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Diseases » Obesity » Glossary
 

Glossary for Obesity

  • Abdominal Distension: also known as ascites is pathologic fluid accumulation within the abdominal cavity
  • Abdominal obesity metabolic syndrome: A syndrome characterized by a group of conditions that are considered major risk factors for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.
  • Achard-Thiers Syndrome: A hormonal disorder that occurs in diabetic postmenopausal women. It is characterized by diabetes mellitus and hirsuitism.
  • Acrocephalopolysyndactyly, type 2 (ACPS 2): A rare genetic disorder characterized by premature closing of skull bones, craniofacial abnormalities, heart defects, growth retardation and other disorders.
  • Adrenal Cancer: A malignant cancer that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids. Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Diseases of the adrenal cortex. Examples includes Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome and adrenal fatigue.
  • Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: A tumor that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids.
  • Adrenal adenoma, familial: A benign tumor that develops in the adrenal gland and tends to run in families. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids . Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal gland hyperfunction: Excessive activity of the adrenal gland which causes excessive production of one or more adrenal hormones (aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine). The increased adrenal gland activity may be caused by an adrenal gland tumor or by excessive stimulation of the gland. Pituitary hormones stimulate adrenal gland activity.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma: A tumor of the adrenal gland that is discovered incidentally while performing an imaging examination for reasons other than an adrenal tumor. The tumor may be asymptomatic or can causes excessive secretion of adrenal hormones and resulting symptoms. The tumor may also be malignant or benign.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma: A condition which is characterized by malignancy which affects the adrenocortex.
  • Albright like syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by mental retardation, short stature and finger and toe abnormalities.
  • Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy: A rare genetic disorder where the body fails to recognize and respond to the parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid hormone is involved in controlling the blood levels of calcium and phosphate.
  • Alcohol-induced pseudo-Cushing syndrome: The excessive consumption of alcohol can result in symptoms similar to a condition called Cushing's syndrome. When alcohol consumption is stopped, symptoms regress.
  • Alcoholism: Alcoholism is the compulsive urge to drink alcohol despite knowing the negative impact on one's health.
  • Ameloblastoma: A very rare disorder involving the jaw and sinuses. Cyts or tumors which may be malignant form in the jaw, sinus, nose or eye socket areas.
  • Ampola syndrome: A rare genetic disease characterized primarily by mental retardation, facial anomalies, short stature, seizures and finger and toe abnormalities.
  • Aneurysm: Dangerous ballooning of a weakened area of an artery
  • Angina: A special type of chest pain.
  • Aniridia -- ptosis -- mental retardation -- obesity, familial: A rare familial disorder characterized by eye abnormalities, mental retardation and obesity.
  • Aniridia ptosis mental retardation obesity familial type: A rare familial disorder characterized by eye abnormalities, mental retardation and obesity.
  • Anophthalmia -- short stature -- obesity: A very rare syndrome characterized by absent eyes, short stature and obesity.
  • Anorexia Nervosa: A disorder where a distorted sense of body image leads to self-starvation to the point of death in some cases.
  • Aromatase deficiency: A congenital deficiency of the enzyme called aromatase which is needed to convert androgens to estrogens.
  • Astrocytoma: A malignant tumour of the nervous system composed of astrocytes.
  • Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels. It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low density (especially small particle) lipoproteins (plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol from the macrophages by functional high density lipoproteins (HDL). It is commonly referred to as a hardening or furring of the arteries. It is caused by the formation of multiple plaques within the arteries.
  • Atkin-Flatiz syndrome: A rare, X-linked syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation and facial anomalies.
  • Austrian syndrome: A condition where alcoholism is associated with heart failure and pneumococcal meningitis.
  • Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome: An inherited autoimmune condition characterized by proliferation of lymphocytes and autoimmunity against the body's own blood cells resulting in premature death of certain blood cells.
  • Autoimmune thyroid diseases: Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland.
  • Ayazi syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by choroideremia (a degenerative disease of the retina), deafness and obesity.
  • Back pain: Pain from the back or spine.
  • Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 1: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 1 is caused by a defect in chromosome 11q13.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 10: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 10 is caused by a defect in chromosome 12q.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 11: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 11 is caused by a defect in chromosome 9q33.1.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 12: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 12 is caused by a defect in chromosome 4q27.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 2 is caused by a defect in chromosome 16q21.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 3: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 3 is caused by a defect in chromosome 3p12-q13.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 4: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 4 is caused by a defect in chromosome 15q22.3.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 5: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 5 is caused by a defect in chromosome 2q31.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 6: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 6 is caused by a defect in chromosome 20p12.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 7: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 7 is caused by a defect in chromosome 4q27.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 8: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 8 is caused by a defect in chromosome 14q32.11.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 9: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 9 is caused by a defect in chromosome 7p14.
