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Glossary for Polycystic ovary syndrome

  • Acanthosis nigricans: It is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin usually present in the posterior and lateral folds of the neck, the axilla, groin, umbilicus and other areas.
  • Acromegaly: A hormonal disorder involving excess growth hormone production by the pituitary gland.
  • Adenoma: General term for a benign tumor of a gland
  • Adrenal Cancer: A malignant cancer that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids. Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Amenorrhea: Absence of menstrual periods due to many possible causes.
  • Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels. It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low density (especially small particle) lipoproteins (plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol from the macrophages by functional high density lipoproteins (HDL). It is commonly referred to as a hardening or furring of the arteries. It is caused by the formation of multiple plaques within the arteries.
  • Bleeding symptoms: Any type of bleeding symptoms.
  • Clomiphene -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Clomiphene during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Congenital genetic disease with insufficiency of the adrenal glands
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia -- non-classical form: A late onset form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia where insufficient adrenal corticosteroids are produced by the body due to the deficiency of a particular chemical. The severity of symptoms varies from person to person and onset may occur as early as childhood.
  • Cushing's syndrome: A rare syndrome where excessive secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex leads to a variety of symptoms. Hormone-secreting adrenal or pituitary tumors are often the cause of the excessive corticosteroid secretion.
  • Depression: Various syndromes with excessive anxiety, phobias, or fear.
  • Diabetes: Failing or reduced ability of the body to handle sugars.
  • Ectopic pregnancy: A condition where a fertilized egg embeds itself outside the uterus.
  • Endocrine system conditions: Medical conditions affecting the endocrine systems, such as the related hormones or glands.
  • Endometrial Cancer: Cancer of the endometrium (uterus lining).
  • Endometrial hyperplasia: Thickening of the endometrium (lining of the uterus)
  • Enlarged ovaries: Where the ovaries of a female have increased in size to what is considered normal
  • Female infertility: Infertility that affects the female
  • Female reproductive conditions: Medical conditions affecting the female reproductive system.
  • Fertility conditions: Medical conditions relating to fertility, including infertility.
  • Fertility symptoms: Fertility problems for men or women.
  • Gestational diabetes: Diabetes that occurs in pregnant women, usually resolving after birth.
  • HAIR-AN Syndrome: A very rare syndrome that affects females only and is characterized mainly by insulin resistance, dark velvety patches of skin and increased male hormone production in females.
  • Heart disease: Any of various heart conditions.
  • High Cholesterol: High levels of blood cholesterol, triglycerides, or other lipids.
  • Hirsutism: Increased hairiness
  • Hyperprolactinemia: High levels of prolactin in the blood.
  • Hypertension: High blood pressure
  • Hypothalamic dysfunction: Abnormal function of the thalamus located in the brain. The thalamus controls pituitary gland function which in turn controls other hormone producing glands such as the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, ovaries and testes. The thalamus also regulates functions such as temperature control, emotions, sleep, appetite and salt balance. Abnormal thalamus functioning may be caused by such things as surgery, infection, genetic disorders, poor nutrition and tumors.
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Impaired glucose tolerance: Mild glucose metabolism problems not severe enough to be called diabetes.
  • Infertility: The inability to produce offspring
  • Insulin Resistance: The resistance of the body to insulin
  • Masculinisation: Increased male physical appearance in females
  • Menopause: The end of female menstruation and fertility.
  • Menstrual irregularities: Any condition that is associated with the female menstrual cycle
  • Metabolic Syndrome: A common body syndrome with the "deadly quartet" of major conditions: obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and high lipids.
  • Metformin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Metformin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Mood swings: Excessive and exaggerated alterations in mood.
  • Obesity: An increase in the body weight greater than that required for normal function that is characterised by the accumulation of excessive fat
  • Oligodontia and polycystic ovarian syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of missing teeth and polycystic ovarian syndrome.
  • Oligomenorrhea: A medical term that refers to light or infrequent menstrual periods. The condition can be caused by a number of disorders including Graves disease, thyrotoxicosis or a pituitary tumor.
  • Ovarian Cancer: Cancer of the ovaries.
  • Ovarian cysts: Cysts occurring in the ovaries.
  • Ovary conditions: Any condition that affects a female ovary
  • Overweight: An increase in the body weight greater than that required for normal function that is characterised by the accumulation of excessive fat
  • Pelvic conditions: Any medical condition affecting the pelvic region.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Progestins: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Progestins has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Pregnancy: The condition of supporting a fetus from conception till birth.
  • Prolactinoma: Benign cancer of the pituitary gland producing prolactin.
  • Reproductive conditions: Medical conditions of the reproductive system in men or women.
  • Self-esteem symptoms: Poor self image or self-esteem.
  • Sexual Conditions: Any condition that affects sexual function
  • Type 2 diabetes: Most common diabetes in adults, usually progressing slowly, mostly treated without insulin at diagnosis.
  • Under-diagnosed conditions: Any medical condition that is undiagnosed
  • Weight Gain: An increase in weight for any reason.
  • Women-only conditions: Conditions affecting women (females), but not males.
  • Womens health conditions: Medical conditions related to women's health.

 

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