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Diseases » Pancreatitis » Glossary
 

Glossary for Pancreatitis

  • ACTH -- Teratogenic Agent: Experimental studies on mice indicate that the use of ACTH during pregnancy may cause various harmful effects on the fetus. The likelihood and severity of symptoms may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at. The effect on human fetuses has not been conclusively determined.
  • Abdominal conditions: Medical conditions affecting the abdominal region.
  • Abdominal pain: A condition which is characterized by the sensation of pain that is located in the abdomen
  • Abdominal swelling: Swelling or bloating of the abdomen
  • Abdominal tenderness: Abdominal point tenderness refers to the pain you feel when pressure is applied to a specific part of the belly area
  • Acidemia, methylmalonic: An inborn error of metabolism where amino acids in the body aren't metabolized properly resulting in high levels of the acid throughout the body.
  • Acinic cell carcinoma: A usually slow-growing malignant tumor that that can occur in various parts of the body but is most often found in the pancreas, salivary glands, palate and upper lip. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the growth.
  • Acute Pancreatitis: Sudden severe inflammation of the pancreas causing digestive complaints.
  • Acute fatty liver of pregnancy: A rare complication of pregnancy that can occur in the second half of the pregnancy. It is characterized by excessive fatty deposits in the liver which can be fatal without prompt diagnosis and treatment which involves delivering the baby as soon as possible.
  • Adult Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition characterized by the production of thick sticky mucus by the mucus glands in the lungs, intestines, liver and pancreas. The condition is most often diagnosed in children or young adults but occasionally, relatively mild symptoms may lead to frequent misdiagnosis or no diagnosis at all unless the symptoms become worse. The condition may be misdiagnosed as emphysema, asthma or chronic bronchitis. It is usually females with a mild form of the disease who tend to be diagnosed at a later age.
  • Alcohol abuse: Excessive use of alcohol ranging from binge drinking to severe alcoholism
  • Alcoholism: Alcoholism is the compulsive urge to drink alcohol despite knowing the negative impact on one's health.
  • Amebiasis: An intestinal infection caused by a parasitic amebic organism. It is usually associated with poor sanitation.
  • Analgesia: A condition which is characterized by an absence of pain
  • Annular pancreas: An abnormality where a ring of pancreatic tissue forms around the duodenum and can block the flow of food through the digestive system. The severity of symptoms depends on the degree of constriction. Partial obstruction may not be detected until adulthood.
  • Apolipoprotein C 2I deficiency: A rare inherited condition where a deficiency of apolipoprotein C-II impairs lipoprotein metabolism and results in a build up of chylomicrons and VLDL.
  • Appendicitis/acute appendicitis/chronic appendicitis:
  • Avascular necrosis: Bone death from lack of circulation.
  • Calcitriol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Calcitriol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Central abdominal pain: Abdominal pain that occurs in a central location
  • Chemical poisoning -- Manganese: Manganese is a chemical used mainly in fertilizers, welding rods, matches, electrical coils, ceramics and animal food additives. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chlorothiazide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Chlorothiazide ( a diuretic) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cholangitis: bile duct inflammation (cholangitis)
  • Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia: A rare form of leukemia characterized by excessive levels of mature neutrophils.
  • Chronic Pancreatitis: Chronic ongoing inflammation of the pancreas causing digestive complaints.
  • Clonorchiasis: Infection with the Chinese liver fluke called Clonchorchis sinensis. Infection usually results from ingesting contaminated fish and crayfish. The infection primarily affects the liver as the flukes tend to occupy the biliary ducts of the liver. Recurring infections can cause more severe symptoms. Infection with this fluke is endemic in Asia but can occur occasionally in countries such as the US though the source of contamination is food from Asia.
  • Corticotropin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Corticotropin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease affecting the exocrine (mucus) glands of the lungs, liver, pancreas, and intestines, causing progressive disability due to multisystem failure.
  • Cytosine arabinose syndrome: Symptoms following the use of a chemotherapy drug called cytosine arabinose.
  • D-plus hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS): A rare condition where gastroenteritis involving bloody diarrhea is caused by a bacteria (usually E.Coli) which leads to toxins being present in the blood. These circulating toxins affect red blood cells, kidneys and occasionally even the brain.
  • Diabetes: Failing or reduced ability of the body to handle sugars.
