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Diseases » Psychosis » Glossary
 

Glossary for Psychosis

  • ACTH Deficiency: A rare endocrine disorder involving a lack of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and low levels of cortisol and steroid hormones.
  • Acute intermittent porphyria: A rare metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency in the porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme which results in a build-up of porphyrins or its precursors in the body. Using certain drugs or eating certain foods can trigger the symptoms of the condition.
  • Addiction: Any of various addictions to substances or activities.
  • Alcohol Withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when alcohol consumption is discontinued or reduced. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Alcoholism: Alcoholism is the compulsive urge to drink alcohol despite knowing the negative impact on one's health.
  • Amphetamine abuse: Use of the stimulant drugs known as amphetamines or "speed"
  • Amphetamine withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when amphetamine use is discontinued or reduced. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence. Amphetamines include dexamphetamine (speed), Ritalin and MDMA (ecstasy).
  • Asperger Syndrome, Susceptibility to, 1: Asperger Syndrome is considered to be a mild form of autism and manifests in symptoms such as problems with social interactions and repetitive behavior patterns and interests. Language and cognition skills are considerable less affected than in autism. Researchers have discovered that there are a number genetic anomalies linked to an increased risk of developing Asperger Syndrome. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 3q25-q27.
  • Asperger Syndrome, Susceptibility to, 2: Asperger Syndrome is considered to be a mild form of autism and manifests in symptoms such as problems with social interactions and repetitive behavior patterns and interests. Language and cognition skills are considerable less affected than in autism. Researchers have discovered that there are a number genetic anomalies linked to an increased risk of developing Asperger Syndrome. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 17p13.
  • Asperger Syndrome, Susceptibility to, 3: Asperger Syndrome is considered to be a mild form of autism and manifests in symptoms such as problems with social interactions and repetitive behavior patterns and interests. Language and cognition skills are considerable less affected than in autism. Researchers have discovered that there are a number genetic anomalies linked to an increased risk of developing Asperger Syndrome. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q21-q22.
  • Asperger Syndrome, X-linked, Susceptibility to, 1: Asperger Syndrome is considered to be a mild form of autism and manifests in symptoms such as problems with social interactions and repetitive behavior patterns and interests. Language and cognition skills are considerable less affected than in autism. Researchers have discovered that there are a number genetic anomalies linked to an increased risk of developing Asperger Syndrome. X-linked type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome Xq13.
  • Asperger Syndrome, X-linked, Susceptibility to, 2: Asperger Syndrome is considered to be a mild form of autism and manifests in symptoms such as problems with social interactions and repetitive behavior patterns and interests. Language and cognition skills are considerable less affected than in autism. Researchers have discovered that there are a number genetic anomalies linked to an increased risk of developing Asperger Syndrome. X-linked type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome Xp22.3.
  • Asperger syndrome: A neuropsychiatric disorder mainly involving the inability to understand and becoming involved in social interaction.
  • Autism: Childhood mental condition with social and communication difficulties.
  • Bipolar disorder: Cycles of mania and depression; commonly called "manic-depression".
  • Brain infection: Infection of the brain including encephalitis
  • Calcification of basal ganglia with or without hypocalcemia: Calcification of a part of the brain called the basal ganglia. That calcification may be associated with conditions such as hypothyroidism, cytomegalovirus, and AIDS or may occur for no apparent reason. The severity of the condition may vary greatly from asymptomatic to neurological, psychiatric and movement disorders. The disorder may also progress at variable rates or remain stable depending on the underlying disease process.
  • Cathinone poisoning: Cathinone comes from the leaves of the Khat plant which is native to eastern Africa. Cathinone is a stimulant as well as have pain killing, weight loss and neuromuscular effects. The psychoactive effects are usually utilized by chewing on the leaves of the plant but sometimes dried leaves are used.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Carbon Disulfide: Carbon Disulfide is a chemical used mainly in corrosion inhibitors, cold and nickel plating, photography applications and as a solvent in gums and resins. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide is a hallucinogenic drug which is often misused. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Manganese: Manganese is a chemical used mainly in fertilizers, welding rods, matches, electrical coils, ceramics and animal food additives. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Choreoacanthocytosis amyotrophic: A rare inherited disease involving neurological degeneration and abnormal red blood cell shape. The disorder progresses slowly and causes involuntary movements, loss of cognitive ability, behavioral changes and seizures.
  • Claviceps purpurea poisoning: Claviceps purpurea is a type of fungus that can contaminate grains such as rye, wheat, oats and barely. Ingestion of contaminated foods can cause poisoning with the severity of symptoms varying depending on the amount consumed.
