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Diseases » Sleep apnea » Glossary
 

Glossary for Sleep apnea

  • Abdominal obesity metabolic syndrome: A syndrome characterized by a group of conditions that are considered major risk factors for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.
  • Accidental death: The death of a person occurring accidentally
  • Accidental injury: An injury that occurs accidentally
  • Achondroplasia: A disorder characterized by problems with bone growth.
  • Adenoid disorders: A disorder of the adenoids of the throat
  • Adenoiditis: Infection of the adenoids in the nasal-throat region
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 3: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 3 is caused by a defect on chromosome 18q21.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 6: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 16q12.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 7: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 7 is caused by a defect on chromosome 20p13.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 8: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 9 is caused by a defect on chromosome 20q13.3 and is a dominantly inherited, late-onset form.
  • Apert syndrome: A rare condition characterized by abnormalities in the appearance of the face and head as well as finger and toe abnormalities. The bones of the skull fuse together too early which prevents it from growing normally. Various toes and fingers may be fused together.
  • Apnea of prematurity: AOP occurs in infants who are born prematurely (before 34 weeks of pregnancy).
  • Arnold-Chiari malformation type 2: A rare malformation where the base of the brain enters into the upper spinal canal. The extent of the deformity is greater in type 2 than type 1 and hence the symptoms are more severe and are often associated with a myelomeningocele (opening of the spine and spinal cord).
  • Asthma: Repeated attacks of breathing difficulty.
  • Automobile accidents injury: An injury caused by the mechanism of a car accident
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by macroglossia, omphalocele, macrosomia and ear creases.
  • Central sleep apnea: Central sleep apnea is when the person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep because the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing.
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Type 1A: CMT is an inherited neurological disease characterized by the gradual degeneration of nerves which starts in the hands and feet and results in progressive numbness, muscle weakness and loss of function. Type 1A is inherited as an autosomal dominant pattern and involves the duplication of the PMP22 gene on chromosome 17.
  • Cheyne-Stokes respirations: Breathing with regularly occurring apnoeic episodes and change in rate of breathing.
  • Child health conditions: Any medical conditions typically afflicting children.
  • Chromosome 17, trisomy 17p11.2: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the short arm of chromosome 17 is duplicated.
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Severe chronic fatigue disorder often following infection.
  • Cognitive impairment: General loss of mental or cognitive ability
  • Common cold: A cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat that can be caused by a number of different viruses (e.g. rhinoviruses, coronaviruses). There are over 200 different viruses that have the potential to cause the common cold. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Congestive Heart Failure: Inadequate pumping and decline of heart function common in the elderly.
  • Crouzon Syndrome: A condition which is characterized by craniofacial dysostosis
  • Death: The cessation of life
  • Depression: Various syndromes with excessive anxiety, phobias, or fear.
  • Down Syndrome: A chromosome syndrome causing physical effects and mental retardation.
  • Drowsiness: Excessive tiredness or sleepiness
  • Dysthymia/seasonal depression disorder, PND:
  • Emotional symptoms: Symptoms affecting the emotions.
  • Enlarged adenoids: Enlargement of the adenoid glands, which lie in the oropharynx.
  • Enlarged tonsils: Enlargement of the tonsils, which are glands found in the oropharynx.
  • Fatigue: Excessive tiredness or weakness.
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Repeated reflux of stomach acid into the throat.
  • Glaucoma -- sleep apnea: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of sleep apnea with glaucoma.
  • Glycogen storage disease type 2: A rare inherited biochemical disorder involving the harmful accumulation of certain chemicals (glycogen) in body tissues due to the deficiency of an enzyme (?-glucosidase or acid maltase) needed to break it down.
  • Glycogenosis type 2: A rare inherited biochemical disorder involving the harmful accumulation of certain chemicals (glycogen) in body tissues due to the deficiency of an enzyme (?-glucosidase or acid maltase) needed to break it down. The severity of the condition is variable and onset may occur during infancy, childhood or adulthood.
  • Hallermann-Streiff Syndrome: A condition which affects stature, head shape and hair growth
  • Heart attack: Serious and often fatal acute heart condition
  • Heart conditions: Any condition that affects the heart
  • Heart disease: Any of various heart conditions.
  • Heartburn: Pain from stomach acid coming back up the esophagus
  • Hurler syndrome:
  • Hypersomnia: Hypersomnia is characterized by recurring episodes of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or prolonged nighttime sleep.
  • Hypertension: High blood pressure
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Impotence: Inability to attain or sustain an erection.
  • Infantile sleep apnea: Apnea of infancy occurs in children who are younger than 1 year old and who were born after a full-term pregnancy.
  • Insomnia: Insomnia is defined as repeated difficulty with the initiation, duration, maintenance, or quality of sleep that occurs despite adequate time and opportunity for sleep that results in some form of daytime impairment.
  • Insomnia with sleep apnea: The association of insomnia with sleep apnea. Patients may be unaware that their bouts of sleep apnea is actually causing them to wake during the night and they may mistakenly believe that they simply have insomnia.