  • Bearn-Kunkel syndrome: A type of autoimmune liver disease characterized by liver damage, very high blood gammaglobulin levels and increased plasma cells.
  • Biemond syndrome type 2: A rare inherited condition characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and underdeveloped genitals.
  • Binge eating disorder: Excessive overeating but without purging
  • Bipolar disorder: Cycles of mania and depression; commonly called "manic-depression".
  • Bobble-head doll syndrome: A rare condition where a child's head bobs up and down continuously due to either fluid on the brain or a large cyst in the third ventricle of the brain.
  • Borjeson Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by severe mental deficiency, large ears, hypogonadism and other abnormalities.
  • Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by severe mental deficiency, large ears, hypogonadism and other abnormalities.
  • Breast Cancer: Cancer of the breast.
  • Breathing difficulty: Various types of breathing difficulty (dyspnea).
  • Breathing-related sleep disorder: Breathing-related sleep disorder refers to a spectrum of breathing anomalies ranging from chronic or habitual snoring to upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) to frank obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or, in some cases, obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS).
  • Budd-Chiari syndrome: Budd-Chiari syndrome is the clinical picture caused by occlusion of the hepatic veins. It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites and hepatomegaly.
  • Buerger's disease: Buergers's disease is a recurring inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of small and medium arteries and veins of the hands and feet
  • Cancer: Abnormal overgrowth of body cells.
  • Cardiomyopathy: Any disease of the heart muscle
  • Cardiomyopathy -- hypogonadism -- metabolic anomalies: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart muscle disease, hypogonadism, blindness, deafness and metabolic anomalies. Puberty was normal despite the hypogonadism.
  • Cardiovascular Disease: Diseases of the heart or blood vessels including cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke.
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Hand or wrist problems; often from repetitive motion.
  • Carpenter syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by premature closing of skull bones, craniofacial abnormalities, heart defects, growth retardation and other disorders.
  • Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer is malignant cancer of the cervix uteri or cervical area
  • Chondrodysplasia, Grebe type: A rare genetic disorder characterized by dwarfism and various limb deformities.
  • Choroideremia: A rare, inherited, progressive eye disease that causes degeneration of the retina and blindness. The disease usually only affects males.
  • Chromosome 11p, partial deletion: A rare genetic syndrome caused by the deletion of part of the genetic material in the short arm of chromosome 11. The type and severity of symptoms may vary depending on the exact size and location of the genetic material that is missing. The genetic abnormality is often associated with Wilms' tumor and aniridia (complete or partial absence of the iris of the eye).
  • Chromosome 12p tetrasomy syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are four copies of the short arm (p) of chromosome 12 rather than the normal two resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Chromosome 1p deletion syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where part or all of the short arm (p) of chromosome 1 is deleted resulting in various abnormalities which are determined by the size of the deleted portion.
  • Chromosome 21q deletion syndrome: A rare genetic disorder where a portion of the genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 21 is missing. The symptoms or severity may vary somewhat between patients.
  • Chromosome 3, trisomy 3q13 2 q25: A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various abnormalities including hearing loss, mental retardation, short stature, obesity and uterine and facial anomalies.
  • Chromosome 4, trisomy 4p: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of chromosome four is duplicated so there is three copies of it instead of the normal two.
  • Chromosome 5, trisomy 5q: A rare chromosomal disorder involving duplication of the long arm (q) of chromosome 5 which results in various abnormalities depending on the size and location of the portion of duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 5q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving duplication of the long arm (q) of chromosome 5 which results in various abnormalities depending on the size and location of the portion of duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 9, partial trisomy 9p: A very rare genetic disorder where a portion of the genetic material on the short arm (p) of chromosome 9 is duplicated which results in various abnormalities. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the size and location of the genetic material involved.
  • Chronic Bronchitis: Chronic bronchitis is a chronic inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs.
  • Cirrhosis of the liver: Scarring of the liver from alcohol or other causes.
  • Clark-Baraitser syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by tallness, large head, mental retardation and various facial anomalies.
  • Cohen Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by reduced muscle tone, obesity and prominent front teeth.
  • Colorectal cancer: Cancer of the colon (bowel) or rectum.
  • Congestive Heart Failure: Inadequate pumping and decline of heart function common in the elderly.
  • Coronary heart disease: Disease affecting the heart's arteries (narrowed arteries)
  • Cortisone reductase deficiency: An inborn error of steroid metabolism due to a deficiency of an enzyme called cortisone reductase (11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). This enzyme is needed to convert cortisone to cortisol.
  • Cushing syndrome, familial: A hormonal disorder caused by high levels of the cortisol hormone due to the abnormal development of the adrenal gland.
