Pernicious anemia: Introduction
Pernicious anemia is one form of anemia, an abnormal condition in which there is a decrease in the number of red blood cells in the blood. Pernicious anemia is caused by a lack of vitamin B12, which is vital to the normal develoment of red blood cells.
Pernicious anemia is also called vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, and is the most common form of a variety of types of vitamin deficiency anemias. Pernicious anemia can be serious, even life-threatening, if untreated.
Vitamin B12 is crucial to the process of producing red blood cells in the body. Vitamin B12 is ingested into the body by eating certain foods, including lean red meats, poultry, fish, and dairy products, such as milk, cheese and yogurt. In some cases, pernicious anemia can occur when a person does not eat enough foods that contain vitamin B12, such as someone who follows a vegan diet.
More often pernicious anemia occurs when the body is unable to absorb vitamin B12 from ingested foods. Problems with the absorption of vitamin B12 can occur due to conditions that affect the absorption of the vitamin in the small intestine, such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, or surgical removal of a portion of the small intestine.
Most often, the conditions is caused by a lack of intrinsic factor, a protein substance that is produced by the stomach and is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. A lack of intrinsic factor can be due to a surgical procedure that removes all or part of the stomach. It may also be caused by an autoimmune response that destroys intrinsic factor or the stomach cells that produce intrinsic factor. Less often, some people may be born with an inherited inability to make enough intrinsic factor.
Symptoms of pernicious anemia are due to a lack of adequate numbers of red blood cells in the bloodstream. Symptoms can also occur in the nervous system related to the lack of vitamin B12 itself. For more details on symptoms, see symptoms of pernicious anemia.
A diagnosis of pernicious anemia begins with taking a thorough personal and family medical history, including symptoms, and a physical examination. Diagnostic tests include a complete blood count (CBC), which measures the numbers of the different types of blood cells in the blood. A serum vitamin B12 level measures levels of the vitamin in the blood. Additional blood tests may be performed, and a bone marrow examination may also be done to confirm a suspected diagnosis of the pernicious anemia. In addition, tests will be performed to determine the cause of pernicious anemia, including diseases that can underlie pernicious anemia.
Because the symptoms and presentation of pernicious anemia can be vague and/or similar to some other conditions, a delayed or missed diagnosis of the condition is possible. For information on misdiagnosis, refer to misdiagnosis of pernicious anemia.
Pernicious anemia can usually be treated successfully, and most people have a good prognosis. Treatment of pernicious anemia is tailored to the individual case, the cause, and the presence of any underlying diseases or complications. For more information on treatment, refer to treatment of pernicious anemia. ...more »
Pernicious anemia: Pernicious anemia is a blood disorder where the body is unable to use it properly use Vitamin B12 to make red blood cells.
More detailed information about the symptoms,
causes, and treatments of Pernicious anemia is available below.
Pernicious anemia: Symptoms
The symptoms of pernicious anemia can vary amongst individuals, depending on the cause, the severity of anemia, and other factors.
Direct symptoms of pernicious anemia are due to a lack of red blood cells, which are vital to carrying oxygen to the cells of the body. Symptoms can include pale skin, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness, headache, cold hands and feet, heart palpitations ...more symptoms »
Pernicious anemia: Treatments
The first step in the treatment of pernicious anemia is prevention. Many types of pernicious anemias cannot be prevented. However, it is important to eat a diet that includes a sufficient amount of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 found in lean red meats, poultry, fish, and dairy products, such as milk, cheese and yogurt. Taking supplements that contain vitamin ...more treatments »
Pernicious anemia: Misdiagnosis
It is possible for a diagnosis of pernicious anemia to be delayed or missed. This is because some symptoms, such as fatigue, pale skin, headache, and cold hands and feet, can be vague, easily overlooked, or attributed to relatively benign conditions, such as a lack of sun or aging.
Symptoms of B12 deficiency, which causes pernicious anemia, can ...more misdiagnosis »
Symptoms of Pernicious anemia
See full list of 62
symptoms of Pernicious anemia
Treatments for Pernicious anemia
Read more about treatments for Pernicious anemia
Home Diagnostic Testing
Home medical testing related to Pernicious anemia:
Wrongly Diagnosed with Pernicious anemia?
Pernicious anemia: Related Patient Stories
Alternative Treatments for Pernicious anemia
Alternative treatments or home remedies that have been listed in various sources as possibly beneficial for Pernicious anemia may include:
Diagnostic Tests for Pernicious anemia
Read more about tests for Pernicious anemia
Pernicious anemia: Complications
Read more about complications of Pernicious anemia.