  • Irregular heartbeat: An irregular beat of a persons heart
  • Joubert Syndrome: A rare neurological disorder where there is a defect in the part of the brain that controls coordination and balance.
  • Klippel Feil Syndrome: A rare congenital disorder characterized by abnormal fusion of two or more vertebrae in the neck. The disorder is often associated with other abnormalities but their incidence is highly variable.
  • Laryngomalacia: A defect where the larynx is abnormally soft which affects voice quality and can cause breathing problems. The larynx is so soft that when inhalation occurs, the larynx collapses and obstructs the breathing passage.
  • Marfan syndrome: A genetic connective tissue disorder involving a defect of chromosome 15q21.1 which affects the production of the fibrillin needed to make connective tissue.
  • Memory loss: The loss of ones ability to recall from their memory.
  • Metabolic Syndrome: A common body syndrome with the "deadly quartet" of major conditions: obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and high lipids.
  • Mixed apnea: Mixed apnea is a combination of central and obstructive apnea and is seen particularly in infants or young children who have abnormal control of breathing.
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses: A lysosomal storage disorder that is caused by a deficiency of the ability to metabolise glycosaminoglycans
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type I Hurler syndrome: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans) in various body tissues due to insufficient amounts of the enzyme (?-L-diuronidase) needed to break it down. There are three main sub-types of the disorder: Hurler - severe form, Scheie - mild form and Hurler/Scheie form which is intermediate.
  • Narcolepsy: Narcolepsy is characterized by the classic tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis.
  • Nocturnal asthma: Nocturnal asthma is a type of asthma that tends to only produce symptoms at night. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable. Factors such as airconditioning, gastroesophageal reflux and sleeping in a reclining positing may increase the incidence of this form of asthma in susceptible patients.
  • Obesity: An increase in the body weight greater than that required for normal function that is characterised by the accumulation of excessive fat
  • Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is defined as the combination of obesity (body mass index above 30kg/m2), hypoxia (falling oxygen levels in blood) during sleep, and hypercapnia (increased blood carbon dioxide levels) during the day, resulting from hypoventilation (excessively slow or shallow breathing)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Pickwickian syndrome: A syndrome characterized by obesity, somnolence, hypoventilation and erythrocytosis
  • Pompe disease: A rare inherited biochemical disorder where insufficient maltase acid results in accumulation of glycogen. The condition is often fatal in infants, causes mental retardation, hypotonia and a short life in children and progressive muscle weakness in adults. Also called glycogen storage disease type II.
  • Potocki-Lupski syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the short arm of chromosome 17 is duplicated.
  • Prader-Willi syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by reduced muscle tone, obesity and small hands and feet.
  • Psychiatric disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Psychological problems: Symptoms affecting emotional or psychological factors.
  • Pulmonary hypertension: Pulmonary hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs. Blood pressure in other parts of the body is normal or sometimes even low. The condition may be caused by such things as lung conditions (e.g. emphysema, chronic bronchitis), heart conditions (e.g. congestive heart failure, birth defects involving heart), AIDS or medications such as fenfluramine (a diet drug). Sometimes it occurs for no apparent reason and is called primary pulmonary hypertension.
  • Pulmonary venous hypertension: Pulmonary venous hypertension is high blood pressure results when the heart is unable to efficiently carry blood away from the lungs. The blood tends to collect in the lung tissue. It is usually the result of conditions such as left-sided heart disease, constrictive pericarditis and other heart problems.
  • Respiratory conditions: Any condition that affects the respiratory system
  • Sinusitis: Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
  • Sleep disorders: Any disorder that affects ones sleep
  • Snoring: is the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound, due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping.
  • Social problems: Difficulty relating to other people
  • Stroke: Serious brain event from bleeding or blood clots.
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: SIDS is a syndrome marked by the symptoms of sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant aged one month to one year.
  • Sudden death: The sudden death of an individual
  • Thyroid disorders: Any disorder of the thyroid gland.
  • Tonsilitis: Inflammation of the tonsils in the throat.
  • Treacher-Collins Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by malar hypoplasia, down-slanting palpebral fissures, defect of lower eye lid and malformation of external ear.
  • Type II Glycogen Storage Disease: A condition which is characterized by a disease affecting glycogen storage
  • Under-diagnosed conditions: Any medical condition that is undiagnosed
  • WAGR Syndrome: A syndrome that is due to the deletion of chromosome 11.
  • Wilms tumor -- aniridia -- genitourinary anomalies -- mental retardation: A syndrome resulting from deletion of genetic material from chromosome the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p13). The characteristic symptoms are partial or complete absence of iris, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation and Wilms' tumor. The specific range and severity of symptoms is variable depending on the size and exact location of the genetic material that is missing.

 

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