  • Diabetic Diarrhea: Diarrhea that occurs in diabetics as a result of the damage done by diabetes to the digestive system. Digestive system damage is caused by intestinal neuropathy (damage to intestinal nerves) or bacterial overgrowth or both.
  • Diabetic Gastroparesis: Gastroparesis is a diabetic complication that occurs from neuropathy of the stomach nerve (called the "vagus nerve"). This causes digestive difficulties as the food starts to move too slowly through the stomach.
  • Didanosine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Digestive Diseases: Diseases that affect the digestive system
  • Duodenal ulcer: A peptic ulcer is erosion in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). The word "peptic" refers to pepsin, a stomach enzyme that breaks down proteins. If a peptic ulcer is located in the stomach it is called a gastric ulcer.
  • Epigastric pain: Pain located in the upper and middle region of the abdomen
  • Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A genetic abnormality which causes patients to have abnormally high cholesterol levels (low-density lipoproteins). The condition usually leads to early cardiovascular disease.
  • Furosemide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Furosemide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Gallstones: Stone-like deposits in the gall bladder.
  • Gastric Ulcer: A gastric ulcer is a break in the normal tissue that lines the stomach.
  • Gastrinoma: Rare tumors secreting the digestive hormone gastrin.
  • Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining
  • Gastroparesis: Slow stomach emptying from stomach nerve damage
  • Gestational diabetes: Diabetes that occurs in pregnant women, usually resolving after birth.
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type I: An inherited metabolic disorder where a deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase prevents glycogen being turned into glucose leading to a buildup of glycogen in the liver and kidneys. Most problems tend to develop during adulthood.
  • Heart damage: Any damage that occurs to the heart
  • Hemorrhage: Bleeding of any type (especially when referring to severe bleeding)
  • Hereditary pancreatitis: A rare inherited condition involving recurring bouts of pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) often leading to chronic pancreatitis due to scarring of the pancreas.
  • High Cholesterol: High levels of blood cholesterol, triglycerides, or other lipids.
  • High triglycerides: A condition characterized by elevated triglycerides in the blood
  • Homocystinuria: A rare inherited metabolic disorder involving the amino acid methionine and resulting in a harmful accumulation of homocysteine in the body.
  • Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency: A rare genetic biochemical disorder where a deficiency of cystathionine beta-synthase results in high levels of methionine and homocysteine in the blood and reduced levels of cyteine in the blood. There are two subtypes of the disorder with varying manifestations. One type responds to Vitmain B6 supplementation and the other doesn't. Those who do respond to Vitamin B6 tend to have milder manifestations.
  • Homocystinuria due to defect in methylation cbl e: An inherited organic acid disorder where an enzyme deficiency (methionine synthase reductase) impairs the body's ability to break down certain proteins consumed in the diet. This results in a buildup of methylmalonic acid and homocystine which results in harmful affects. It is a form of vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • Human carcinogen -- Azathioprine: Azathioprine is a chemical deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the nature (e.g. inhalation, ingestion, skin contact), duration and level of exposure. Azathioprine exposure is associated mainly with an increased risk of developing leukemia or lymphoma.
  • Hypercalcemia: Raised level of calcium in the blood
  • Hyperchylomicronemia: A term used to describe the presence of too many chylomicrons in the blood.
  • Hyperdibasic aminoaciduria type 2: A rare inborn urea cycle disorder characterized by an enzyme defect in the amino acid transporter gene SLC7A7 (positive amino acid transporter).
  • Hyperlipidaemia: An elevated amount of lipids in the blood of the body
  • Hyperparathyroidism: Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands.
  • Hyperparathyroidism, familial, primary: A rare genetic disorder where excessive activity of the parathyroid gland causes increased blood calcium levels which can cause various problems.
  • Hyperparathyroidism, primary: A rare genetic disorder where excessive activity of the parathyroid gland causes increased blood calcium levels which can cause various problems.
  • Hypertriglyceridemia: An excess of triglycerides in the body
  • Indigestion: Various eating symptoms of indigestion (dyspepsia)
  • Infection: Infections as a symptom.
  • Inflammatory conditions that may be pathogenic or non-pathogenic: Medical conditions causing inflammation, whether due to a pathogen (e.g. bacteria, virus), or a systemic or other cause.
  • Juvenile tropical pancreatitis syndrome: A disease that tends occurs in tropical developing countries. It involves calcification and chronic inflammation of the pancreas. The condition tends to affect mainly young people.