  • Cushing's disease: A condition of hyperadrenocorticism which is secondary to excessive pituitary secretion of ACTH. Cushing's disease is different to Cushing's syndrome which refers to the effects of glucocorticoid excess from any cause.
  • Cushing's syndrome: A rare syndrome where excessive secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex leads to a variety of symptoms. Hormone-secreting adrenal or pituitary tumors are often the cause of the excessive corticosteroid secretion.
  • Cystocele: Bladder falls down into the vagina.
  • Del (1) (pter-p36.3) mosaicism: A very rare chromosomal disorder where the end portion of the short arm of chromosome one is missing in some body cells. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Del (2) (pter-p24) and dup (18) (q21-qter): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by mental retardation, reduced muscle tone, obesity and eye anomalies. The physical appearance is similar to that of Prader-Willi syndrome. The observations were made in two reported cases.
  • Del (2) (q37.2-qter): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in the few reported cases. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Del(1) (pter-p35): A very rare chromosomal disorder where the end portion of the short arm of chromosome one is missing. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Deletion 6q16 q21: A rare chromosomal disorder characterized primarily by facial anomalies, mental retardation and a short head.
  • Depression: Various syndromes with excessive anxiety, phobias, or fear.
  • Depressive disorders: Depression or its various related conditions.
  • Diabetes: Failing or reduced ability of the body to handle sugars.
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy: A rare chronic heart muscle condition where one or both heart ventricles are dilated or have impaired contractility.
  • Disordered Eating: Unusual and troubled eating habits
  • Dup (2) (q11.2-q21.1): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in two reported cases. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Dup (2) (q33.1-q35): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in one reported case. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Duplication 5q: A rare chromosomal disorder involving duplication of the long arm (q) of chromosome 5 which results in various abnormalities depending on the size and location of the portion of duplicated genetic material.
  • Duplication 9p partial: A very rare genetic disorder where a portion of the genetic material on the short arm (p) of chromosome 9 is duplicated which results in various abnormalities. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the size and location of the genetic material involved.
  • Dysthymia: Mild form of depression
  • Eating disorders: Various mental disorders impairing normal eating or appetite.
  • Eclampsia: Eclampsia is the development of seizures or coma in pregnant women suffering from high blood pressure. Eclampsia is a serious condition which requires urgent medical treatment. Eclampsia may be associated with moderate as well as significant increases in blood pressure. The blood pressure can return to normal after delivery or may persist for a period of time.
  • Edema: Fluid retention in tissues
  • Elevated BMI: An increase in the body mass index of an individual
  • Emerinopathy: A rare, progressive muscle disease that starts during childhood and involves muscle weakness and wasting.
  • Empty sella syndrome -- acquired: A disorder where the bony structure surrounding the pituitary gland (sella) appears to be empty except for the cerebrospinal fluid - often results from radiation, surgery or injury which causes the pituitary gland to shrink.
  • Empty sella syndrome -- primary: A rare inherited disorder where the bony structure surrounding the pituitary gland (sella) appears to be empty as the pituitary gland is flattened due to a defect. It is instead filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
  • Encephalitis: Dangerous infection of the brain
  • Endometrial Cancer: Cancer of the endometrium (uterus lining).
  • Ethanol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ethanol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Familial hypopituitarism: Impaired pituitary gland hormone-producing activity that tends to run in families. The failure of the pituitary gland in turn affects other hormone-producing glands which rely on the hormones from the pituitary gland for their activity. Symptoms are determined by the degree and type of hormone deficiency involved.
  • Familial hypothyroidism: Impaired thyroid activity that tends to run in families.
  • Female infertility: Infertility that affects the female
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A rare kidney disorder involving scarring of parts of the kidney filtering system which affects kidney function. It usually occurs for no apparent reason but can result from kidney damage caused by illicit drug use, certain viral infections and HIV.
  • Food addiction: Food addiction refers to compulsive eating that is unrelated to actual hunger. The person feels compelled to eat even when they aren't hungry. Although it is not considered a recognised addiction it can have a significant impact on a person's life and health. Food addicts often have underlying emotional problems.
  • Fowler-Christmas-Chapple syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of polycystic ovaries with the abnormal functioning of the urinary valve.
  • Froelich's syndrome: A rare condition where an endocrine abnormality (caused by such things as a pituitary tumor or damage to the hypothalamus) affects hormone levels which results in a variety of symptoms.
  • Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency, hereditary: A rare inherited condition where an enzyme deficiency (fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency - FDPase) impairs the body's ability to metabolize fructose from the diet.
  • Functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor: Tumors that develop in the pancreas and cause excessive secretion of one or more pancreatic hormones such as insulin, somatostatin, glucagons, gastrin, ACTH (corticosteroids) and vasoactive intestinal peptidase.
