or as a result of indirect damage to the bones and soft tissues and vessels surrounding the spinal cord.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 14: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 19q13.4qter defect) characterized by gait ataxia, tremors and dysarthria (speech disorder). The condition progresses slowly.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 19: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 1p21-q21 defect) characterized by mild cognitive impairment and myoclonus. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 4: A rare neurological disorder caused by a genetic defect (chromosome 1p36, recessive) and resulting in ataxia and eye movement problems.
  • Striatonigral degeneration infantile: A genetic neurological disorder caused by progressive damage to a part of the brain called the striatum.
  • Stroke: Serious brain event from bleeding or blood clots.
  • Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A progressive neurological disorder involving inflammation of the brain caused by a complication of the measles virus. It can occur up to 10 years after the initial measles virus and may be due to a defective immune response to the virus or a reactivation of the virus.
  • Subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis: A rare chronic form of brain inflammation that is associated with the measles virus. The patient usually appears to have a full recovery after the measles infection with symptoms developing usually between two and eight years after the infection. The condition tends to affect children and young adults mainly. The disease process involves the degeneration of the protective nerve sheaths (myelin) in the brain. Measles immunization is the most effective way of preventing the development of this complication of measles.
  • Thyrocerebral-retinal syndrome: A very rare syndrome observed in a brother and sister and characterized by thyroid, kidney and neurological disease.
  • Toxic mushrooms -- Anticholinergic: Some mushrooms contain a toxic chemical called ibotenic acid which causes anticholinergic symptoms. Ibotenic acid is converted to muscimol during digestion. The two toxins have opposing actions which results in initial excitation symptoms followed by a prolonged coma-like sleep. Mushroom species from this group include certain species of Amanita sp. - cothurnata, crenulata, frostiana, gemmata, muscaria and pantherina. Eating two to four mushrooms can result in impaired senses and eating more than twenty usually results in death.
  • Unverricht-Lundborg syndrome: A rare inherited type of progressive myoclonus epilepsy which tends to cause symptoms during childhood. The involuntary muscle movements tend to occur more frequently and become more severe with increasing age. Symptoms may occur following various stimuli such as light, stress or exercise.
  • Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: The bovine spongiform encephalopathy affects cattle but the variant form can infect humans. Human infection can occur by consuming infected cattle products, especially the brain and other central nervous system tissues.
  • Wolfram's disease: A condition that is inherited and consists of multiple symptoms
  • Young McKeever Squier syndrome: A condition that affects the olivopontocerebellum and the cerebellar cortex of the brain

 

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