Treatments for Prostate Cancer
Treatments for Prostate Cancer:
Prostate cancer is most treatable and curable if caught in the earliest stage of the disease. Some types of prostate cancer grow very slowly. However, prostate cancer can often be an aggressive, rapidly growing type of cancer.
Treatment is individualized to the type and stage of advancement of prostate cancer, a person's age, medical history, coexisting diseases, and other factors. Treatment for prostate cancer is delivered by a team of specialists in prostate cancer care. These specialists can include medical oncologists, urologists, surgeons, oncology nurses, registered dietician, and radiation oncologists.
Treatment of prostate cancer may include a combination of monitoring or surveillance (watchful waiting), surgery, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Watchful waiting may be recommended if the type of prostate cancer is at an early stage, is growing slowly, and the man is in his older years.
Surgery for early stage prostate cancer may include a radical prostectomy (removal of the prostate gland). Hormone therapy may be used to suppress the growth of cancer cells. Radiation therapy, delivered internally or externally, may be prescribed to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be prescribed for advanced prostate cancer that has spread to other areas of the body.
It may also be recommended that a person with prostate cancer enroll in a clinical trial of new therapies and treatments for prostate cancer.
For people whose prostate cancer has metastasized and has become terminal, the goals of treatment generally may change. Treatment then shifts away from curing the disease and focuses on measures to keep a person comfortable and maximize the quality of life. This treatment may be administered through a hospice program.
Treatment List for Prostate Cancer
The list of treatments mentioned in various sources
for Prostate Cancer
includes the following list.
Always seek professional medical advice about any treatment
or change in treatment plans.
- Watchful waiting - a possible option for early stage slow-growing cancers without serious symptoms.
- Radiation therapy
- Hormonal therapy
- Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists
- Adrenal gland inhibiting drugs
- Total androgen blockade - combination treatment of testerone blockers and adrenal gland blockers.
- Orchiectomy - removal of testicles
- Preventive treatments to prevent recurrence - see section on prevention.
- Chemotherapy - sometimes used for metastatic disease
- Bisphosphonates - used for bony metastatic disease
Alternative Treatments for Prostate Cancer
Alternative treatments or home remedies that have been listed as possibly helpful for Prostate Cancer may include:
Prostate Cancer: Is the Diagnosis Correct?
The first step in getting correct treatment is
to get a correct diagnosis.
Differential diagnosis list for Prostate Cancer may include:
Prostate Cancer: Marketplace Products, Discounts & Offers
Products, offers and promotion categories available for Prostate Cancer:
Curable Types of Prostate Cancer
Possibly curable types of Prostate Cancer may include:
- Prostatis induced Prostatic cancer
- Sexually transmitted diseases related Prostatic cancer
- Obesity related prostate cancer
- Early localised Prostatic cancer
- Locally advanced Prostatic cancer
- more curable types...»
Prostate Cancer: Research Doctors & Specialists
- Cancer Specialists:
- Urinary & Bladder Specialists (Urology):
- Kidney Health Specialists (Nephrology):
- Senior Health Specialists (Geriatrics):
- more specialists...»
Research all specialists including ratings, affiliations, and sanctions.
Drugs and Medications used to treat Prostate Cancer:
Note:You must always seek professional medical advice about any prescription drug, OTC drug, medication, treatment
or change in treatment plans.
Some of the different medications used in the treatment of Prostate Cancer include:
- Gynogen LA
- Progynon Pellet
- White Premarin
- Ketoconazole - mainly used to treat advanced cases
- Apo-Ketoconazole - mainly used to treat advanced cases
- Nizoral - mainly used to treat advanced cases
- Nizoral A-D - mainly used to treat advanced cases
- Novo-Ketocon - mainly used to treat advanced cases
- Nu-Ketocon - mainly used to treat advanced cases
Unlabeled Drugs and Medications to treat Prostate Cancer:
Unlabelled alternative drug treatments for Prostate Cancer include:
- Cyclophosphamide - used as a secondary drug
- Cycloblastin - used as a secondary drug
- Cytoxan - used as a secondary drug
- Neosar - used as a secondary drug
- Procytox - used as a secondary drug
- Medroxyprogesterone - used as part of combination therapy
- Alti-MPA - used as part of combination therapy
- Amen - used as part of combination therapy
- Curretab - used as part of combination therapy
- Cycrin - used as part of combination therapy
- Depo-Provera - used as part of combination therapy
- Premphase - used as part of combination therapy
- Prempro - used as part of combination therapy
- Proclim - used as part of combination therapy
- Provera - used as part of combination therapy
- Riva-Medrone - used as part of combination therapy
Hospital statistics for Prostate Cancer:
These medical statistics relate to hospitals, hospitalization and Prostate Cancer:
- 0.3% (37,718) of hospital consultant episodes were for malignant neoplasm of prostate in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
- 90% of hospital consultant episodes for malignant neoplasm of prostate required hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
- 100% of hospital consultant episodes for malignant neoplasm of prostate were for men in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
- 22% of hospital consultant episodes for malignant neoplasm of prostate required emergency hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
- 9.4 days was the mean length of stay in hospitals for malignant neoplasm of prostate in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
- more hospital information...»
Hospitals & Medical Clinics: Prostate Cancer
Research quality ratings and patient incidents/safety measures
for hospitals and medical facilities in specialties related to Prostate Cancer:
Hospital & Clinic quality ratings »
Choosing the Best Treatment Hospital:
More general information, not necessarily in relation to Prostate Cancer,
on hospital and medical facility performance and surgical care quality:
Medical news summaries about treatments for Prostate Cancer:
The following medical news items
are relevant to treatment of Prostate Cancer:
Discussion of treatments for Prostate Cancer:
Prostate Problems -- Age Page -- Health Information: NIA (Excerpt)
several ways to treat prostate cancer. The choice depends on many
factors, such as whether or not the cancer has spread beyond the
prostate, the patientís age and general health, and how the patient
feels about the treatment options and their side effects. Approaches
to treatment include:
Watchful waiting. Some men
decide not to have treatment immediately if the cancer is growing
slowly and not causing symptoms. Instead, they have regular checkups
so they can be closely monitored by their doctor. Men who are older
or have another serious illness may choose this option.
Surgery usually removes the entire prostate and
surrounding tissues. This operation is called a radical
prostatectomy. In the past, impotence was a side effect for nearly
all men undergoing radical prostatectomy. But now, doctors can
preserve the nerves going to the penis so that men can have
erections after prostate removal.
inability to hold urine, is common for a time after radical surgery
for cancer. Most men regain urinary control within several weeks. A
few continue to have problems that require them to wear a device to
Another kind of surgery is a
transurethral resection, which cuts cancer from the
prostate but does not take out the entire prostate. This operation
is sometimes done to relieve symptoms caused by the tumor before
other treatment or in men who cannot have a radical prostatectomy.
Radiation therapy uses high energy rays to kill
cancer cells and shrink tumors. It is often used when cancer cells
are found in more than one area. Impotence may occur in men treated
with radiation therapy.
Hormone therapy uses
various hormones to stop cancer cells from growing. It is used for
prostate cancer that has spread to distant parts of the body. Growth
of breast tissue is a common side effect of hormone therapy. (Source: excerpt from Prostate Problems -- Age Page -- Health Information: NIA)
What You Need To Know About Prostate Cancer: NCI (Excerpt)
If the physical exam and test results do not suggest
cancer, the doctor may recommend medicineto reduce the
symptoms caused by an enlarged prostate. Surgery is another
way to relieve these symptoms. The surgery most often used in
such cases is called transurethral
resection of the prostate (TURP or TUR). In TURP, an
instrument is inserted through the urethra to remove prostate
tissue that is pressing against the upper part of the urethra
and restricting the flow of urine. (Patients may want to ask
whether other procedures might be appropriate.) (Source: excerpt from What You Need To Know About Prostate Cancer: NCI)
What You Need To Know About Prostate Cancer: NCI (Excerpt)
Treatment for prostate cancer may involve watchful waiting,
surgery, radiation therapy, or hormonal therapy. Some patients
receive a combination of therapies. In addition, doctors are
studying other methods of treatment to find out whether they
are effective against this disease. (The "Promise
of Cancer Research " section has information about research
Watchful waiting may be suggested for some men who
have prostate cancer that is found at an early stage and
appears to be slow growing. Also, watchful waiting may be
advised for older men or men with other serious medical
problems. For these men, the risks and possible side effects
of surgery, radiation therapy, or hormonal therapy may
outweigh the possible benefits. Men with early stage prostate
cancer are taking part in a study to determine when or whether
treatment may be necessary and effective. (Source: excerpt from What You Need To Know About Prostate Cancer: NCI)
What You Need To Know About Prostate Cancer: NCI (Excerpt)
Surgery is a common treatment for early stage
prostate cancer. The doctor may remove all of the prostate (a
type of surgery called radical prostatectomy )
or only part of it. In some cases, the doctor can use a new
technique known as nerve-sparing surgery. This type of surgery
may save the nerves that control erection. However, men with
large tumors or tumors that are very close to the nerves may
not be able to have this surgery.
The doctor can describe the types of surgery and can
discuss and compare their benefits and risks.
In radical retropubic prostatectomy, the doctor removes
the entire prostate and nearby lymph nodes through an incision
in the abdomen .
In radical perineal prostatectomy, the doctor removes the
entire prostate through an incision between the scrotum
and the anus .
Nearby lymph nodes are sometimes removed through a separate
incision in the abdomen.
In transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), the
doctor removes part of the prostate with an instrument that
is inserted through the urethra. The cancer is cut from the
prostate by electricity passing through a small wire loop on
the end of the instrument. This method is used mainly to
remove tissue that blocks urine flow.
If the pathologist finds cancer cells in the lymph nodes,
it is likely that the disease has spread to other parts of the
body. Sometimes, the doctor removes the lymph nodes before
doing a prostatectomy. If the prostate cancer has not spread
to the lymph nodes, the doctor then removes the prostate. But
if cancer has spread to the nodes, the doctor usually does not
remove the prostate, but may suggest other treatment.
These are some questions a patient may want to ask
the doctor before having surgery:
What kind of operation will I have?
How will I feel after the operation?
If I have pain, how will you help?
How long will I be in the hospital?
When can I get back to my normal activities?
Will I have any lasting side effects?
What is my chance of a full
Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) uses
high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. Like surgery,
radiation therapy is local
therapy ; it can affect cancer cells only in the
treated area. In early stage prostate cancer, radiation can be
used instead of surgery, or it may be used after surgery to
destroy any cancer cells that may remain in the area. In
advanced stages, it may be given to relieve pain or other
Radiation may be directed at the body by a machine (external
radiation ), or it may come from tiny radioactive seeds
placed inside or near the tumor (internal
radiation , or brachytherapy ).
Men who receive radioactive seeds alone usually have small
tumors. Some men with prostate cancer receive both kinds of
For external radiation therapy, patients go to the hospital
or clinic, usually 5 days a week for several weeks. Patients
may stay in the hospital for a short time for implant
Hormonal therapy keeps cancer cells from getting the
male hormones they need to grow. It is called systemic
therapy because it can affect cancer cells throughout
the body. Systemic therapy is used to treat cancer that has
spread. Sometimes this type of therapy is used to try to
prevent the cancer from coming back after surgery or radiation
There are several forms of hormonal therapy:
is surgery to remove the testicles, which are the main
source of male hormones.
Drugs known as luteinizing
hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists can
prevent the testicles from producing testosterone. Examples
are leuprolide ,
and buserelin .
Drugs known as antiandrogens
can block the action of androgens. Two examples are flutamide
and bicalutamide .
Drugs that can prevent the adrenal
glands from making androgens include ketoconazole
and aminoglutethimide .
After orchiectomy or treatment with an LH-RH agonist, the
body no longer gets testosterone from the testicles. However,
the adrenal glands still produce small amounts of male
hormones. Sometimes, the patient is also given an
antiandrogen, which blocks the effect of any remaining male
hormones. This combination of treatments is known as total
androgen blockade . Doctors do not know for sure
whether total androgen blockade is more effective than
orchiectomy or LH-RH agonist alone.
Prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body
usually can be controlled with hormonal therapy for a period
of time, often several years. Eventually, however, most
prostate cancers are able to grow with very little or no male
hormones. When this happens, hormonal therapy is no longer
effective, and the doctor may suggest other forms of treatment
that are under study. (Source: excerpt from What You Need To Know About Prostate Cancer: NCI)
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