  • Kidney damage: Any damage that occurs to the kidneys
  • Kidney stones: Kidney stones are solid deposits of salts (e.g calcium) from the urine. These deposits can impair the passage of urine that has the potential to result in infection and kidney damage or failure in severe cases.
  • Lung damage: COPD is defined as the destruction of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles and their walls and without obvious fibrosis.
  • MODY diabetes: Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young affects approximately one or two per cent of people who have diabetes, and may often go unrecognised in its early stages. It is a form of diabetes that develops before the patient reaches 25. It also runs in families, and can pass from one generation to the next. MODY does not always require insulin treatment.
  • Marburg virus: Serious virus related to Ebola.
  • Methyldopa -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Methyldopa during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Methylmalonic acidemia:
  • Mumps: An acute viral disease that causes the salivary glands to become swollen, sore and inflamed. Immunization had greatly reduced the incidence of this disease.
  • Nitrofurantoin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Nitrofurantoin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Pain conditions: Diseases characterized by pain and pain-like symptoms.
  • Pancreas conditions: Any condition that affects the pancreas
  • Pancreas symptoms: Symptoms affecting the pancreas gland
  • Pancreatic cancer: Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas
  • Parathyroid Cancer: A condition that is characterised by malignancy that affects the parathyroid
  • Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer on the lining of the stomach or duodenum
  • Peptic ulcer / duodenal ulcer:
  • Peritonitis: Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity
  • Phenylbutazone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Phenylbutazone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Metronidazole: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Metronidazole has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure. Metronidazole is a drug used to treat certain bacterial and parasitic infections.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Zalcitabine: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Zalcitabine has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure. Zalcitabine has been used as an anti-HIV agent although its use for this purpose has been largely discontinued.
  • Pyelonephritis: Kidney and ureter infection usually bacterial from the bladder.
  • Sjogren's Syndrome: Autoimmune disease damaging the eye tear ducts and other glands.
  • Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis: Subacute thyroiditis is a self-limited thyroid condition associated with a triphasic clinical course of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and return to normal thyroid function.
  • Sulphasalazine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Sulphasalazine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Thallium poisoning: The poisoning of a person with the element thallium
  • The Methylmalonic Acidemias: A condition which is characterized by an excess of methylmalonic acid in the blood
  • Type 1 diabetes: Severe insulin-treated diabetes typically occurring in young people.
  • Type 2 diabetes: Most common diabetes in adults, usually progressing slowly, mostly treated without insulin at diagnosis.
  • Type I Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type I Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare inherited condition characterized by high levels of chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein) in the blood. This condition is the result of low levels of lipoprotein lipase which is responsible for lowering lipoprotein levels. Cholesterol levels are usually normal and the risk of heart disease is low.
  • Type Ia Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type Ia Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare inherited condition characterized by high levels of chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein) in the blood. This condition is the result of low levels of lipoprotein lipase which is responsible for lowering lipoprotein levels. Cholesterol levels are usually normal and the risk of heart disease is low.
  • Type Ib Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type Ib Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare inherited condition characterized by high levels of chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein) in the blood. This condition is the result of low levels of apolipoprotein C-II which is responsible for lowering lipoprotein levels. Cholesterol levels are usually normal and the risk of heart disease is low.
  • Type Ic Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type Ic Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare inherited condition characterized by high levels of chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein) in the blood. This condition is the result of inhibited lipoprotein lipase activity. Lipoprotein lipase is responsible for lowering lipoprotein levels. Cholesterol levels are usually normal and the risk of heart disease is low.
  • Type V Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type V Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare condition characterized by increased synthesis of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and reduced levels of lipoprotein lipase (an enzyme). Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Upper abdominal pain: The occurrence of abdominal pain which occurs in the upper abdoment
  • Valproic Acid -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Valproic Acid during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Von Gierke disease IA: A genetic metabolic disorder involving a deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase which results in the accumulation of glycogen in various tissues. G6P is stored as glycogen until the body needs to convert it to a sugar and use it to create energy. The enzyme deficiency prevents the conversion and hence low blood sugar levels result.
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: A rare disorder where excessive levels of the hormone gastrin are released into the stomach which increases stomach acidity which results in peptic ulcer development. A hormone secreting pancreatic or duodenal tumor is usually the cause.

 

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