  • Gall Bladder Cancer: Cancer of the gall bladder.
  • Gall bladder conditions: Any condition that affects the gallbladder
  • Gallstones: Stone-like deposits in the gall bladder.
  • Gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: A rare form of gastrointestinal tumor. It includes two main groups of cancer called carcinoid and endocrine pancreatic tumors. Some of the tumors consist of hormone secreting cells which results in excessive secretion of certain hormones.
  • Gelatinous ascites: A large abdominal cyst filled with gelatinous or mucous fluid. It is often caused by a mucous-producing abdominal cancer.
  • Gestational diabetes: Diabetes that occurs in pregnant women, usually resolving after birth.
  • Gout: Painful joints, most commonly the big toe.
  • Grahmann's syndrome: Abnormal development of the part of the brain called the diencephalon which in turn affects the pituitary gland. The main manifestations are impaired sexual development, obesity and periodic psychotic episodes.
  • Growth Hormone Deficiency: A deficiency in growth hormone which results in poor growth.
  • Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency: Laron syndrome is a rare genetic disease where the body has sufficient growth hormones but lacks receptors to utilize the hormone and hence dwarfism results. Type 1 involves a defect in the growth hormone receptor gene which prevents the hormone from binding and being used. Hence there are high levels of free growth hormone in the plasma. Type II involves a problem with the processing of the growth hormone once it has been bound properly to the cell surface.
  • HAIR-AN Syndrome: A very rare syndrome that affects females only and is characterized mainly by insulin resistance, dark velvety patches of skin and increased male hormone production in females.
  • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Hashimoto thyroiditis is characterized by the destruction of thyroid cells by various cell- and antibody-mediated immune processes. Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis have antibodies to various thyroid antigens, the most frequently detected of which include antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg), and, to a lesser extent, TSH receptor-blocking antibodies.
  • Heart disease: Any of various heart conditions.
  • Heart failure: Slow failure of the heart (cardiac insufficiency).
  • Heartburn: Pain from stomach acid coming back up the esophagus
  • Hepatic veno-occlusive disease -- immunodeficiency: A rare form of liver disease involving the blockage of veins in the liver due to thickening of the blood vessel walls as well as immunodeficiency. The disease may be caused by a variety of factors including bone marrow transplant and genetic defects.
  • Hernia: General term for an organ protruding where it should not.
  • Hiatal hernia: Hernia of the stomach through the diaphragm muscle.
  • High Cholesterol: High levels of blood cholesterol, triglycerides, or other lipids.
  • Hirsutism: Increased hairiness
  • Hydrocephalus obesity hypogonadism: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by obesity, buildup of fluid inside the skull (hydrocephalus) and impaired sex hormone production.
  • Hyperadrenalism: Excessive levels of adrenal hormones in the body. Symptoms depend on which hormone is involved and the degree of involvement. Adrenal hormones are aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Hyperandrogenism: Excessive levels of androgen (male sex hormones) that can occur in males and females.
  • Hyperlipidaemia: An elevated amount of lipids in the blood of the body
  • Hyperostosis frontalis interna: A disorder where the front bone of the skull becomes thicker than normal.
  • Hyperphagia: A term used to describe excessive eating. It is often caused by damage to the part of the brain called the hypothalmos.
  • Hyperpituitarism: A condition that results in the excess secretion of hormones that are secreted from the pituitary gland
  • Hypertension: High blood pressure
  • Hypertension of pregnancy: Pregnancy hypertension is the development of high blood pressure during pregnancy. Hypertension is a serious health condition due to the fact that it often causes no symptoms until it is severe. The increased blood pressure can cause complications in pregnancy women e.g. eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. The blood pressure usually returns to normal after delivery.
  • Hypertrichosis brachydactyly obesity and mental retardation: A very rare disorder characterized mainly by excessive hair growth, short digits, obesity and mental retardation
  • Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar level
  • Hypogonadism -- mitral valve prolapse -- mental retardation: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a heart disorder, hypogonadism and mental retardation.
  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism -- syndactyly: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by webbed toes and reduced gonad function.
  • Hypopituitarism: A disorder caused by reduced pituitary hormone levels. Hormones produce by the pituitary gland produces growth hormones, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, antidiuretic hormone and others.
  • Hypothalamic dysfunction: Abnormal function of the thalamus located in the brain. The thalamus controls pituitary gland function which in turn controls other hormone producing glands such as the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, ovaries and testes. The thalamus also regulates functions such as temperature control, emotions, sleep, appetite and salt balance. Abnormal thalamus functioning may be caused by such things as surgery, infection, genetic disorders, poor nutrition and tumors.
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Idiopathic edema: A condition involving salt retention that isn't a result of impaired heart, kidney or liver function.
