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Glossary for Obstructive sleep apnea

  • ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. Typically, ADHD and associated hyperactivity is known as a childhood disorder, although ADD/ADHD in adults is known to be under-diagnosed. It is distinguished from Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) which has a reduced focus on hyperactivity type symptoms.
  • Accidental death: The death of a person occurring accidentally
  • Achondroplasia: A disorder characterized by problems with bone growth.
  • Adenoid disorders: A disorder of the adenoids of the throat
  • Adenoiditis: Infection of the adenoids in the nasal-throat region
  • Alcohol abuse: Excessive use of alcohol ranging from binge drinking to severe alcoholism
  • Apert syndrome: A rare condition characterized by abnormalities in the appearance of the face and head as well as finger and toe abnormalities. The bones of the skull fuse together too early which prevents it from growing normally. Various toes and fingers may be fused together.
  • Apnea: Cessation of breathing. Apnea can be caused by neurological diseases, strangulation, drugs and airway obstruction.
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by macroglossia, omphalocele, macrosomia and ear creases.
  • Breathing symptoms: Symptoms affecting the breathing systems.
  • Central sleep apnea: Central sleep apnea is when the person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep because the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing.
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Type 2C: CMT is an inherited neurological disease characterized by the gradual degeneration of nerves which starts in the hands and feet and results in progressive numbness, muscle weakness and loss of function. Type 2C has an autosomal dominant inheritance and involves a defect in chromosome 12 and involves diaphragm and vocal cord weakness as well as hand and foot problems.
  • Child health conditions: Any medical conditions typically afflicting children.
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Severe chronic fatigue disorder often following infection.
  • Cognitive impairment: General loss of mental or cognitive ability
  • Common cold: A cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat that can be caused by a number of different viruses (e.g. rhinoviruses, coronaviruses). There are over 200 different viruses that have the potential to cause the common cold. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Crouzon Syndrome: A condition which is characterized by craniofacial dysostosis
  • Death: The cessation of life
  • Depression: Various syndromes with excessive anxiety, phobias, or fear.
  • Desbuquois dysplasia: A rare condition characterized by short-limbed dwarfism, characteristic facial features and skeletal abnormalities.
  • Down Syndrome: A chromosome syndrome causing physical effects and mental retardation.
  • Drowsiness: Excessive tiredness or sleepiness
  • Emotional symptoms: Symptoms affecting the emotions.
  • Enlarged adenoids: Enlargement of the adenoid glands, which lie in the oropharynx.
  • Enlarged tonsils: Enlargement of the tonsils, which are glands found in the oropharynx.
  • Epilepsy: Brain condition causing seizures or spasms.
  • Fibromyalgia: A difficult to diagnose condition affecting the muscles and/or joints
  • Francois dyscephalic syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by very small stature, microphthalmia, small pinched nose and hypotrichosis.
  • Heart attack: Serious and often fatal acute heart condition
  • Heart conditions: Any condition that affects the heart
  • Heart disease: Any of various heart conditions.
  • Hypersomnia: Hypersomnia is characterized by recurring episodes of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or prolonged nighttime sleep.
  • Hypertension: High blood pressure
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Impotence: Inability to attain or sustain an erection.
  • Insomnia: Insomnia is defined as repeated difficulty with the initiation, duration, maintenance, or quality of sleep that occurs despite adequate time and opportunity for sleep that results in some form of daytime impairment.
  • Klippel Feil Syndrome: A rare congenital disorder characterized by abnormal fusion of two or more vertebrae in the neck. The disorder is often associated with other abnormalities but their incidence is highly variable.
  • Laryngomalacia: A defect where the larynx is abnormally soft which affects voice quality and can cause breathing problems. The larynx is so soft that when inhalation occurs, the larynx collapses and obstructs the breathing passage.
  • Marfan syndrome: A genetic connective tissue disorder involving a defect of chromosome 15q21.1 which affects the production of the fibrillin needed to make connective tissue.
  • Memory loss: The loss of ones ability to recall from their memory.
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses: A lysosomal storage disorder that is caused by a deficiency of the ability to metabolise glycosaminoglycans
  • Narcolepsy: Narcolepsy is characterized by the classic tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis.
  • Nocturia: Urination during the night
  • Obesity: An increase in the body weight greater than that required for normal function that is characterised by the accumulation of excessive fat
  • Obstructive sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Pituitary tumors, adult: A benign or cancer tumor that develops in the tissue of the pituitary gland in adults. The pituitary gland produces various hormones and some pituitary tumors (functioning tumors) can affect the secretion of one or more of these hormones resulting in a range of symptoms depending on the exact location of the tumor. Some pituitary tumors do not affect hormone production (nonfunctioning tumors).
  • Prader-Willi syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by reduced muscle tone, obesity and small hands and feet.
  • Psychological problems: Symptoms affecting emotional or psychological factors.
  • Pulmonary hypertension: Pulmonary hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs. Blood pressure in other parts of the body is normal or sometimes even low. The condition may be caused by such things as lung conditions (e.g. emphysema, chronic bronchitis), heart conditions (e.g. congestive heart failure, birth defects involving heart), AIDS or medications such as fenfluramine (a diet drug). Sometimes it occurs for no apparent reason and is called primary pulmonary hypertension.
  • Respiratory conditions: Any condition that affects the respiratory system
  • Sinusitis: Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
  • Sleep apnea: Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Sleep disorders: Any disorder that affects ones sleep
  • Snoring: is the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound, due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping.
  • Social problems: Difficulty relating to other people
  • Stroke: Serious brain event from bleeding or blood clots.
  • Tonsil disorders: Any disorder that occurs on the tonsil
  • Tonsilitis: Inflammation of the tonsils in the throat.
  • Treacher-Collins Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by malar hypoplasia, down-slanting palpebral fissures, defect of lower eye lid and malformation of external ear.
  • Under-diagnosed conditions: Any medical condition that is undiagnosed

 

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