Causes of Pernicious anemia
See full list of 17
causes of Pernicious anemia
More information about causes of Pernicious anemia:
Disease Topics Related To Pernicious anemia
Research the causes of these diseases that are similar to, or related to, Pernicious anemia:
Pernicious anemia: Undiagnosed Conditions
Commonly undiagnosed diseases in related medical categories:
Misdiagnosis and Pernicious anemia
Unnecessary hysterectomies due to undiagnosed bleeding disorder in women: The bleeding disorder
called Von Willebrand's disease is quite common in women, but often fails to be correctly...read more »
Cluster of diseases with difficult diagnosis issues: There is a well-known list of
medical conditions that are all somewhat difficult to diagnose, and all can present
in a variety of different severities.
Diseases in...read more »
Chronic digestive conditions often misdiagnosed: When diagnosing chronic symptoms
of the digestive tract, there are a variety of conditions that may be misdiagnosed.
The best known, irritable...read more »
Intestinal bacteria disorder may be hidden cause: One of the lesser known causes of diarrhea
is an imbalance of bacterial in the gut, sometimes called intestinal imbalance.
The digestive system contains a variety of "good" bacteria that...read more »
Antibiotics often causes diarrhea: The use of antibiotics are very likely
to cause some level of diarrhea in patients.
The reason is that antibiotics kill off not only "bad"...read more »
Food poisoning may actually be an infectious disease: Many people who come down
with "stomach symptoms" like diarrhea assume that it's "something I ate" (i.e. food poisoning...read more »
Mesenteric adenitis misdiagnosed as appendicitis in children: Because appendicitis is one of the
more feared conditions for a child with abdominal pain, it can be...read more »
Rare type of breast cancer without a lump: There is a less common form
of breast cancer called inflammatory breast cancer.
Its symptoms can be an inflammation...read more »
Celiac disease often fails to be diagnosed cause of chronic digestive symptoms: One of the most common chronic digestive
conditions is celiac disease, a malabsorption disorder with a...read more »
Pituitary conditions often undiagnosed cause of symptoms: There are a variety of symptoms
that can be caused by a pituitary disorder (see symptoms of pituitary...read more »
Vitamin B12 deficiency under-diagnosed: The condition of Vitamin B12 deficiency
is a possible misdiagnosis of various conditions, such as multiple sclerosis (see ...read more »
Chronic digestive diseases hard to diagnose: There is an inherent
difficulty in diagnosing the various types of chronic digestive diseases.
Some of the better known possibilities are peptic...read more »
Read more about Misdiagnosis and Pernicious anemia
Pernicious anemia: Research Doctors & Specialists
Research related physicians and medical specialists:
- Pregnancy & Fertility Health Specialists:
- Womens Health Specialists:
- Digestive Health Specialists (Gastroenterology):
- Blood Health Specialists (Hematology):
- more specialists...»
Other doctor, physician and specialist research services:
Hospitals & Clinics: Pernicious anemia
Research quality ratings and patient safety measures
for medical facilities in specialties related to Pernicious anemia:
Hospital & Clinic quality ratings »
Choosing the Best Hospital:
More general information, not necessarily in relation to Pernicious anemia,
on hospital performance and surgical care quality:
Pernicious anemia: Rare Types
Rare types of diseases and disorders in related medical categories:
Pernicious anemia: Animations
More Pernicious anemia animations & videos
Statistics for Pernicious anemia
Pernicious anemia: Broader Related Topics
Types of Pernicious anemia
Pernicious anemia Message Boards
Related forums and medical stories:
User Interactive Forums
Read about other experiences, ask a question about Pernicious anemia, or answer someone else's question, on our message boards:
Definitions of Pernicious anemia:
Anemia due to poor intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 caused by defective production of intrinsic factor (a carrier protein) by the gastric mucosa.
- (Source - Diseases Database)
A chronic progressive anemia of older adults; thought to result from a lack of intrinsic factor (a substance secreted by the stomach that is responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12)
- (Source - WordNet 2.1)
Ophanet, a consortium of European partners,
currently defines a condition rare when it affects 1 person per 2,000.
They list Pernicious anemia as a "rare disease".
Source - Orphanet
Contents for Pernicious anemia:
User Surveys and Discussion Forums
» Next page: What is Pernicious anemia?
Medical Tools & Articles:
Tools & Services:
Forums & Message Boards
- Ask or answer a question at the Boards: