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Spine: The bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues that reach from the base of the skull to the tailbone. The spine encloses the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding the spinal cord. Also called backbone, spinal column, and vertebral column.
Source: National Institute of Health
Spine: the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cord; "the fall broke his back"
Source: WordNet 2.1
Spine : column of bones and cartilage that extends from the base of the skull to the pelvis, enclosing and protecting the spinal cord and supporting the trunk and head.
Spine : The spinal or vertebral column.
Source: MESH OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies)
The spine is a column of 26 bones that extend in a line from the base of the skull to the pelvis (see fig. 1 ). Twenty-four of the bones are called vertebrae. The bones of the spine include 7 cervical vertebrae in the neck; 12 thoracic vertebrae at the back wall of the chest; 5 lumbar vertebrae at the inward curve (small) of the lower back; the sacrum, composed of 5 fused vertebrae between the hip bones; and the coccyx, composed of 3 to 5 fused bones at the lower tip of the vertebral column. The vertebrae link to each other and are cushioned by shock-absorbing disks that lie between them.
The vertebral column provides the main support for the upper body, allowing humans to stand upright or bend and twist, and it protects the spinal cord from injury. Following are structures of the spine most involved in spinal stenosis.
Intervertebral disks--pads of cartilage between
vertebrae that act as shock absorbers.
Facet joints--joints located on both sides and on
the top and bottom of each vertebra. They connect the vertebrae to
each other and permit back motion.
Intervertebral foramen (also called neural
foramen)--an opening between vertebrae through which nerves leave
the spine and extend to other parts of the body.
Lamina--part of the vertebra at the upper portion
of the vertebral arch that forms the roof of the canal through which
the spinal cord and nerve roots pass.
Ligaments--elastic bands of tissue that support
the spine by preventing the vertebrae from slipping out of line as the
spine moves. A large ligament often involved in spinal stenosis is the
ligamentum flavum, which runs as a continuous band from lamina to
lamina in the spine.
Pedicles--narrow stem-like structures on the
vertebrae that form the walls of the bottom part of the vertebral
Spinal cord/nerve roots--a major part of the
central nervous system that extends from the base of the brain down to
the lower back and that is encased by the vertebral column. It
consists of nerve cells and bundles of nerves. The cord connects the
brain to all parts of the body via 31 pairs of nerves that branch out
from the cord and leave the spine between vertebrae (see
fig. 2 ).
Synovium--a thin membrane that produces fluid to
lubricate the facet joints, allowing them to move easily.
Vertebral arch--a circle of bone around the canal through which the spinal cord passes. It is composed of a floor at the back of the vertebra, walls (the pedicles), and a ceiling where two laminae join.
Stacked on top of one another in the spine are more than 30 bones, the vertebrae, which together form the spine. They are divided into four regions:
The vertebrae are linked by ligaments, tendons, and muscles. Back pain can occur when, for example, someone lifts something too heavy, causing a sprain, pull, strain, or spasm in one of these muscles or ligaments in the back.
Between the vertebrae are round, spongy pads of cartilage called discs that act much like shock absorbers. In many cases, degeneration or pressure from overexertion can cause a disc to shift or protrude and bulge, causing pressure on a nerve and resultant pain. When this happens, the condition is called a slipped, bulging, herniated, or ruptured disc, and it sometimes results in permanent nerve damage.
The column-like spinal cord is divided into segments similar to the corresponding vertebrae: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal. The cord also has nerve roots and rootlets which form branch-like appendages leading from its ventral side (that is, the front of the body) and from its dorsal side (that is, the back of the body). Along the dorsal root are the cells of the dorsal root ganglia, which are critical in the transmission of "pain" messages from the cord to the brain. It is here where injury, damage, and trauma become pain. (Source: excerpt from Pain -- Hope Through Research: NINDS)
Condition count: 52 ; see list below.
Number: 1 spine
Main condition: spine conditions
Organs: list of all organs
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