  • Infertility: The inability to produce offspring
  • Insulin Resistance: The resistance of the body to insulin
  • Insulinoma: A rare form of pancreatic cancer that causes excessive secretion of the hormone insulin. A relatively small number of cases are malignant.
  • Intertrigo: Skin inflammation from rubbing together of two skin areas
  • Kidney Cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the kidneys
  • Klinefelter syndrome: A genetic condition where males have at least one extra X chromosome or extra copies of both the X and Y chromosomes in each cell. Normally male cells contain one X and one Y chromosome in each cell. The condition is not inherited but is a result of problems during cell division. Klinefelter syndrome variants is a more severe form of the condition as it involves more than one extra X or X and Y chromosome in each cell.
  • Klinefelter syndrome, variants: A genetic condition where males have at least one extra X chromosome or extra copies of both the X and Y chromosomes in each cell. Normally male cells contain one X and one Y chromosome in each cell. The condition is not inherited but is a result of problems during cell division.
  • Laron Dwarfism: Laron syndrome is a rare genetic disease where the body has sufficient growth hormones but lacks receptors to utilize the hormone and hence dwarfism results. Type 1 involves a defect in the growth hormone receptor gene which prevents the hormone from binding and being used. Hence there are high levels of free growth hormone in the plasma. Type II involves a problem with the processing of the growth hormone once it has been bound properly to the cell surface.
  • Laron Pituitary Dwarfism: Laron syndrome is a rare genetic disease where the body has sufficient growth hormones but lacks receptors to utilize the hormone and hence dwarfism results. Type 1 involves a defect in the growth hormone receptor gene which prevents the hormone from binding and being used. Hence there are high levels of free growth hormone in the plasma. Type II involves a problem with the processing of the growth hormone once it has been bound properly to the cell surface.
  • Laron Syndrome: Laron syndrome is a rare genetic disease where the body has sufficient growth hormones but lacks receptors to utilize the hormone and hence dwarfism results. Type 1 involves a defect in the growth hormone receptor gene which prevents the hormone from binding and being used. Hence there are high levels of free growth hormone in the plasma. Type II involves a problem with the processing of the growth hormone once it has been bound properly to the cell surface.
  • Laron Type Pituitary Dwarfism 1: Laron syndrome is a rare genetic disease where the body has sufficient growth hormones but lacks receptors to utilize the hormone and hence dwarfism results. Type 1 involves a defect in the growth hormone receptor gene which prevents the hormone from binding and being used. Hence there are high levels of free growth hormone in the plasma. Type II involves a problem with the processing of the growth hormone once it has been bound properly to the cell surface.
  • Laron syndrome type 1: Laron syndrome is a rare genetic disease where the body has sufficient growth hormones but lacks receptors to utilize the hormone and hence dwarfism results. Type 1 involves a defect in the growth hormone receptor gene which prevents the hormone from binding and being used. Hence there are high levels of free growth hormone in the plasma. Type II involves a problem with the processing of the growth hormone once it has been bound properly to the cell surface.
  • Laron syndrome type 2: Laron syndrome is a rare genetic disease where the body has sufficient growth hormones but lacks receptors to utilize the hormone and hence dwarfism results. Type 1 involves a defect in the growth hormone receptor gene which prevents the hormone from binding and being used. Hence there are high levels of free growth hormone in the plasma. Type II involves a problem with the processing of the growth hormone once it has been bound properly to the cell surface.
  • Laron-type Dwarfism Phenotypic Syndrome: Laron syndrome is a rare genetic disease where the body has sufficient growth hormones but lacks receptors to utilize the hormone and hence dwarfism results. Type 1 involves a defect in the growth hormone receptor gene which prevents the hormone from binding and being used. Hence there are high levels of free growth hormone in the plasma. Type II involves a problem with the processing of the growth hormone once it has been bound properly to the cell surface.
  • Laron-type dwarfism: A rare genetic disease where the body has sufficient growth hormones but lacks receptors to utilize the hormone and hence dwarfism results.
  • Leschke-Ullmann syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by patches of skin pigmentation, physical and mental retardation, dwarfism, sexual dysfunction and muscle problems.
  • Lipoprotein disorder: Abnormal lipoprotein use or processing by the body. The main repercussions of the disorder tends to be fatty deposits called xanthomas and premature heart disease. Examples of specific lipoprotein disorders includes type II hyperlipoproteinemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and high lipoprotein a levels. Lipoprotein disorders can also result in harmfully low levels of lipoproteins which can cause symptoms such as failure to thrive and neuromuscular degeneration. Abetalipoproteinemia is an example of a lipoprotein disorder involving low blood lipoprotein levels.
  • Lowe oculocerebrorenal syndrome: A rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized primarily by eye and bone abnormalities, mental retardation and kidney problems.
  • Lupus nephritis: Kidney damage caused by lupus.
  • Lymphomatous thyroiditis: Progressive thyroid gland enlargement due to autoimmune disease.
  • MOMO syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a large size and weight at birth, a large head and eye abnormalities.
  • Masculinisation: Increased male physical appearance in females
  • Mauriac syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by diabetes, short stature and obesity.
  • McCune-Albright Syndrome: A rare genetic multisystem disorder characterized by abnormal skin pigmentation and endocrine gland dysfunction and replacement of parts of bone tissue with fibrous material.
  • McKusick type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia: A rare genetic disorder characterized by short stature, skeletal abnormalities and fine, fragile hair.
  • Menopause: The end of female menstruation and fertility.
  • Menstrual conditions: Any condition that is associated with the female menstrual cycle
  • Mental retardation -- blepharophimosis -- obesity -- web neck: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, eye abnormalities, obesity and a webbed neck.
  • Mental retardation -- epilepsy -- bulbous nose: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, epilepsy and a bulbous nose. The condition has been reported in only two families.
  • Mental retardation -- epileptic seizures -- hypogonadism -- hypogenitalism -microcephaly -- obesity: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental deficiency, epilepsy, small head, small genitals and obesity. Death occurs within the first two years of life.
  • Mental retardation -- gynecomastia -- obesity, X-linked: A very rare X-linked syndrome characterized mainly by the associated of mental retardation, enlarged male breasts and obesity.
  • Mental retardation -- nasal hypoplasia -- obesity -- genital hypoplasia: A rare disorder characterized mainly by the association of mental retardation with obesity and underdeveloped genitals and nose.
  • Mental retardation X-linked short stature obesity: A rare condition in herited in a X-linked manner and characterized by short stature, obesity and mental retardation. Various other anomalies may also be present.
  • Mental retardation X-linked syndromic 7: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, obesity, hypogonadism and tapered fingers.
  • Mental retardation unusual facies ampola type: A rare genetic disease characterized primarily by mental retardation, facial anomalies, short stature, seizures and finger and toe abnormalities.
  • Mental retardation, X linked -- precocious puberty -- obesity: A rare disorder characterized by mental retardation, premature puberty and obesity. The disorder is inherited in a X-linked manner which means that only males display the full range of symptoms whereas female carriers may have mild or no symptoms.
  • Mental retardation, X-linked -- gynecomastia -- obesity: A rare disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, enlarged male breasts, speech problems and other anomalies. The disorder is inherited in a X-linked manner which means that only males display the full range of symptoms whereas female carriers may have mild or no symptoms.
  • Mental retardation, X-linked -- hypogonadism -- ichthyosis -- obesity -- short stature: A rare X-linked disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, short stature, hypogonadism and a skin disorder. The disorder is inherited in a X-linked manner which means that only males display the full range of symptoms whereas female carriers may have mild or no symptoms.
  • Mental retardation, X-linked, 36: A rare form of mental retardation inherited in a X-linked manner. It occurs as a result of a defect in the ARX gene on chromosome Xp22.1-p21.1. Female carriers may present with varying degrees of mental retardation as well.
  • Mental retardation, X-linked, 91: A rare form of mental retardation inherited in a X-linked manner. It occurs as a result of a defect in the ZDHHC15 gene on chromosome Xq13.3.
  • Mental retardation, X-linked, syndromic 11: A rare form of mental retardation inherited in a X-linked manner. It is also associated with an unusual facial appearance and results from a defect on chromosome Xq26-q27. Female carriers tended to have some degree of facial dysmorphism but no mental retardation.
  • Mental retardation, X-linked, syndromic type 11: A rare form of mental retardation inherited in a X-linked manner. It is also associated with an unusual facial appearance and results from a defect on chromosome Xq26-q27. Female carriers tended to have some degree of facial dysmorphism but no mental retardation.
  • Mental retardation, epileptic seizures, hypogonadism and hypogenitalism, microcephaly, and obesity: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental deficiency, epilepsy, small head, small genitals and obesity. Death occurs within the first two years of life.
  • Metabolic Syndrome: A common body syndrome with the "deadly quartet" of major conditions: obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and high lipids.
  • Metabolic syndrome (syndrome X): Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
  • Metaphyseal dysostosis mental retardation conductive deafness: A rare, recessively inherited disorder characterized by mental retardation, deafness and skeletal abnormalities.
  • Myxedema: Skin and tissue disorder usually due to hypothyroidism
  • Nephrotic syndrome: Various kidney glomeruli conditions
  • Nguyen syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by low blood cholesterol, mental retardation and various congenital anomalies.
  • OHSS: Excessive stimulation of the ovaries that usually occurs as a complication of in vitro fertilization but may also occur spontaneously. The degree of excessive ovarian stimulation may vary from mild to severe.
  • Obesity: An increase in the body weight greater than that required for normal function that is characterised by the accumulation of excessive fat
  • Obesity -- colitis -- hypothyroidism -- cardiac hypertrophy -- developmental delay: A rare syndrome characterized by obesity, colitis, hypothyroidism, enlarged heart and developmental delay. The two reported cases involved maternal HELLP syndrome during pregnancy. Both infants died within months of birth.
  • Obesity due to congenital leptin deficiency: A form of monogenic obesity caused by a genetic mutation which results in a deficiency of leptin. Monogenic obesity is obesity caused by a mutation in a single gene.
  • Obesity in children: Obesity in children refers to a child who is overweight to a degree that it impacts health.
  • Obesity, hypothyroidism, craniosynostosis, cardial hypertrophy, colitis and intellectual deficiency: A rare syndrome characterized by a variety of features including obesity, hypothyroidism, premature fusion of skull bones, enlarged heart, colitis and mental retardation. The two reported cases both involved the development of HELLP syndrome during the mother's pregnancy.
  • Obesity-like conditions: Medical conditions similar to obesity or highly related to obesity.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Optic pathway glioma: A type of tumor that arises in the optic nerve which sends messages from the eye to the brain. These tumors tend to occur mainly in children under the age of 10. The tumor may affect the hormone center of the brain and hence can affect such things as growth and weight.
  • Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a chronic condition characterised by mechanical disrturbances due to degradation of joints. It is the most common form of arthritis, and the leading cause of chronic disability.
  • Ovarian Cancer: Cancer of the ovaries.
  • Ovarian carcinosarcoma: A type of ovarian cancer.
  • Overeating: A term used to describe excessive eating. It is often caused by damage to the part of the brain called the hypothalmos.
  • Overgrowth syndrome, type Fryer: A rare disorder involving excessive growth resulting in a large birth size and excessive growth following birth. Adults with this disorder also tend to be excessively tall.
  • Overweight: An increase in the body weight greater than that required for normal function that is characterised by the accumulation of excessive fat
  • Panhypopituitarism: A rare condition where all pituitary hormones are absent or reduced. The condition may be congenital or acquired through such things as pituitary tumors. The pituitary gland regulates the activity of other endocrine glands as well as controlling growth. Other endocrine glands include adrenal, parathyroid, thyroid, pancreas, ovaries and testes. Symptoms can vary greatly depending on the degree of deficiency of the various hormones.
  • Physical addiction: Physical addiction refers to the compulsive need for a drug or substance in order to prevent the withdrawal symptoms (physical and/or psychological) or due to increased tolerance to the effects of the substance.
  • Physical inactivity: When an individual is physically inactive
  • Pickwickian syndrome: A syndrome characterized by obesity, somnolence, hypoventilation and erythrocytosis
  • Pituitary cancer, childhood: Cancer (malignant) of the pituitary gland in children. The pituitary gland produces various hormones and some pituitary tumors (functioning tumors) can affect the secretion of one or more of these hormones resulting in a range of symptoms depending on the exact location of the tumor. Some pituitary tumors do not affect hormone production (nonfunctioning tumors).
  • Pituitary tumors, adult: A benign or cancer tumor that develops in the tissue of the pituitary gland in adults. The pituitary gland produces various hormones and some pituitary tumors (functioning tumors) can affect the secretion of one or more of these hormones resulting in a range of symptoms depending on the exact location of the tumor. Some pituitary tumors do not affect hormone production (nonfunctioning tumors).
  • Polycystic ovarian disease, familial: A rare familial condition characterized by menstrual abnormalities, excessive growth of hair, obesity and infertility.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder that affects approximately 5% of all women.
  • Polygenic diseases: Any diseases that are caused by conditions that affect several different genes
  • Polyneuropathy -- mental retardation -- acromicria -- premature menopause: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by premature menopause, sensory impairment, mental retardation and small, delicate facial bones.
  • Prader-Willi syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by reduced muscle tone, obesity and small hands and feet.
  • Prednisolone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Prednisolone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Pregnancy: The condition of supporting a fetus from conception till birth.
  • Pregnancy toxemia /hypertension: Preeclampsia is the development of high blood pressure, excess protein in the urine and swelling during pregnancy. Hypertension is a serious health condition due to the fact that it often causes no symptoms until it is severe. The blood pressure usually returns to normal after delivery.
  • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a diagnosis used to indicate serious premenstrual distress with associated deterioration in functioning.
  • Premenstrual syndrome: Condition with cyclic symptoms related to menstruation.
  • Prolidase deficiency: A rare metabolic disorder where an enzyme (prolidase) deficiency impairs the breakdown of certain proteins which causes a harmful buildup in the body. The type and severity of symptoms are variable and may include skin disorders, retarded motor development, impaired cognitive development, frequent infections and skeletal abnormalities.
  • Prostate Cancer: Cancer of the prostate.
  • Pseudohypoparathyroidism: An inherited disorder where the body is unable to respond to the parathyroid hormone even though there are normal levels of it. Impaired bone growth is the main feature of this disorder.
  • Psychological addiction: Psychological addiction refers to the lack of willpower in fighting against a compulsive need for something i.e. a mental dependence rather than a physical dependence. The addiction stems from psychological or emotional factors. Psychological addictions may involve addictions to drugs, sex, shopping and just about anything else. A person finds themselves unable to resist the source of their addiction.
  • Renal tubulopathy -- diabetes mellitus -- cerebellar ataxia: A very rare condition characterized by rapidly progressive diabetes, kidney disease and cerebellar ataxia. Symptoms develop during the first five years.
  • Retinohepatoendocrinologic syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized mainly by eye, liver and endocrine function abnormalities.
  • Riedel syndrome: A rare condition that occurs when fibrous tissue forms in the thyroid area and progressively destroys the thyroid gland.
  • Schinzel Syndrome: A very rare inherited disorder that involves the arm bones and the sweat and/or mammary glands. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Schroeder syndrome 1: High blood pressure and reduced salt concentration in sweat associated with an overactive adrenal cortex which is involved with hormone production.
  • Sengers-Hamel-Otten syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by obesity, buildup of fluid inside the skull (hydrocephalus) and impaired sex hormone production.
  • Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, type 1 (SGBS1): A rare genetic disorder characterized by accelerated growth, a peculiar face and other defects.
  • Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, type 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by hydrops fetalis and various other severe abnormalities. The condition usually results in death within two months of birth.
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Syndromes involving the cessation of breathing during sleep. Examples include obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea. The condition may range from mild to severe.
  • Sleep apnea: Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Snoring: is the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound, due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping.
  • Sohval-Soffer syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, hypogonadism and skeletal abnormalities.
  • Stress incontinence: Stress incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine that occurs during physical activity, such as coughing, sneezing, laughing, or exercise.
  • Stroke: Serious brain event from bleeding or blood clots.
  • Subaortic stenosis -- short stature syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by short stature and a narrowed portion of the aorta.
  • Summitt syndrome: A very rare genetic disorder abnormalities of the head, hands and feet as well as obesity.
  • Thrombophilia:
  • Thyroid disorders: Any disorder of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroid hormone plasma membrane transport defect: Thyroid problems caused by a defect in the transport of a thyroid hormone called T4 (thyroxine) within the body. The thyroid produces excessive hormones to try to compensate for that inability of the body to utilize the hormone.
  • Transient Ischemic Attack: Temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that persists, by definition, for less than 24 hours.
  • Traumatic Brain Injury: Brain injury from trauma or accident.
  • Trophoblastic Cancer: A neoplastic disorder that originates in the placenta
  • Type 2 diabetes: Most common diabetes in adults, usually progressing slowly, mostly treated without insulin at diagnosis.
  • Underactive thyroid gland: A condition which is characterized by a thyroid gland which is underactive
  • Urban rogers meyer syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, short stature, hand contractures, genital anomalies and other abnormalities.
  • Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the uterus.
  • Varicose veins: Enlarged blue veins, usually in the legs.
  • Vasquez Hurst Sotos syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by underdeveloped genitals, obesity, mental retardation and skeletal abnormalities.
  • WAGR Syndrome: A syndrome that is due to the deletion of chromosome 11.
  • Weight Gain: An increase in weight for any reason.
  • Weight conditions: Disorders affecting body weight, including overweight and underweight conditions.
  • Weight cycling: The cyclic changing of a persons weight
  • Weight gain: An increase in weight for any reason.
  • Weight loss: Loss of body weight.
  • Williams Syndrome: A syndrome characterised by mental retardation, facial abnormalities and emotional instability
  • Wilms tumor -- aniridia -- genitourinary anomalies -- mental retardation: A syndrome resulting from deletion of genetic material from chromosome the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p13). The characteristic symptoms are partial or complete absence of iris, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation and Wilms' tumor. The specific range and severity of symptoms is variable depending on the size and exact location of the genetic material that is missing.
  • Wilson-Turner X-linked mental retardation: A condition that is characterised by mental retardation with gynecomastia and obesity
  • X-linked mental retardation craniofacial abnormal microcepahly club: An x-linked condition that is characterised by mental retardation and dysmorphic facies
  • Young Hughes syndrome: A sex linked condition that is characterised by mental retardation and hypogonadism

 

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