Prostate Cancer: Introduction
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men and a leading cancer killer. Prostate cancer occurs when there is an uncontrolled growth of cancer cells that form a malignant tumor in the prostate. The prostate is an organ of the male reproductive system located below the bladder and around the urethra. The prostate produces a portion of the seminal fluid, a component of semen that supports the sperm.
Normally, cells in the prostate that are old or damaged will stop dividing and die before they can become cancerous. These cells are normally replaced by healthy young cells. Prostate cancer occurs when old or damaged cells to continue to divide and multiply uncontrollably. Untreated and/or advanced prostate cancer can grow and spread (metastasize) to other organs of the body such as the liver, bones, lungs and brain, and eventually become terminal.
It is not known exactly why prostate cancer occurs, but risk factors for developing it include a close family history of prostate cancer, being over 50 years of age, or being African-American.
Prostate cancer is most curable if caught in the earliest stages of the disease. However, there are often no symptoms of prostate cancer, especially in early stages. When symptoms do occur they typically involve alterations and difficulties with urination. For more information about symptoms, refer to symptoms of prostate cancer.
Diagnosing prostate cancer and its stage of advancement begins with taking a thorough personal and family medical history, including symptoms and risk factors for prostate cancer. Diagnosis also includes completing a physical examination. A digital rectal exam will be performed by the physician or nurse practitioner. This involves inserting a gloved finger into the rectum to palpate the prostate, feeling for any abnormalities that may indicate prostate cancer, such as lumps or a hard area. This is a routine screening procedure for men at risk for prostate cancer.
A screening blood test called a PSA is generally recommended to be done on a regular basis for men who are at risk for prostate cancer. High levels of PSA in the blood can indicate prostate cancer, as well as other conditions, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Imaging test may include a transrectal ultrasound, which uses sound wave technology to create a picture of the prostate. Definitive diagnostic testing requires a transrectal biopsy of prostate. A biopsy involves taking samples of prostate tissue to examine under a microscope for the presence of cancer cells. Prostate cells are removed using a very small needle that is inserted through the rectum. This is generally done as an outpatient procedure.
Other tests, especially imaging tests, may be done to help determine a diagnosis and to evaluate how far prostate cancer has spread. These can include ultrasound, CT, MRI, nuclear medicine scan, and X-ray.
A diagnosis of prostate cancer can be missed or delayed because there may be no symptoms, especially in early stages of the disease. Additionally, some symptoms are similar to symptoms of other conditions. For more information about misdiagnosis and diseases and disorders that can mimic prostate cancer, refer to misdiagnosis of prostate cancer.
Prognosis of prostate cancer varies depending on the specific type of cancer cells, the stage of advancement, a patient's age, medical history, coexisting diseases and other factors. Treatment of prostate cancer varies, depending on the stage of advancement of the disease and other factors. For more information on treatment, refer to treatment of prostate cancer. ...more »
Prostate Cancer: Cancer of the prostate.
More detailed information about the symptoms,
causes, and treatments of Prostate Cancer is available below.
Prostate Cancer: Symptoms
Symptoms of prostate cancer can vary among individuals. However, there are often no symptoms in the early stages of prostate cancer. When symptoms do appear, they can include painful or difficult urination (dysuria), frequent urination (frequency), especially at night, bloody urine (hematuria) and an inability to urinate. Other symptoms can include weight ...more symptoms »
Prostate Cancer: Treatments
Prostate cancer is most treatable and curable if caught in the earliest stage of the disease. Some types of prostate cancer grow very slowly. However, prostate cancer can often be an aggressive, rapidly growing type of cancer.
Treatment is individualized to the type and stage of advancement of prostate cancer, a person's age, medical history, coexisting diseases, ...more treatments »
Prostate Cancer: Misdiagnosis
A diagnosis of prostate cancer can be delayed or missed because there are often no symptoms, especially in the early stage of the disease. In addition, some symptoms of prostate cancer can be similar to symptoms of other diseases, conditions and disorders. These include benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis, urinary tract infection, ...more misdiagnosis »
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
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symptoms of Prostate Cancer
Treatments for Prostate Cancer
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treatments for Prostate Cancer
Home Diagnostic Testing
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Wrongly Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer?
Prostate Cancer: Related Patient Stories
Prostate Cancer: Deaths
Read more about Deaths and Prostate Cancer.
Alternative Treatments for Prostate Cancer
Alternative treatments or home remedies that have been listed in various sources as possibly beneficial for Prostate Cancer may include:
Types of Prostate Cancer
- Stages of the cancer:
- Stage I (A) prostate cancer - tumor so small it cannot be felt by a DRE; tumor has not spread.
- Stage II (B) prostate cancer - tumor larger (can be felt by DRE), but has not spread beyond prostrate.
- Stage III (C) prostate cancer - local spreading to tissue near the prostrate.
- Stage IV (D) prostate cancer - spread to lymph nodes or has metastasized to other body areas.
- more types...»
See full list of 5
Types of Prostate Cancer
Curable Types of Prostate Cancer
Possibly curable types of Prostate Cancer include:
- Prostatis induced Prostatic cancer
- Sexually transmitted diseases related Prostatic cancer
- Obesity related prostate cancer
- Early localised Prostatic cancer
- Locally advanced Prostatic cancer
- more types...»
Rare Types of Prostate Cancer:
Rare types of Prostate Cancer include:
Diagnostic Tests for Prostate Cancer
See full list of 10
diagnostic tests for Prostate Cancer
Prostate Cancer: Complications
Review possible medical complications related to Prostate Cancer:
Causes of Prostate Cancer
Read more about causes of Prostate Cancer.
More information about causes of Prostate Cancer:
Disease Topics Related To Prostate Cancer
Research the causes of these diseases that are similar to, or related to, Prostate Cancer:
Prostate Cancer: Undiagnosed Conditions
Commonly undiagnosed diseases in related medical categories:
Misdiagnosis and Prostate Cancer
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is often over-diagnosed.
Patients tend to assume that any memory loss or forgetulness symptom might be Alzheimer's,
whereas there are many other...read more »
Dementia may be a drug interaction: A common scenario in aged care is for
a patient to show mental decline to dementia.
Whereas this can, of course, occur due to various medical...read more »
Tremor need not be Parkinson's disease: There is the tendency to believe that
any tremor symptom, or shakiness, means Parkinson's disease.
The reality is that there are various possibilities,...read more »
Spitz nevi misdiagnosed as dangerous melanoma skin cancer: One possible misdiagnosis to
consider in lieu of melanoma is spitz nevi.
See melanoma and spitz nevi....read more »
Rare diseases misdiagnosed as Parkinson's disease: A rare genetic
disorder is often misdiagnosed as Parkinson's disease for men in their 50's.
The disease Fragile X disorder can...read more »
Interstitial cystitis an under-diagnosed bladder condition: The medical
condition of interstitial cystitic is a bladder condition that can be
misdiagnosed as various conditions such as overactive bladder or other ...read more »
Read more about Misdiagnosis and Prostate Cancer
Prostate Cancer: Research Doctors & Specialists
Research related physicians and medical specialists:
- Cancer Specialists:
- Urinary & Bladder Specialists (Urology):
- Kidney Health Specialists (Nephrology):
- Senior Health Specialists (Geriatrics):
- more specialists...»
Other doctor, physician and specialist research services:
Hospitals & Clinics: Prostate Cancer
Research quality ratings and patient safety measures
for medical facilities in specialties related to Prostate Cancer:
Hospital & Clinic quality ratings »
Choosing the Best Hospital:
More general information, not necessarily in relation to Prostate Cancer,
on hospital performance and surgical care quality:
Prostate Cancer: Rare Types
Rare types of diseases and disorders in related medical categories:
Evidence Based Medicine Research for Prostate Cancer
Medical research articles related to Prostate Cancer include:
Click here to find more evidence-based articles on the TRIP Database
Prostate Cancer: Animations
More Prostate Cancer animations & videos
Prognosis for Prostate Cancer
More about prognosis of Prostate Cancer
Research about Prostate Cancer
Visit our research pages for current research about Prostate Cancer treatments.
Prevention of Prostate Cancer
Prevention information for Prostate Cancer has been compiled from various data sources
and may be inaccurate or incomplete.
None of these methods guarantee prevention of Prostate Cancer.
Read more about prevention of Prostate Cancer
Statistics for Prostate Cancer
Prostate Cancer: Broader Related Topics
Types of Prostate Cancer
Prostate Cancer Message Boards
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Definitions of Prostate Cancer:
Prostate adenocarcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors afflicting men. The majority of adenocarcinomas arise in the peripheral zone and a minority occur in the central or the transitional zone of the prostate gland. Grading of prostatic adenocarcinoma predicts disease progression and correlates with survival. Several grading systems have been proposed, of which the Gleason system is the most commonly used. Gleason sums of 2 to 4 represent well-differentiated disease, 5 to 7 moderately differentiated disease and 8 to 10 poorly differentiated disease. Prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) serum test is widely used as a screening test for the early detection of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Treatment options include radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, androgen ablation and cryotherapy. Watchful waiting or surveillance alone is an option for older patients with low-grade or low-stage disease. --2002
- (Source - Diseases Database)
Cancer of the prostate gland
- (Source - WordNet 2.1)
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