  • Cocaine addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use cocaine on a regular basis. Chronic cocaine use can lead to dependency in as little as two weeks. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Crack addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use crack on a regular basis. Chronic crack use can lead to dependency in as little as two weeks. Crack is a form of cocaine - powdered cocaine is heated with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate to make rocks of crack. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Crystal meth addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use crystal meth on a regular basis. Crystal meth is a powerful stimulant used illegally for its effects. It is highly addictive and known by street names such as ice, speed, glass, crank and chalk. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Delirium: Severe state of mental confusion
  • Delusions: Inappropriate or irrational beliefs.
  • Dementia: Various mental impairment conditions.
  • Depressive symptoms: Inappropriate depressed mood.
  • Dobriner syndrome: An inherited metabolic disorder involving a deficiency of coproporphyrinogen oxidase. The condition is similar to but milder than intermittent porphyria and sometimes includes photosensitivity.
  • Drug abuse: Addiction to any of various illicit drugs.
  • Ecstasy addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use ecstasy on a regular basis. Chronic ecstasy use can lead to dependency in as little as two weeks. Ecstasy is a synthetic psychoactive drug often used as a recreational drug. Street names for the drug includes: XTC, Adam, Clarity, Lover's Speed, Hug, Beans and Love Drug. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Ecstasy withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when ecstasy use is discontinued or reduced. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Emotional symptoms: Symptoms affecting the emotions.
  • Ferlini-Ragno-Calzolari syndrome: A rare syndrome reported in only a few families and characterized by skeletal problems, excessive fluid inside the skull and neurological problems.
  • Flucytosine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Flucytosine (an antifungal drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Hallucinations: Incorrect perception of any of the senses.
  • Hawaiian Baby Woodrose poisoning: The Hawaiian Baby Woodrose is a woody vine that grows in tropical climates such as in Hawaii, India, Florida and California. The plant bears rose-colored flowers and black seeds. The seeds contain ergoline alkaloids which can produce effects similar to LSD if consumed. As little as three seeds can cause symptoms.
  • Herbal Agent overdose -- Wormwood: Wormwood can be used to treat worm infestations and as a sedative or hair tonic. The herbal agent contains chemicals which can cause various symptoms if excessive quantities are taken.
  • Hydrocephalus -- Skeletal Anomalies -- Mental Disturbance: A very rare condition reported in only a few families and characterized by a buildup of fluid inside the brain, skeletal anomalies and mental disturbance.
  • Hydrocephalus -- costovertebral dysplasia -- Sprengel anomaly: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by hydrocephaly and upwardly displaced shoulder blade (Sprengel anomaly).
  • Hypoparathyroidism, autoimmune: A rare autoimmune condition characterized by the inflammation of the parathyroid glands and resulting in a deficiency of parathyroid hormones (parathormone). Parathormone helps controls calcium and phosphorus levels in the body. Symptoms become progressively worse as calcium and phosphorus levels become increasingly imbalanced.
  • Mania: Inappropriate euphoric mood
  • Marijuana -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Marijuana during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Marijuana abuse: Illicit depressant/hallucinogenic drug
  • Marijuana addiction: Marijuana addiction is the uncontrollable desire to use marijuana on a regular basis. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Mental health conditions: Medical conditions related to mental health, emotions, behavior, personality, psychology, psychiatry, and so on.
  • Mental retardation X-linked -- psychosis -- macroorchidism: A rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, psychosis and abnormally lartge testes. The syndrome is inherited in a X-linked manner.
  • Mental retardation psychosis macroorchidism: A very rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, psychosis and enlarged testes.
  • Mescal poisoning: The Mescal is a small rounded cactus which has no spines but has tufts of hairs and a flower in the centre. The plant is grown for use as a narcotic in some parts of the world due to its hallucinogenic effect. All above-ground parts of the plant contain toxic chemicals (mescaline, lophophorine) which can cause symptom if eaten. The plant itself is considered to have a low level of toxicity but the chemical mescaline derived from it can cause strong symptoms if ingested in excessive quantities. The psychic effects following plant ingestion can last from 6 to 12 hours.
  • Methylmalonic acidemia, synthesis defect of AdoCbl and MeCbl: An inherited organic acid disorder where an enzyme deficiency impairs the body's ability to break down certain proteins (methionine, threonine, isoleucine and valine) consumed in the diet. This results in a buildup of glycine and methylmalonic acid which results in harmful affects. The disorder results from a combined synthesis defect of AdoCbl and MeCbl.
  • Narcotic addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use narcotics on a regular basis. The drug may be used as a therapeutic medication for various conditions but it's use is also frequently abused. Examples of narcotic drugs include heroin, morphine, Demerol and codeine. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Niemann-Pick disease, type D: Niemann-Pick disease is an inherited metabolic disorder where lipids are not able to be metabolized adequately and hence build up and cause damage in various parts of the body such as the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow and brain. Type D is no longer a relevant term as research has shown that it has the same genetic mutation as Type C and is therefore the same condition.
  • Norrie Disease: A rare form of blindness that occurs at birth or soon after due to eye defects. The severity and range of symptoms is variable.
  • Norrie syndrome: A rare form of blindness that occurs at birth or soon after due to eye defects. The severity and range of symptoms is variable.
  • Nutritional deficiency: Any deficiency of the nutrients that are required to sustain human life
  • Paranoia: Delusion that people or events conspire against you.
  • Paranoid schizophrenia:
  • Parkinson disease 9 (PARK9): Type 9 Parkinson disease is linked to a mutation in the ATP13A2 gene on chromosome 1p36. This condition progresses rapidly and usually starts during the second decade of life. Dementia, eye movement problems and wasting of the brain tissue occur in addition to the typical symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Personality change: Change in a person's behavior and personality
  • Pork tapeworm: A tapeworm infection that is caused from pork
  • Postpartum depression: The occurrence of depression in a woman that occurs after the birth of a child
  • Psychiatric disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Psychological disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Psychotic disorders: Psychiatric disorders with mental detachment from reality
  • Ritalin abuse: Ritalin is a prescription drug used to treat ADHD. Some people use the drug illegitimately which can result in various unwanted symptoms.
  • Schizoaffective disorder: A psychiatric condition in which symptoms of a mood disorder occur with prominent psychotic symptoms
  • Schizophrenia: A psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusional beliefs where a person is unable to distinguish between reality and imagination. The condition tends to have a chronic nature and can be severely debilitating if treatment isn't sought.
  • Sjogren syndrome, secondary: An autoimmune disease where the body's immune system attacks parts of the body that produce moisture such as the eyes, mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Sjogren syndrome can occur on its own (primary) or with another connective tissue disease (secondary) such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, systemic sclerosis and polymyositis/dermatomyositis. The condition can be mild or severe.
  • St. Anthony's fire: Very painful burning sensation in the arms and legs caused by excessive exposure to ergotamines. Ergotamines are produced by particular fungi. It is also a drug used for such things as migraine controls and to induce abortions. Ergotamines result in the constriction of blood vessels which can result in tissue death (gangrene) and is also toxic to nerves.
  • Syphilis: A sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacteria (Treponema pallidum). The condition is often asymptomatic in the early stages but one or more sores may be present in the early stages. Untreated syphilis usually results in remission of visible symptoms but further severe damage may occur to internal organs and other body tissues which can result in death.
  • Tacrolimus -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Tacrolimus during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Toxic mushrooms -- Anticholinergic: Some mushrooms contain a toxic chemical called ibotenic acid which causes anticholinergic symptoms. Ibotenic acid is converted to muscimol during digestion. The two toxins have opposing actions which results in initial excitation symptoms followed by a prolonged coma-like sleep. Mushroom species from this group include certain species of Amanita sp. - cothurnata, crenulata, frostiana, gemmata, muscaria and pantherina. Eating two to four mushrooms can result in impaired senses and eating more than twenty usually results in death.
  • Toxic mushrooms -- Psychedelic: Some mushrooms contain chemicals called psilocybin and psilocin which produce effects similar to LSD. Mushroom species from this group include certain species of Conocybe syanopus, Conocybe spectabilis, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Pluteus, Psilocybe and Stropharia. About five dried mushroom caps can result in hallucinations.
  • Transthyretin amyloidosis: Amyloidosis is a rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage. In the transthyretin form, the amyloid protein consists of transthretin. The condition is characterized by slo-progressing peripheral sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy, kidney disease and heart disease. Abnormal amyloid deposits may also occur in the eyes and central nervous system. There are a number of subtypes of the disorder: familial oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis, familial amyloid polyneuropathy and familial amyloid cardiomypathy as well as others. Neuropathic symptoms tend to start in the legs. Symptoms may vary depending on which parts of the body are affected.
  • Traumatic Brain Injury: Brain injury from trauma or accident.
  • Trypanosomiasis:
  • Valium -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Valium during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Valproic Acid -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Valproic Acid during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Vitamin B12 Deficiency: A deficiency of Vitamin B12 primarily causes anemias the body is unable to make sufficient quantities of normal red blood cells. Severe cases can lead to permanent nervous system problems. The vitamin B12 deficiency can result from absorption problems, insufficient dietary intake, certain medications (e.g. metformin), inherited conditions (e.g. transcobalamin deficiency) and certain chronic parasitic intestinal infestations.
  • Waaler Aarskog syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by hydrocephaly and upwardly displaced shoulder blade (Sprengel anomaly).
  • Wilson's Disease: Wilson disease, or hepatolenticular degeneration, is a neurodegenerative disease of copper metabolism.

 

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